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Full text of "NSA DOCID: 4046925 Untangling The Web: A Guide To Internet Research"

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A Guide To Interne* fteseqrch 



The opinions expressed in this article are 
:hose of the author(s) and do not represent 
■he official opinion of NSA/CSS. 



Approved for Release by NSA on 
34-19-2013. FOIA Case #70381 1 



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Untangling the Web: An Introduction to Internet Research 

bv l [ Center for Digital Content 

Last Updated: February 28, 2007 

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Table of Contents 

Preface: The Clew to the Labyrinth 1 

"Every Angle of the Universe" 5 

What Will I Learn? 6 

Why Do I Need Help? 7 

What's New This Year 8 

Introduction to Searching 11 

Search Fundamentals 11 

The Past, Present, and Future of Search 12 

Understanding Search Engines 18 

Search Engine Basics 20 

A Word About Browsers: Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox 22 

The Great Internet Search-Offs 26 

Types of Search Tools 28 

Web Directories/Subject Guides/Portals 28 

Metasearch Sites 30 

Megasearch Sites 35 

Types of Searches and the Best Ways to Handle Them 36 

Search Savvy — Mastering the Art of Search 43 

Google 47 

Google Hacks 73 

Yahoo Search 89 

Yahoo Hacks 113 

Windows Live Search 118 

Gigablast 141 

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Exalead 146 

Ask 161 

More Help: Internet Guides and Tutorials 173 

Specialized Search Tools & Techniques 175 

"Google Hacking" 175 

Custom Search Engines 186 

Fagan Finder 193 

Wikipedia 202 

Maps and Mapping 215 

Uncovering the "Invisible" Internet .239 

A9 Search 239 

Book Search 245 

Answers.com 260 

OAlster 264 

The Internet Archive & the Wayback Machine .267 

Other Invisible Web Resources 273 

Casting a Wider Net — International Search, Language Tools 277 

International Search 277 

Online Dictionaries and Translators 288 

You Gotta Know When to Fold 'Em 304 

Beyond Search Engines — Specialized Research Tools 306 

Email Lookups 308 

Telephone and FAX Directories 311 

Online Videos and Video Search 317 

Online Audio, Podcasts, and Audio Search 344 

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Special Topics— News, Blogs, & Technology Search 349 

Newsgroups, Forums, & Mailing Lists 349 

Weblogs & RSS Feeds 356 

General News Sources 361 

News Sites & Search Engines 362 

Technology News Sources 377 

Telecommunications on the Web 379 

Research How-Tos 384 

Finding People 384 

Using the Internet to Research Companies 400 

How to Research a Specific Country 411 

Finding Political Sites on the Web 419 

Research Round-up: The Best Research Tips & Techniques 424 

Researching & Understanding the Internet 433 

A Plain English Guide to Internetworking 433 

Researching Internet Statistics 441 

Regional Registries and NICs 443 

Domain Name Registries 449 

Understanding Domain Name and Whois Lookup Tools 451 

World Network Whois Databases: AfriNIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, & RIPE .. 455 

Global Network Whois Search Tools 456 

Domain Name Whois Lookups 458 

Internet Toolkits 471 

How to Research a Domain Name or IP Address 474 

Traceroute 483 

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Geolocating Internet Addresses 497 

Finding ISPs & Internet Access Points 503 

Cybergeography, Topology, and Infrastructure 511 

Internet Privacy and Security — Making Yourself Less Vulnerable in a 
Dangerous World 514 

Basics for Improving Your Internet Privacy and Security 518 

Increase Your Knowledge 521 

Browser Concerns 525 

Email Concerns 543 

Microsoft and Windows Concerns .560 

Handle with Care: More Privacy and Security Concerns 578 

General Security & Privacy Resources 605 

Conclusion 606 

Web Sites by Type 607 



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Preface: The Clew to the Labyrinth 



One of the most famous stories about libraries tells of the tenth century Grand Vizier 
of Persia, Abdul Kassem Ismael who, "in order not to part with his collection of 
117,000 volumes when traveling, had them carried by a caravan of 400 camels 
trained to walk in alphabetical order." 1 However charming this tale may be, the actual 
event upon which it is based is subtly different. According to the original manuscript, 
now in the British Museum, the great scholar and literary patron Sahib Isma'il b. 
'Abbad so loved his books that he excused himself from an invitation by King Nuh II 
to become his prime minister at least in part on the grounds that four hundred 
camels would be required for the transport of his library alone. 2 

A 21st Century version of the story might feature any number of portable electronic 
devices — a laptop, a PDA, or even a mobile phone — designed to overcome this 
difficulty. Today, 1000 years later, the Persian scholar/statesman would have to find 
a new excuse for declining the job offer. Abdul Kassem Ismael (aka Sahib Isma'il b. 
'Abbad) would be hard pressed to explain why he couldn't just find what he needed 
on the Internet. The message seems to be that books are passe, replaced by ones 
and zeroes, the real world replaced by a virtual one, knowledge supplanted by 
information at best and chaotic data at worst. Have we shrunk the world or 
expanded it? Or have we in some way replaced it? 

Untangling the Web for 2007 is the twelfth edition of a book that started as a small 
handout. After more than a decade of researching, reading about, using, and trying 
to understand the Internet, I have come to accept that it is indeed a Sisyphean task. 
Sometimes I feel that all I can do is to push the rock up to the top of that virtual hill, 
then stand back and watch as it rolls down again. The Internet — in all its glory of 
information and misinformation — is for all practical purposes limitless, which of 
course means we can never know it all, see it all, understand it all, or even imagine 
all it is and will be. The more we know about the Internet, the more acute is our 



1 Alberto Manguel, A History of Reading, New York: Penguin, 1997, 19. Manguel cites as his source 
Edward G. Browne's A Literary History of Persia, 4 vols., London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1902-24. I found 
the specific reference to this story on pages 374-375 of Vol. 1, Book IV, "Decline of the Caliphate." 
There is, sadly, no mention of the alphabetical arrangement of the library. This entire masterpiece is 
available online at The Packard Humanities Institute, Persian Texts in Translation, 23 February 2006, 
< http://persian.packhum.orq/persian/pf?file=90001011&ct^0 > (15 November 2006). 

2 Edward G. Browne. Vol. 1, Book IV, "Decline of the Caliphate," A Literary History of Persia " 4 vols., 
London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1902-24, 374-375. Available online at The Packard Humanities Institute, 
Persian Texts in Translation, 23 February 2006, 
< http://persian.packhum.orq/persian/pf?file=90001011&ct=0 > (15 November 2006). 



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awareness of what we do not know. The Internet emphasizes the depth of our 
ignorance because "our knowledge can only be finite, while our ignorance must 
necessarily be infinite." 3 My hope is that Untangling the Web will add to our 
knowledge of the Internet and the world while recognizing that the rock will always 
roll back down the hill at the end of the day. 

I will end this beginning with another story and a word of warning. "Tlon, Uqbar, 
Orbis Tertius" describes the discovery of an encyclopedia of an unknown planet. 
This unreal world is the creation of a secret society of scientists, and gradually, the 
imaginary world of Tlon replaces and obliterates the real world. Substitute "the 
Internet" for Tlon and listen. Does this sound familiar? 

"Almost immediately, reality yielded on more than one account. The truth is that it 
longed to yield... The contact and the habit of Tlon have disintegrated this world. 
Enchanted by its rigor, humanity forgets over and again that it is a rigor of chess 
masters, not of angels... A scattered dynasty of solitary men has changed the 
face of the world. Their task continues. If our forecasts are not in error, a hundred 
[or a thousand] years from now someone will discover the hundred volumes of 
the Second Encyclopedia of Tlon. Then English and French and mere Spanish 
will disappear from the globe. The world will be Tlon." 4 

As we enjoy, employ, and embrace the Internet, it is vital we not succumb to the 
chauvinism of novelty, that is, the belief that somehow whatever is new is inherently 
good, is better than what came before, and is the best way to go or best tool to use. I 
am reminded of Freud's comment about the "added factor of disappointment" that 
has occurred despite mankind's extraordinary scientific and technical advances. 
Mankind, claims Freud, seems "to have observed that this newly-won power over 
space and time, this subjugation of the forces of nature, which is the fulfillment of a 
longing that goes back thousands of years, has not increased the amount of 
pleasurable satisfaction which they may expect from life and has not made them feel 
happier." 5 Indeed, most of the satisfactions derived from technology are analogous 
to the "cheap enjoyment... obtained by putting a bare leg from under the bedclothes 
on a cold winter night and drawing it in again." 6 What good is all this technology and 
information if, instead of improving our lot, it only adds to our confusion and 
suffering? We are continually tempted to treat all technology as an end in itself 
instead of a means to some end. The Internet is no exception: it has in large 



3 Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutation: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, London & New York: 
Routledge, 2002, p. 38. 

4 Jorge Luis Borges, "Tlon, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius," in Labyrinths, ed. Donald A. Yates and James E. 
Irby, New York: New Directions Books, 1962, 17-18. 

5 Sigmund Freud, "Civilization and Its Discontents," tr. James Strachey, New York: Norton, 1962, 34- 
35. 

6 Freud, 35. 



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measure become the thing itself instead of a means of discovery, understanding, 
and knowledge. 

Like Tlon, the Internet, "is surely a labyrinth, but it is a labyrinth devised by men, a 
labyrinth destined to be deciphered by men." We must avoid getting lost in the 
labyrinth without a clew. My hope is that Untangling the Web will be something akin 
to Ariadne's clew, 7 so that as you unravel it, you can wind your way through the web 
while avoiding some of its dangers. Remember also that those who use the Internet 
to do harm, to spread fear, and to carry out crimes are like the mythical Minotaur 
who, as well as being the monster in the Minoan maze, was also its prisoner. 




7 Daedalus, the architect of the infamous labyrinth on Crete, purportedly gave King Minos' daughter 
Ariadne the clew, a ball of thread or yarn, to use to find a way out of the maze. Ariadne in turn gave 
the clew to Theseus, who slew the Minotaur and found his way out of the labyrinth. Theseus repaid 
Ariadne's kindness by leaving her on an island on their way back to Athens. 

8 "Minotaurus," WikiMedia Commons, < http://commons.wikimedia.Org/wiki/lmage:Minotaurus.qif > (6 
February 2007). This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired. 



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Notes 



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u 



Every Angle of the Universe 



j? 



One wag has suggested that the Internet is an "electronic Boswell," the chronicler of 
our age. It is that and more because the Internet chronicles not only a time and 
place but all times and all places, known and unknown, real and imaginary. The 
Internet is the closest thing to the fantastical "Aleph" imagined by the great Argentine 
story-teller Jorge Luis Borges, an object whose diameter is "little more than an inch" 
but which nonetheless contains all space, "actual and undiminished," and in which 
one can see "every angle of the universe." 

While the comparison with the mythical Aleph may strike you as a bit whimsical, it is 
in fact not an altogether unfair metaphor. There has never been anything that 
approaches the Internet's reach (to almost every part of the globe in less than thirty 
years), its size (estimated at 532,897 terabytes way back in 2003 9 ), and its ability to 
link us together in a new kind of world community (words, pictures, sounds, ideas 
beyond imagining). But, as with all new technologies, it comes at a cost — many 
costs, in fact. We pay for the benefits of the Internet less in terms of money and 
more in terms of the currencies of our age: time, energy, and privacy. 

The goal of this book is to help you save some of each of these valuable resources: 
time, by making your searches more efficient; energy, by reducing the frustration 
using the Internet often entails; and privacy, by pointing out some simple measures 
to take to lower your cyber-profile and enhance your security. 

I cannot emphasize strongly enough that this book was already out of date by the 
time it was published. Even though I have checked and rechecked every link in this 
book, some addresses are bound to have changed, some sites will have shut down, 
and some tips and techniques — such as search engine rules and syntax — will no 
longer be accurate. This is a testament to the changeable nature of the Internet and 
I must beg your forbearance for any such errors. Writing about the Internet is much 
like trying to catch Proteus 10 — as with the mythical prophet, it keeps changing and 
escaping our grasp. 



9 School of Information Management and Systems, University of California at Berkeley, "How Much 
Information? 2003," 27 October 2003, < http://www.sims.berkelev.edu/research/proiects/how-much- 
info-2003/intemet.htm > (October 2005), Executive Summary. 

10 "Proteus — i.e. full of shifts, aliases, disguises, etc, Proteus was Neptune's herdsman, an old man 
and a prophet... There was no way of catching him but by stealing upon him during sleep and binding 
him; if not so captured, he would elude anyone who came to consult him by changing his shape, for 
he had the power of changing it in an instant into any form he chose." "Proteus," Brewer's Dictionary 
of Phrase and Fable, 1898, < http://www.bartlebv.com/81/13723.html > (14 November 2006). 



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— - -- --^^nfiii'iiilr 



•"••••" r " ■—— — 



The Internet has often been called the world's largest 
library with all of the books on the floor." 

Curtin, M., Ellison, G. f Monroe, D., "What's Related? Everything 
But Your Privacy," 7 October 1998, Revision: 1 .5, 

< http://www.interhack.net/pubs/whatsrelated/ > 
(14 November 2006). 



What Will I Learn? 

To achieve these goals, this book will: 

> help you understand how to use the Internet more efficiently to find useful 
information and, in so doing... 

> make clear why the Internet is an invaluable resource. 

This year I have reorganized the book to make it more logical and easier to use. The 
first part of the book still focuses on the ins and outs of searching: how search 
engines work, types of search tools, how to handle different types of searches. The 
next section has expanded to offer in-depth tutorials on six major search engines. 
Next, the book covers specialized search tools and techniques, including a new 
section devoted to Wikipedia. I have also moved the discussion of maps and 
mapping to this section. This is followed by "invisible" web research to include the 
changes to A9 and Amazon's search inside the book option. Next is the 
international search and language tools section, followed by specialized research 
tools, including new sections on video, audio, and podcast searches. The next 
section covers specific topical research, such as news, telecommunications, 
btogs, and RSS feeds. This is followed by a series of "how to" guides, culminating 
with tips and techniques for more effective searching. The book then delves into 
using the Internet to research the Internet, with the final section still addressing 
crucial privacy and security issues. 



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Why Do I Need Help? 

There are no Internet research experts. 

There are people who make a living using the Internet for research and who know 
more than others about what is on the Internet, how to find what they want on the 
Internet, and how to do this with relative efficiency. But no one knows what is truly 
"out there" for two fundamental reasons: 

> The Internet changes constantly. By that I mean daily, hourly, minute-to- 
minute, incessantly. 

> It's too darned big! If we can't accurately size the Internet (which we can't), 
you can be sure we don't know what is available via this resource with any 
degree of accuracy or completeness. 

This doesn't mean you can't ever hope to find anything on the Internet. You often 
can find what you're looking for (and usually a lot more) with comparative ease, but 
no one should be deluded into believing he has a good grasp of the entire world of 
information available on the Internet. Realistically, the best search engines index 
only a fraction of all webpages and keyword searching is at best an art that 
routinely misses relevant sites while loading you down with dross. 

Are you discouraged? Don't be... novices often have more luck finding something 
arcane than seasoned researchers because of the power of creative thinking and 
serendipity. I've learned never to underrate luck and intuition when doing Internet 
research, but I think the two most important tools for successful Internet research 
are: 



■ ■■, „r : -- -i -'■•- " ; --i 

1 . a good set of bookmarks 

2. other people with experience searching the Web 



Never assume others are already aware of some website, tool, or technique you 
find particularly useful. The sheer quantity of data, information, and knowledge 
associated with the Internet is so enormous that no one can know more than a 
fraction of what's on it. While we're talking size, let me mention an important 
distinction. The Internet and the web are not one and the same, though the web is 
what most people think of when you say "Internet." 



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In fact, as huge as it is, the Worldwide Web is actually a subset of the Internet. 

The Internet is the network of networks, all the world's servers connected by routers, 
to put it in semi-technical terms. The web is that portion of the Internet that uses a 
browser (typically Netscape or Firefox — browsers built upon Mozilla — or Microsoft's 
Internet Explorer) and some type of hypertext language (usually HTML) to move 
around. This book focuses primarily on the web because tackling the web by itself is 
a big enough challenge. 

As you have no doubt guessed by now, the Worldwide Web does not come with an 
instruction manual or users guide, which means much if not most of what you learn 
about researching using the Internet will come from hard-won experience. On the up 
side, you probably will not be able to break anything on the Internet. More than 
likely, no matter how lost or hopelessly confused you become, you will only damage 
your own computer and/or network — and perhaps your good humor and sanity. 
However, because of the almost astronomical growth of malicious activity, the 
Internet has become a dangerous place, and users have discovered that they have 
inadvertently spread malicious software (malware) such as viruses, worms, and 
Trojan horses. That is why I have devoted the last section of the book to personal 
computer security and privacy. We are all at risk from the rising tide of bad and in 
some cases criminal behavior, so we must take responsibility for protecting 
ourselves and our computers from the ruses and attacks that grow in number and 
sophistication each year. 

This book will expand on simple "rules" of Internet research, rules that are really 
more in the nature of friendly suggestions. These rules are the fruit of my own 
experiences as an Internet user and may prevent you from repeating all the 
mistakes I made that gave rise to the rules in the first place. Some of these 
suggestions may at first strike you as odd or inconsistent, but the rationale for each I 
hope will become clear as we go along. 11 The fact is that today we are drowning in 
information and starving for knowledge. The goal of Untangling the Web is to help 
rescue users from the ocean of information (and misinformation) by throwing them a 
virtual lifeline. 



What's New This Year 

Most people probably have not thought about or been very much affected by the 
changing search landscape because, as is only natural, most people have one or 
two sites they routinely use for search and research, regardless of the nature of the 
inquiry. However, virtually all search professionals will agree that knowing where to 
look for information is the key to successful searching. Yet few venture beyond 



11 If you are using the hypertext version of this book on line, the links in the paper may not load 
correctly. Try the refresh button, copy and paste the url, or type in the url directly. 



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the comfortable confines of the familiar search engine. While the major search 
engines continue to improve each year, they are far from the be all and end all of 
search. The problem with general search tools is that they cannot provide targeted 
or tailored results, certainly not without a lot of work on the part of the user. For this 
reason, a large part of Untangling the Web is devoted to other ways to uncover 
information, be it subject guides, "deep web" resources, targeted search tools, or 
unusual tips and techniques for revealing what is hidden. 

Again this year, I have included detailed information on how to use Google, Yahoo, 
Gigablast, and Live Search (formerly MSN Search) to find very specific data. I have 
also updated and expanded the section on Exalead and added Ask to the major 
search engines. However, unless you spend a fair amount of time using each of 
these search tools, you will probably find their many options too complicated and 
cumbersome for everyday use. A different approach is to use specialized search 
tools, which begs the question of how to find these tools. Untangling the Web maps 
a number of the Internet's less-traveled roads, i.e., excellent but unheralded 
specialty search tools such as Fagan Finder, Amazon's A9 multipurpose search, and 
ThomasGlobal 's business search. Also, the section on international search is 
substantially larger than before. 

In recognition of the growing importance and influence of collaborative websites, 
there are several new sections in this year's book. One is a separate section 
devoted to Wikipedia , contributed in part by my colleague Diane White. Video and 
audio search exploded during 2006, and this year's edition contains a new and 
extensive examination of video search sites as well as a new section on audio 
search and podcastinq . Two other new sections are devoted to custom search 
engines and book search , neither of which is an entirely new technology but both of 
which spread in popularity and improved in quality in the past year. Custom search 
is fast becoming a replacement for web directories, which continue their slide into 
irrelevance. 

The section on researching and understanding the Internet now begins with a new 
section on " internetworking ." This tutorial is a response to a number of requests from 
people such as myself who need basic knowledge and understanding of how the 
Internet works without too much technical jargon or expertise. I hope you find that it 
falls in a comfortable middle ground between simplistic and abstruse. 

Once again, the section on privacy and security grows in proportion to concerns 
about protecting our privacy and security on the Internet. Fortunately, as the 
problems increase and the malicious users become more enterprising, so do the 
ways and means for protecting ourselves. However, home computer security is a 
personal responsibility few people take seriously until it is too late. Untangling the 
Web's privacy and security information is designed to help users avoid becoming 
victims and instead take the offense in protecting themselves, their families, and by 
extension, the Internet community from the Internet's evil-doers. The 2007 edition 
includes new sections on clearing private data in Firefox, encrypting files in 



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Windows, pretexting , protecting yourself from search engine leaks , whether or not 
you can really opt out of online directories, and a brief discussion of wireless Internet 
use . 

I have also reorganized Untangling the Web to make it easier to use. The new 
section on "Specialized Search Tools & Techniques" brings together some already 
existing topics, such as Google hacking, with the new sections on Wikipedia and 
Custom Search Engines. I also moved maps up to this section because they have 
become integral to basic search. Specialized Research Tools now include the video 
and audio search sections as well as telephone and email search. Basically, all 
types of search comprise the first two-thirds of the book, while the remainder 
focuses on the Internet itself and privacy and security.. 

As was true of last year's edition, I can again say with confidence that the 2007 
Untangling the Web was already out of date before it reached your desk. 
Experienced Internet users understand the Internet is truly a river of information that 
is impossible to step into twice. And the basic concepts for using the Internet to 
research topics of interest to our community of readers are sound despite changes 
in websites, links, and technology. 







tf Web Tip 



Web links often change. In case of a bad link for a 
news article, use the site's search facility and search 
by the headline, author, or date. In the case of a bad 
link inside a website, try going to the site's homepage 
and working your way down to the page, which may 
still be there, only in a different location. 



10 



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Introduction to Searching 



Search Fundamentals 

The September-October 1997 issue of IEEE Internet Computing estimated the 
Worldwide Web contained over 150 million pages of information. At the end of 1998, 
the web's size had grown to more than 500 million pages. By early 2000, the best 
estimates put the number over 1 billion and by mid-2000 there was a study showing 
that there are over 550 billion unique documents on the web. 12 Netcraft, which 
has been running Internet surveys since 1995, reported in its November 2006 survey 
that there are now more than 100 million websites. "The 100 million site milestone 
caps an extraordinary year in which the Internet has already added 27.4 million 
sites, easily topping the previous full-year growth record of 17 million from 2005. The 
Internet has doubled in size since May 2004, when the survey hit 50 million." 13 The 
major factors driving this boom are free blogging sites, small businesses, and the 
relative and lower cost of setting up a website. Another recent survey found: 

> The World Wide Web contains about 170 terabytes of information on its 
surface; in volume this is seventeen times the size of the Library of Congress 
print collections. 

> Instant messaging generates five billion messages a day (750GB), or 274 
Terabytes a year. 

> Email generates about 400,000 terabytes of new information each year 
worldwide. 14 

The numbers hardly matter anymore. The enormous size of the Internet means we 
simply must use search tools of some sort to find information. Otherwise, we are 
voyagers lost on a vast uncharted ocean. 



12 Michael K. Bergman, "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value," BrightPlanet, August 2001, 
< http://www.brightplanet.com/technoloqy/deepweb.asp > (14 November 2006). 

13 "November 2006 Web Server Survey," Netcraft.com, 1 November 2006, 

< http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2006/11/01/november 2006 web server survey.html > (15 
November 2006). 

14 School of Information Management and Systems, University of California at Berkeley, "How Much 
Information? 2003," 27 October 2003, < http://www.sims.berkelev.edu/research/proiects/how-much- 
info-2003/execsum.htm#summary > (14 November 2006) Executive Summary. 



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Consider this: 

When you do a search, you are 
going through more information in 

less than 30 seconds than a 

librarian probably could scan in an 

entire career 30 years ago. 



All the major search 
engines now index well 
over a billion pages of 
information. The problem 
generally isn't lack of 
data but finding that one 
tiny needle in a virtual 
haystack of almost 
limitless size (much like 
looking for a needle in a 
stack of needles). 



Any serious researcher 
needs to know more about search engines than the average person using the Net 
for fun or even for very specialized searches associated with a hobby or perhaps a 
certain topic, e.g., cancer research. How do you learn the ins and outs of search? 



The Past, Present, and Future of Search 

"Search has become the most hotly contested field in the world of technology. 



„15 



Remember Northern Light? How about Excite, Galaxy, Lycos, HotBot, Magellan, 
InfoSpace, Go, Webcrawler, iWon, Netfind, or Webtop? If so, you've been searching 
the Internet a long time because many of these search engines are long gone and 
forgotten. However many changes in search and search engines have taken place in 
recent years, nothing has been quite so dramatic as what has occurred in the past 
two years with the appearance of the new Yahoo and Live Search engines. 

While many smaller, focused search tools still exist, the sad fact is that, in terms of 
large, powerful, world-encompassing search engines, Internet searchers at this 
moment have fewer major search engines from which to choose. 16 What happened 
to get us to this point and what does the future portend? 



15 Terry McCarthy, "On the Frontier of Search," Time.com, 28 August 2005, 
< http://www.time.eom/time/magazine/article/0. 91 71,1 098955-1. OO.htmP (14 November 2006). 

16 Of course there are many non-US search engines beyond those run by Google, Yahoo, and 
Microsoft, but they generally target a particular part of the world and are not serious competitors with 
Google, Yahoo, or Live Search at this time. 



12 



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In the early years of the Internet, there was enormous competition in the search 
market among a large number of search engines vying not only for users but, more 
importantly, for investors. The "dot bomb" crash in mid-2000 began the shakeout of 
search companies that continues to this day. The biggest change wrought by the 
failure of so many Internet-based investments was the growth of pay-per-click 
advertising in search results. Pioneered by Overture, these so-called sponsored 
results began to show up at the top of search result lists: the more an advertiser was 
willing to pay, the higher his result on the list. Then, in 2002 the big search engine 
consolidation began: first, Yahoo purchased Inktomi, a little known but major player 
in the search engine world. In 2005, Overture bought AltaVista, one of the oldest and 
most venerable search engines on the Internet, then quickly acquired AlltheWeb, 
another major search engine. To top it off, in July 2003, Yahoo bought Overture, 
thus acquiring three huge search properties at one time. 

All this was done publicly. The real revolution was what was happening behind the 
scenes: with a remarkable degree of secrecy, Yahoo gave the engineers it had 
acquired from AltaVista, AlltheWeb, and Inktomi a new task— create a whole new 
search engine to compete with Google. On February 18, 2004, Yahoo unveiled its 
new search engine, which has a database and search features to rival Google's. 
Shortly thereafter, Yahoo began killing off the "parents" of its new progeny: first 
Inktomi, then AlltheWeb and AltaVista. While users can still go to the AlltheWeb and 
AltaVista websites and run searches, the results are pulled from the Yahoo database 
and many of the unique search options and features of both search engines are no 
longer available. However, Yahoo continues to add new features and options that 
are improving its capabilities. 

During 2006, two major search engines unveiled major changes that make them 
serious contenders: Ask and Exalead . During 2006 Teoma and Ask Jeeves ceased 
to exist as separate search sites and merged under the Ask.com umbrella. The 
French search engine Exalead came out of beta for a new look and major overhaul 
during 2006 and continues to offer a number of important and unique search 
features. MSN Search became Live Search , which left beta status in September 
2006 and increased the much-needed competition from a company that knows how 
to make successful (if imperfect) products. Amazon.com still offers its own search 
engine, A9, although during 2006, Amazon eliminated some of A9's unique 
functions, switched from Google to Live Search to power web searches, and 
appeared to be if not abandoning A9 then certainly scaling it back. 

All the major search sites are still trying to be the "Swiss army knife" of search 
engines. Google, Yahoo, Live Search, Ask, and Exalead all competed hotly with 
each other to roll out new, better, faster, fancier, more powerful tools to do 
everything from search the contents of your computer in a heartbeat to letting you 
"fly" around the world with a bird's (or satellite's) eye view of the planet. Among the 
new search engine-based tools and programs arriving this past year were vastly 
improved maps and mapping technologies, enhanced multimedia search, desktop 



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search utilities, toolbars integrated into the browser, and application programming 
interfaces (APIs) for use by individual developers. 

If 2004 was the year of the new search engine and 2005 the year of tailored search, 
2006 seems to have been the first year of Web 2.0. Interactive, participatory Internet 
activities such as blogging, podcasts, online video sharing, and wikis dominated the 
discourse. 

Podcasting finally came into its own last year. Podcasting is recording and 
broadcasting any non-musical information — be it news, radio shows, sporting 
events, audio tours, or personal opinions — usually in MP3 format for playback using 
a digital audio player. Many websites now serve as directories to help users find 
podcasts of every variety anywhere in the world. Podcasting has caught on because 
it is easy, inexpensive, mobile, flexible, and powerful. Yahoo got out in front of the 
podcasting trend with its new Podcasts Search site after a study the search giant 
published with Ipsos Insight, which disclosed that most of the people who are using 
RSS do so without even knowing it. 17 RSS, which either stands for Rich Site 
Summary or Really Simple Syndication, is an XML format for news and content 
syndication. News aggregators are programs designed to read RSS formatted 
content, which is very popular in the blogging community. Many if not most blogs 
make their content available in RSS. 

Although there is no agreed upon definition of what Web 2.0 means, in general 
terms most people believe it involves at a minimum users collaborating to share 
information online, i.e., an interactive, participatory web in contrast to what is now 
being called the static web (or Web 1.0). I think the Wikipedia article on Web 2.0 
sums the current state of affairs up nicely when it says "To some extent Web 2.0 is a 
buzzword, incorporating whatever is newly popular on the Web (such as tags and 
podcasts), and its meaning is still in flux." 18 

Another important aspect of Web 2.0 is that it organizes information differently from 
traditional web and other news and knowledge models. So reports a Time article on 
the frontiers of search in its 5 September 2005 issue. There is good reason to 
believe this claim, given a major investment firm's assessment that "by 2010, 
search-engine advertising will be a $22 billion industry worldwide, up from an 
estimated $8 billion today." 19 

One casualty of Web 2.0 appears to be directories. Directories are hierarchical 
guides to a subset of what are presumably the best, most relevant (or at least most 
popular) websites on a specific topic. Yahoo was always the king of directories, but 



17 Yahoo! and Ipsos Insight, "RSS: Crossing into the Mainstream," October 2005 [PDF] , 
< http://publisher.vahoo.com/rss/RSS whitePaper1004.pdf > (14 November 2006). 

18 "Web 2.0," Wikipedia, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiA/Veb 2.0 > (15 November 2006). 

19 McCarthy. 



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several years ago, I noted a marked decline in both the quantity and quality of the 
Yahoo directory. The other major directory was and remains the Open Directory 
Project , which has always powered the Google Directory and, ironically, now powers 
the Yahoo Directory. What distinguished the Open Directory from Yahoo was that, 
while Yahoo was heavily commercial, the Open Directory has always relied upon 
volunteers to populate and maintain it. Now that most of users' creative energy 
seems to have moved to wikis, the ODP is in what may be a permanent and 
ultimately fatal decline. Today, the most successful directories tend to be specialty 
directories such as NewsDirectory.com or yourDictionary.com, and vertical search 
engines, such as Business.com or MedlinePlus, which focus on a particular topic 
instead of trying to catalog the entire Internet. 

Directories were almost always a part of the portal concept. Portals were all the 
rage for a few years, while search was considered the Internet boondocks — no one 
was terribly interested in the boring (and unprofitable) technology of search. So 
where are portals now — those one-stop handy-dandy Swiss army knife websites that 
tried to do and be all things to all people? Most of them are gone, thanks in large 
part to Google's ascendancy. With its clean, spare look, Google changed the face of 
Internet search by moving away from the portal concept to pure search. While it is 
true that Google offers a directory as well as other types of searches — Image, news, 
shopping, groups — Google's focus has always been on web search. Google's new 
look, which debuted in April 2004, included removing the directory tab from the 
Google home page, further evidence of the decreasing importance of directories. 
Although there is growing criticism of the " gooqlization " of websites, Google 
continues to be the standard by which most sites are judged. 

The rapid and dramatic decline in web directories is only partially attributable to 
Google's success. The other explanation for the waning of directories is the Tristram 
Shandy paradox. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman is a nine- 
volume 18th century novel in which Tristram Shandy tries to record every detail of 
his life but discovers his task is hopeless because it takes him one year to document 
only one day. As Shandy writes an additional day, it takes him an additional year to 
complete the events of that day. Such is the fate, to a somewhat lesser degree, of 
those who seek to compile an Internet directory. By the time the information in the 
directory is researched, compiled, and published, the Internet has changed and 
made much of that information obsolete. 

I believe Yahoo's decision to metamorphose from directory to search engine was in 
part a result of a tacit recognition of the Tristram Shandy paradox. Yahoo just 
couldn't keep up with the Internet's changes and it became too costly to try. 
Creating and maintaining a directory is an extremely manpower intensive 
endeavor, which flies in the face of the Internet model of relying on automation 
and technology. Undoubtedly, Yahoo's changes were largely driven by Google's 
enormous financial success. Yahoo sat by for years and watched as Google's 
popularity (and revenues) increased as Yahoo's stagnated. "By the late '90s much of 
[Yahoo's] focus was actually diametrically opposed to search, which is supposed to 



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send you to other sites. The Yahoo portal strategy was to keep the eyeballs on its 
turf, where they viewed more ad units, shopped, and bought premium services. Only 
when a third of online ad spending moved to search within a few short years did 
Yahoo decide to buy in big." 20 



Again in 2006 Yahoo changed the look of its homepage, but I believe Yahoo is 
making a fundamental error by still presenting its busy, messy portal face to the 
world. Although savvy Internet searchers know to go directly to 
http://search.vahoo.com in order to avoid the confusion and get a clean interface, 
most users are still going to the main Yahoo page where they are confronted with 
this: 



iB&HoOF. 

My Yahoo) My Mail | 



Search: 



Web : images video Audio . Directory ; Local j News : Shopping 



£7) Ynhoo! Artaw4r*i A»k » qu«It(Ofi | Anjwtr questions 



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£3 Autos 
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(J Shopping 
@> Sports 
^Tech 
O Travel 
£$ TV 

^) Yellow Pages 
%> FoocT^ 

£* Video* 1 ' 

. Moi e Yahoo: Services 

Small Business 
' Web Hosting 
' Domain Names 



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Sports 



Life 




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youi lited computet a lilite exto 

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Movies: 'Casino Rov-sl*' 
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|j with the PUySt-ation 3 



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video 



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• Divers suivey USS InUepid's hull for damage Z3 Jntmpid photos 

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M*rkets> Dowi 
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Page Options yj 



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Here's Yahoo's dilemma: how does it compete with Google for searchers seeking a 
simple, clean interface while simultaneously retaining and attracting users who want 
"one stop shopping"? Thus far, more searchers are still going to Google first rather 
than muddling their way through the kind of mess you see above. Where Yahoo 
excels — and in my opinion beats Google — is in shopping and in finding local 
information. This is a fact Yahoo not only recognizes but also embraces. Says Ted 
Meisel, head of Yahoo's Overture division, "We never claimed it [Yahoo] was a 
better approach for doing research on 18th century Spain. But if you are trying to 
buy a power washer for your back deck, it's a pretty good way to find what you 



20 Steve Smith, "Search Wars: Google vs. Yahoo!," MediaPost.com, April 2004 Issue, 
<http://www.mediapostxom/dtls_dsp_mediamag.cfm?maglD=245868> (registration required). 



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need." 21 That's fine for personal searches, but it does not help the searcher who is 
using the Internet for work-related, academic, or other types of research. 

The future of search seems to be in fewer but more experienced and more 
commercially driven hands now than a decade ago. Certainly both the quantity and 
quality of search results are much better today. And there are other trends in search 
that are going to have a major impact on users, love them or hate them. Among 
these are greater personalization of search, an area in which Google, Yahoo, and 
Live Search are all vying for your attention. Then there is the concept of social 
networking, through which Internet users with similar interests share their web 
knowledge and experience. Social bookmarking sites such as del.icio.us or digg 
and sharing software such as Stumbleupon are growing in popularity as individual 
users seek ways to help each other discover and propagate information. 

There has also been a strong impetus towards more localized search for shopping, 
news, map directions, services, telephone lookups, and more. Yahoo initially 
outpaced Google in this area because it already owns an enormous warehouse of 
information about where its users live and work, shop and play. However, Google, 
Yahoo, Ask, and Live Search all moved strongly into the local and personalized 
search arena during 2006. Add to the mix all the other services search companies 
offer or plan to offer, such as Google's much ballyhooed and controversial foray into 
email with Gmail . The move toward greater personalization (likes and 
dislikes/interests/shopping/travel) and more services (especially email and tailored 
news) brings increased concerns about privacy and security . The more Yahoo, 
Google, Amazon, Microsoft, et al. know about us, the more they can serve up what 
we want. 

But the more they know, the less control we have over our privacy and computer 
security. I am reminded of a scene from the film Minority Report in which the main 
character walks into a clothing store and, after his eye scan, the computer welcomes 
him by name, asks if he was happy with his previous purchase (which it details) and 
what he would like now. It doesn't take a lot of imagination to see how this 
technology can be abused. Everyone wants convenience but it is a virtual axiom of 
technology that every increase in convenience brings with it some decrease in 
privacy and, most likely, security. Now more than ever, the future of search is one 
that appears to be heading towards more personalization, more features, more 
options and, inevitably it seems, less privacy, less security, and fewer companies 
with the will, technological know-how, and financial resources to build and maintain 
search engines. 



21 Steven Levy, "All Eyes on Google," Newsweek, 29 March 2005, p. 54, 
< http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4570868/ > (14 November 2006). 



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Understanding Search Engines 



The best way to keep up to date with search engines in the US is to visit websites 
devoted to search and to read their newsletters. One of the oldest sites about search 
is Search Engine Watch. Although Search Engine Watch was originally designed for 
webmasters (by webmaster Danny Sullivan), it is a good resource for researchers 
who want and need in-depth information about the major English-language search 
services and some country specific engines. Search Engine Watch is also home to 
Search Day, noted search maven Chris Sherman's daily newsletter. While Search 
Day is kept current, Search Engine Watch now has many out of date pages. 

Stepping into the breach is the superb Pandia Search Central, which offers current 
search news and an almost endless number of tips, tutorials, guides, and even its 
own search tools. Pandia has emerged as the premier site for news about and help 
with search. 



A guiile to tn'feint\ stenciling <nd search enyifiij marketing 



M Pandia Search Central 

ma±. 



Search the Web: 



Learn hovyto search the 
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iVFRYTHING SEARCH FNG NE 



On Web searching and search engine 
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Pandia has all you need to know about search engines, internet 
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• Read about search engines and sites devoted to 
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■ Learn about search engine marketing. 

• Find the best online search engine optimization resources 

Our latest search engine news and articles 

• Search Marketing 1 More than Direct Response 

• Seven elements for building an effective corporate blog 
strategy 

• Search for images at the New York Public Library Digital 
Gallery 

• Search Engine Marketing inc.. Driving Search Traffic to 
Your Company?s Web Site 

Our search engine news column is updated several times a week, 
and Includes more search eng,ne news and in depth feature 
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you these stories by mail for free 



»a jia * K ij«h r-f , 



Free newsletters! 

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MstavGoQQte 




In depth search 
engine marketing 
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newsletter 

The search engine 
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Other good web search sites include John Battelle's Searchblog, Philipp Lenssen's 
Google Blogoscoped (which covers much more than just Google), Gary Price's 



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Resource Shelf, Phil Bradley's Weblog, Greg Notess's Search Engine Showdown, 
as well as Web Master World and Web Search Guide. Among the best search 
engine-specific blogs are the Yahoo Search Blog, the Official Google Blog, Google 
Operating System, and Live Search Weblog. 

The only thing predictable about search engines is how quickly and frequently they 
change not only their content but also their features. Because there are websites 
devoted to keeping up with the myriad changes, they are your best bet for staying on 
top of the ever-changing world of search tools. 

Search News and Blogs 

Google Operating System http://qooqlesvstem.bloqspot.com/ 

John Battelle's Searchblog http://battellemedia.com/ 

Live Search Weblog http://bloqs.msdn.com/msnsearch/defau lt.aspx 

Official Google Blog http://qooqlebloq.bloqspot.com/ 

Pandia Search Central http://pandia.com/ 

Philipp Lenssen's Google Blogoscoped http://bloq.outer-court.com/ 

Phil Bradley's Weblog http://philbradley.typepad.com/phil bradlevs webloq/ 

Research Buzz http://www.researchbuzz.com/ 

Resource Shelf http://www.resourceshelf.com/ 

Search Day http://searchenqinewatch.com/searchday/ 

Search Engine Showdown http://www.searchenqineshowdown.com/ 

Search Engine Showdown Reviews 

http://www.searchenqineshowdown.com/reviews/ 

Search Engine Watch http://searchenqinewatch.com/ 

Search Engine Watch Web Searching Tips 

http://www.searchenqinewatch.com/facts/index.html 

Web Master World http://www.webmasterworld.com/ 

Web Search Guide http://www.websearchquide.ca/ 

Search Engine Watch Blog http://bloq.searchenqinewatch.com/bloq/ 

Yahoo Search Blog http://www.vsearchbloq.com/ 



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§ Web Tip 



Browsers assume the prefix "http://" unless you tell 
them otherwise, which means you do not need to type 
"http://"— just type the url (address). 




Search Engine Basics 



A search engine comprises three basic parts: 

1. The spider/robot/crawler is software that "visits" sites on the Internet (each 
search engine does this differently). The spider reads what is there, follows 
links at the site, and ultimately brings all that data back to: 

2. The search engine index, catalog, or database, where everything the spider 
found is stored; 

3. The search engine software that actually sifts through everything in the 
index to find matches and then ranks or sorts them into a list of results or hits. 

Important points to consider about search engines: 

> Spiders are programmed to return to websites on a regular basis, but the 
time interval varies widely from engine to engine. Monthly or better is 
considered "fresh." 

> When you use a search engine, you are searching the index or database, not 
the web pages themselves. This is important to remember because no 
search engine operates in "real time." 

> Spiders do not index all web pages they find, including pages that employ the 
"Robots Exclusion Protocol" or the "Robots META tag." The first of these 
mechanisms is a special file website administrators use to indicate which 
parts of the site should not be visited by the robot or spider. The second is a 
special HTML metatag that may be inserted by a web page author to indicate 
if the page may be indexed or analyzed for links. Not every robot/spider 



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respects these mechanisms. Password protection, firewalls, and other 
measures will generally keep spiders from crawling a website and indexing it. 



The Web Robots Pages * 



Robots Exclusion 

Sometimes people find they have been indexed by an indexing robot, or that a resource discovery robot has 
visited part of a site that for some reason shouldn't be visited by robots. 

In recognition of this problem, many Web Robots offer facilities for Web site administrators and content 
providers to limit what the robot does. This is achieved through two mechanisms: 

The Robots Exclusion Protocol A Web site administrator can indicate which parts of the site should not 

be vistsed by a robot, by providing a specially formatted file on their 
site, inhttp ://... /robots. txt. 

The Robots META tag A Web author can indicate if a page may or may not be indexed, or 
analysed for links, through the use of a special HTML META tag. 

The remainder of this pages provides full details on these facilities. 

Note that these methods rely on cooperation from the Robot, and are by no means guaranteed to work for every 
Robot. If you need stronger protection from robots and other agents, you should use alternative methods such as 
password protection. 



Robots Exclusion Page http://www.robQtstxt.org/wc/exclusion.html 

Not every search engine has its own proprietary search program but instead relies 
upon another company's search service for its results. Most of these strategic 
alliances now involve Yahoo, Google, and Windows Live Search. All these 
partnerships are subject to change without notice; for more on these strategic 
alliances, see: 

Search Engine Alliances http://searchenqinewatch.com/reports/alliances.html 

Knowing that Yahoo, for example, is the search tool behind a search engine can 
save you time because you can be pretty sure that using AltaVista will get you 
similar (although not identical) results to the other search engines also powered by 
Yahoo. It is critical to remember that each service powered by a particular search 
engine produces different results even though they may all use the same core 
database. Why is this? Because the search interfaces have their own algorithms that 
decide how queries are run, how results are returned, or even if they query the entire 
database (most do not). In short, go to the primary search engine — Google, Yahoo, 
or Live Search for best results. 



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A Word About Browsers: 

Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox 



Two years ago I declared that the "browser wars" were for all intents and purposes 
over and Microsoft's Internet Explorer (IE) had won. IE still commands more than 90 
percent of the world's browser market, and AOL abandoned Netscape's 

Navigator/Communicator 
in mid-2003. However, 
during 2004, Mozilla 
browsers experienced a 
resurrection thanks 

largely to user frustration. 



r 



Caveat Browser 

Alexa and Smart Browsing technology are very 

controversial because of their invasion of 
privacy implications. For more information, take 

a look at the article: 
"What's Related? Everything But Your Privacy" 

Curtin, M., Ellison, G., Monroe, D., "What's Related? 
Everything But Your Privacy," 7 Oct 1998, Revision: 1.5, 

< http://www.interhack.net/pubs/whatsrelated/ > 
(24 October 2006) 



Because of Internet Ex- 
plorer's continued domi- 
nance of the browser 
market and, more im- 
portantly, because it is 
the standard browser for 
many Untangling the 
Web readers, I will focus 
my attention on Internet 
Explorer. 

Nonetheless, all browsers have advantages and drawbacks. / still recommend you 
configure two browsers, both Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox. Both types 
of browsers allow you to make a number of decisions that affect your privacy and 
security while browsing. Also, both browsers have become much more customizable 
with each new release, allowing every user to select and save his own preferences 
for everything from fonts to what will appear on the toolbar. Be sure to familiarize 
yourself with the many evolving features of your browser(s). The Microsoft and 
Mozilla websites have extensive information and documentation about their 
browsers. At the Mozilla site you can download and install the highly regarded 
Firefox browser as well as other free software, such as the Thunderbird email 
program. 

In October 2006, both Microsoft and Mozilla introduced new versions of their 
browsers: Internet Explorer 7 (IE7) and Firefox 2. Microsoft, which had owned 
upwards of 90 percent of the browser market until Firefox took off a couple of years 
ago, recognized it has a genuine competitor on its hands and made significant 
changes and improvements to its browser to try to bring some Firefox users back 



22 



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into the fold. Will it work? PC World offered an excellent comparison of IE7 and 
Firefox 2. 22 While Firefox 2's changes are mostly refinements of already existing 
features with no change in the browser's look and feel, IE7 marks a major overhaul 
since IE6 was released way back in 2001 . 

Among the changes to Internet Explorer 7 are tabbed browsing, integrated 
searching, RSS newsfeed support, and an antiphishing tool. The most noticeable 
change is IE7's look and feel, which is designed to resemble Microsoft's new 
operating system, Vista. Probably the most obvious and popular addition to IE7 is 
tabbed browsing, something Firefox already offered. Also, IE7 has a built-in search 
box, which lets users search from anywhere without having to go to the search 
engine's home page. Google and other search engines had successfully lobbied 
Microsoft not to make Live Search the default search service, so you can pick your 
search engine. 

The other major change is invisible: improved security features designed to cope 
with the almost endless number of vulnerabilities that have afflicted IE6. 23 The most 
prominent of these security upgrades is one shared with Firefox: an " antiphishing " 
tool that works by warning users that a website they are about to visit may be fake 
and redirects them away from the page unless they actively choose to go to it. The 
other major new IE7 security feature is something called Protected Mode, which 
prevents a website from changing a computer's files or settings. However, Protected 
Mode will not work with any Windows operating system except Vista, which is due 
out next year. Also, one of lE's major appeals had been its universality, that is, it 
would work with most websites. The security features in IE7 mean that some sites 
that could be viewed in earlier versions of IE cannot be viewed in IE7, undermining 
one reason many people still continued to use the Microsoft browser. 

Firefox 2 is another in a long line of gradual updates. This version adds a spell 
checker, a system for suggesting popular search terms, and an option to pick up 
where you left off after a crash. Firefox 2 also upgrades the RSS newsfeed so that 
now, if you click on the feed itself, instead of seeing the usual XML gibberish, Firefox 
2 will parse the raw feed into something readable and also subscribe to a feed using 
one of a numerous (but not all) newsreaders. 

What is the bottom line? Firefox users should upgrade to version 2; it will be easy 
and pain free. IE6 users probably should wait a while before downloading IE7 to let 



22 Erik Larkin, "Radically New IE7 or Updated Mozilla Firefox 2--Which Browser is Better?" PC World, 
18 October 2006, < http://www.pcworld.com/printable/article/id, 127309/printable.html > (24 October 
2006). 

23 Not 24 hours after its release and the first vulnerability was detected in IE7. Of course, it also 
affects IE6, but this is embarrassing for Microsoft given that the company has touted the security of 
IE7 over its predecessor. 

< http://secunia.com/lnternet Explorer Arbitrary Content Disclosure Vulnerability Test/ > 



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early adopters find the inevitable bugs that Microsoft will have to fix. Frankly, after 
five years, you would think Microsoft could do better than come up with a browser 
that basically mimics the best features of Firefox and its other (much smaller) 
competitors. This looks mostly like catch-up and very little like innovation. 

If you are going to use Netscape, another Mozilla-based browser, I do not 
recommend using Netscape 8x because it has many reported problems. Stick with 
either Netscape 7.1x or 7.2x. Also, if you prefer a streamlined version of Netscape 
7x without all the annoying "extras," I can recommend one from Sillydog (silly name, 
great tool). "Netscape 7.1 is based on Mozilla 1.4. Both applications share almost 
identical features, such as tabbed browsing, custom keywords, and Sidebar. 
Exceptions are additions of proprietary features such as the support for Netscape 
WebMail and AOL mail. 1 ' 24 Netscape 7.2 is based on Mozilla 1.7.2. "In addition to the 
technologies that Netscape 7.2 shares with Mozilla 1.7.2, it includes additional 
features such as a number of installed plugins, support for Windows Media Player 
Active X control which are not available in Mozilla. 

Microsoft Internet Explorer http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/default.htm 

Mozilla Firefox http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/ 

Netscape 7.1 Streamline http://sillvdoq.org/narchive/sd/71.html 

Netscape Archive (7.1 or 7.2) http://browser.netscape.com/ns8/download/archive.isp 



24 Mozilla FAQ, < http://www.mozilla.Org/start/1.4/faq/qerieral.html#ns7 > (14 November 2006). 

25 Sillydog.org Browser Archive, 31 October 2005, < http://sillvdoq.org/narchive/full67.php > (24 
October 2006). 



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I 



What the heck are 



66 



jj 



Cookies are text placed on your 
computer's hard disk (yes!) by a 
website in order to remember 
something about you. For 
example, a site may set a cookie 
that enables you to reenter 
without logging in or customize 
its pages based on the type of 
browser you're using. Cookies 
remain controversial (more 
later). 



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The Great Internet Search-Offs 



Over the last decade, the inevitable "search offs" have become commonplace (both 
Internet vs. traditional researcher and Internet researchers against each other). 
Some of the findings of these "contests" provide insight into how search engines 
work. 

1 . Most search-offs and wide-ranging studies continue to find surprisingly little 
overlap among major search engines, so use more than one search engine 
as a general rule. 

2. The Internet is now being widely used for "serious" research, which means 
higher quality, more reliable information on the web. But, as with any research 
source, you must weigh the validity, accuracy, currency, and overall 
quality of the information before using it. 

3. Search engines rely on statistical interfaces, concept-based search 
mechanisms, or link analysis to return and rank hits; using boolean 
expressions 26 usually interferes with or defeats these statistical approaches. 
In general, do not use boolean queries unless you know exactly what you 
are looking for and are very comfortable with that search engine's boolean 
rules (no, they are not all the same; for example, you may have to use CAPS 
for all operators). Also, many search engines do not correctly process nested 
boolean queries (boolean searches with parentheses). 

4. Be aware that search engines are giving more weight to popular and/or 
pay-for-placement web pages. In fact, most search engines use services to 
determine which are the most visited, and therefore most popular, websites 
and return them at the top of the results list. This is a strategic move away 
from the traditional "words on a page" ranking system. Trustworthy search 
engines will clearly indicate which hits are paid entries. 



26 The term "boolean," often encountered when doing searchers on the web (and frequently spelled 
"Boolean"), refers to a system of logical thought developed by the English mathematician and 
computer pioneer George Boole (1815-64). In boolean searching, an "and" operator between two 
words or other values (for example, "pear AND apple") means one is searching for documents 
containing both the words or values, not just one of them. An "or" operator between two words or 
other values (for example, "pear OR apple") means one is searching for documents containing either 
of the words. "Boolean," SearchSMB.com, 

< httD://searchsmb.techtarqet.com/sDefinition/0,290660 1 sid44 qci21 1695,00.html > (14 November 
2006). 



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5. Learn the search syntax of the search engines you use (never assume). 
Most search engines use double quotes ("") to enclose a phrase and the plus 
+ and minus - keys to indicate "must include" and "must exclude" respectively. 
But these are by no means universal rules (especially when using 
international or metasearch engines). 

6. The default operator for all major US search engines is now AND. As of 

February 2002, no major search engine used OR as its default operator. 
However, most search engines will let you use an OR in the simple search 
box: Yahoo and Google permit OR searches in the simple search box, but 
you must capitalize the OR. 

7. Keep in mind that because HTML does not have a "date" tag, "date" can 

mean many things: creation date; the last modified date for the page; or the 
date search engine found the page. / do not recommend searching by date 
except when using weblog, news, or newsgroup search engines. 







Understanding statistical interfaces is important, especially for 
researchers used to boolean and other non-statistical query languages. 
Most search engines use statistical interfaces. The search engine assigns 
relative weights to each search term, depending on: 

> its rarity in their database 

> how frequently the term occurs on the webpage 

> whether or not the term appears in the url 

> how close to the top of the page the term appears 

> (sometimes) whether or not the term appears in the metatags. 

When you query the database, the search engine adds up all the weights 
that match your query terms and returns the documents with the highest 
weight first. Each search engine has its own algorithm for assigning 
weights, and they tweak these frequently. In general, rare, unusual terms 
are easier to find than common ones because of the weighting system. 

However, remember that "popularity" measured by various means often 
trumps any statistical interface. 



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Types of Search Tools 

Before delving into the intricacies of search engines, let's look at some other ways of 
finding information on the web. Search engines are not the only and often not even 
the best way to access information on the Internet. 



Web Directories/Subject Guides/Portals 



Web directories are organized subject catalogues that allow the web searcher to 
browse through lists of sites by subject in search of relevant information. Yahoo, 
Galaxy, Google Directory, Lycos, and the Open Directory are select lists of links 
to pertinent websites. Directories were once viewed as the future of the Internet 
because they could sift through the mountains of information and millions of 
websites to offer only the best and most relevant. However, directories have truly 
fallen by the wayside over the past several years with the rise of Google and, even 
more importantly, wikis in general and Wikipedia in particular. Directories continue to 
recede in importance and value to researchers as they are increasingly replaced by 
better alternatives, including Custom Search , by which a voluntary community of 
searchers shares expertise to create more focused searches with more relevant 
results. The reason for the decline of directories is obvious: directories are simply 
too manpower intensive and expensive to keep up with the ever-changing and 
expanding web. I would say at this point directories, while not dead, are probably 
moribund. 

Directories rely on people to create their listings 

Obviously, this is a much more labor-intensive business than operating a search 
engine robot. Websites indexed in a directory are either described/evaluated by 
editors/reviewers or rely on descriptions provided by web page owners who may pay 
for placement in a directory. When you search a directory, the only retrievals will 
come from those descriptions, so keep this in mind. Although directories give you a 
much more limited view of the web, directories do have their own utility. Most 
directories also have a backup search that provides responses to queries that don't 
match anything in the directory listings. 

Directories may produce more relevant results 

Subject guide databases are always smaller than those of search engines, which 
means that the number of hits returned tends to be smaller as well. On the bright 



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side, this means the results directories produce are often more relevant. For 
example, while a search engine typically indexes every page of a given website, a 
subject guide is more likely to provide a link only to the site's home page. For this 
reason, they lend themselves best to searching for information about a general 
subject, rather than for a specific piece of information. 

Yahoo still has the best-known subject guide/directory and can be a good starting 
place for research, even on technical subjects. Yahoo used to list links 
alphabetically, but once Google came along with its ranked list of sites, Yahoo 
started offering most popular sites first before going to its alphabetical list. However, 
Yahoo's directory has suffered in recent years as the Google Directory has steadily 
improved. Google gets its directory data free in the form of the Open Directory 
Project. 

You may not recognize the Open Directory Project by this name, but you have 
probably used it. The ODP is the directory behind the Google Directory, AOL 
Search, Yahoo Directory, and many others. The ODP "is the largest, most 
comprehensive human-edited directory of the Web. It is constructed and maintained 
by a vast, global community of volunteer editors." 

Galaxy is definitely worth a look because it was designed for and by "professionals," 
so it has a bent toward business, technology, and science that other directories lack. 
You may search either the Galaxy collection or the web using their proprietary 
search engine. Best of the Web started life in 1994 as a web awards site and is 
now a full-fledged directory. 

Many more specialized directories are discussed under the Invisible" Internet . 

Best of the Web http://botw.org/default.aspx 

Galaxy http://www.qalaxv.com/ 

Google Directory http://directorv.qooqle.com/ 

Open Directory http://dmoz.org/ 

Yahoo Directory http://dir.yahoo.com/ 



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Metasearch Sites 



The growth in the number of search engines has led to the creation of "meta" search 
sites. These services allow you to invoke several or even many search engines 
simultaneously. These metasearchers may do a more thorough job of sifting 
through the net for your topic than any single search engine. If you are new to using 
search engines, these are a great way to do a very broad search, while familiarizing 
yourself with the popular engines and how they respond. But metasearch engines 
inevitably lack the flexibility of individual search tools. 

It is important to note that many metasearch engines do not employ some of the 
best search engines, such as Google and Yahoo. Also, my biggest complaint about 
metasearch engines is that they perform shallow searches, usually only retrieving 
the top ten or so hits from a site, which is far too few to be comprehensive or truly 
representative of what is "out there." 

However, metasearch engines do serve a purpose. If you are unsure if a term will be 
found anywhere on the web, try a metasearch engine first to "size" the problem. 
you may get zero hits with a dozen search engines (you've got a problem) or you 
may get a half-dozen right-on-the-money hits right off the bat. 



Clusty http://clusty.com/ 

Vivisimo, in my opinion the best free metasearch tool available, opened a new 
search site — Clusty— in 2004 and then made Clusty its search home in 2006. 
Fundamentally, Vivisimo and Clusty are the same, but Clusty adds options for news, 
image, Wikipedia , government, and blog searches . 

The Vivisimo technology behind Clusty is unique because it employs its own 
clustering engine, software that organizes unstructured information into 
hierarchical folders. Clusty offers clustered results of web, news, and certain 
specialty searches. The Clusty default is to search the web using Live Search, 
Gigablast, Ask, Wikipedia, and the Open Directory . 

Clusty is especially useful for searching ambiguous terms, such as cardinal, 
because it clusters them by logical categories, as shown below. 



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:iWffc 



All Results f^v j 
Q Si. Louis C.mltit.tls : ?r, 
H University r::2| 

O c.m.oiicp;] 

U C,]|.lii.. t IHp,illlii-7i 
O Nrtiiliftut C->ii<UuaI<5i 
Aiizoiiii C.ii(lin.ilsi&! 
£» Designs!?} 
CiKlin.il RniziiHjer -i i) 
Pln>to«jiopliy noi 
# Cinlin.il number (<ij 
more | ail clusters 

find in ritjst^i*,. 



Find 



Fiir.i ?ire 



E3 



Top 244 results of at least 18,087.488 retrieved for the query cardinal (dgjJnitiun) (details) 
Top Hews 

' Pope names Brazil cardinal to key posl fi'^oo' "Jm*^ <i, tu.u-.- ,--u- 



Find more news stones > 



Cardinal Stritch Univ 

Info on Attending Cardinal Stritch Un'rv, Plus a Free Info Booklet - Csiry.fta^.cr.^nivxorr, 

St. Louis Champs Gear 

2006 Cards Champs Merchandise - T-Shirts, Hals. Mugs, & Souvenirs. - mv- 'i>!Lc;ur¥C!;aniu«r -.'j-r-. 



i. Cardinal Health - Making healthcare safer and more productive 6 <V fc 

Offers drug development services in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industiy. Contains information on company, 

investor relations and news 

vvVAcoMdinai rem - |cochpj - MSN. Op?n (!<iieciiiry, VVissnut, .a?L, Giij^tjlasi 

2. Cardinality © <fo 

In mathematics , the cardinality of a set is a measure of the "number of elements of the set". There are two 
approaches lo cardinality - one which compares sets directly using biiections. injeclions, and smjections . and another 
which uses cardinal number s, 
prr^;K:r;ftdia,orijAv:ki/C fjidinahty ■ [ ; -,af.he] - VV-kipecii^ 

3. Cardinal Stritch University B (: s & 

The Cardinal Stritch University Theatre Arts department will present ,.. In honor of the Feast of St. Francis, Cardinal 

Stritch University More 

\~rM C'tnich.etfu - [each*?] - G=<j-r.3?a&-., Open Diiecic-ry. W'is<?r>ut. Ail. 

4. Cardinal o & 

The word cardinal comes from the Lai in caido for "hinge" and usually refers to things of fundamental importance, as tn 



Also, Clusty lets users look at the sources of the search results and types of sites 
(e.g., .com, .gov). Clusty has a unique feature that allows users to search inside 
clusters. In this example, the original search was [iran] and the "find in clusters" 
search was [nuclear]. Here are the results of this recursive search looking at the 
sources of data: 



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24 of the lop results retrieved for the query iian malch the sub-query 



All Results ^J' 

* Ask i so j 

o Giyrtltlasls-^) 

» MSN (34i 

& NY Times (ic) 

» Open Diiectoiyra: 

o Sponsored Listings ( 

s» Wikrpedi.iiio; 

o WisemitiJOi 

» Y.ilioii:ilewSi!Oi 

I"; i id in clusters 

[nuclear 

remove highlighting 



Find | 



Fori! size 



ED 



i. Iran may limit work with IAEA if sanctions imposed e <\ & 

4 l-ijijrs ago ■ Iian may limit its cooperation with the U N. nuclear watchdog if sanctions are imposed 
over the Islamic Republic's atomic program, a former chief nuclear negotiator was quoted as saying on 
Wednesday. European stales have prepared a drafl sanctions resolution after .. Ii an rejected repeated 
UN. demands tD scrap uranium enrichment, which can be used to make material for power stations or 
warheads Russia has expressed misgivings about the proposal. Hassan Rohanl, a moderate 

politician who led Iran's nuclear negotialions with the European Union since 2003 until hardline President Mahmoud 

Ahmadinejad took office last year, warned about ... 

iie-vs yahoo com'Vrcm/iOOB! lUl/t; jim.-'ViijClesrjranjaea^ck ■ [cache] - Yahoo! Newi 

2. Iran to pay incentives to attract tourists B^™ 

£ hours 950 • livni will offer cash incentives to travel agencies to encourage Western tourists to visit the country, giving 
a premium for Americans, the official Islamic Republic News Agency reported. The Islamic republic's political leadership 
has been trying to reach out to ... ordinary Americans lo show lhal a standoff over It tin's nuclear ambitions is with the 
Bush administration not U.S. citizens. The latest initiative comes as the United Nations Security . . Council 
deliberates a draft resolution that would impose sanctions on linn for its disputed nucieai program. "Ii art's tourism 
department will pay 520 per person lo those who attract European or . . 
tie^A ydhoo roni.'s/V.p/i=-^n_'J'>_to:jft?iT= • jc^ciie] - Yahoo' Nev*? 

3. NTi: Country Overviews. Iran Profile © ^ « 

Introduction. Iran's chemical weapons and ballistic missiles , and possibly its nuclear weapon program and biological 
warfare capabilities, are meant to deter opponents and to gain influence in the ... 
w,y nv viffj'>_i^s^g;cii.'r;ro0l^ i i/lr^n. ; 'n l 1c:' nlmt - iV-Acha] - MSN 

4. Moscow may back U.N. sanctions on Iran e <\ & 
1 3 hours age- ■ Two senior Russian officials indicated Tuesday that Moscow could back a draft U.N. 
Security Council resolution imposing sanctions on liiin, in an apparent sign of the Islamic Republic's 
growing isolation over its nuclear program. The comments came after months of Russian opposition to 
sanctions and suggested that Moscow could reluctantly support punishment as a lever of influence over 
a stubborn hnn Just last Thursday, the foreign minister said Moscow was opposed to the resolution 



For news, Clusty searches the New York Times, Associated Press, Reuters, and 
Yahoo News (which subsumes a huge number of sources). One of the best features 
of Clusty news search is the ability to toggle among clustered results, sources, and 
sections (such as business, health, tech, science). 




Top News Woilri U.S. Business Spoils Health 

Top 205 results of at least 686 relrieved for the query iiaq (definition) (derails) 



AH Results,;^) 

© AP13) 

NYTiiiiesfe?.' 

o RenieiS|£,Ai 

o Y;>lioo: Hews ;mi 

n-tdin .-inters 



Find 



> □ 



Yahoo! News » 

*» Canada welcomes 63 

Palestinians stranded between 

1 1. -HI. Jordan frj^nafri rJ-i.^JVl m:ru 

* Military chart shows Ii.ki sliding 
towaid "chaos* rv.ihoc-' ;i-!>-sj is m^u 

& Gunmen kidnap hani coach foi blind i*,- 

5>i rriinr .me 



NY Times » 

A Ser-ate Newcomer. Helping 
Fellow Democrats on the Trail and 
Drawing Big Crowds ruf Ti^n;^ 
i)>rc a^c 

» Dsmocrals Discover N&w Political 

Frontier ^A lin-.,,.^"^ mir,: .ioo 




Reuters » 



» R esulls in key House racas: 
Reuters poll.r^tt^ft h.-u'- aj 



o Kg rrf ssvs sorry foi "botched 
jokeV'tutvi^:: h',.i..-.i^i 

» Ir aqis divided ovai checkpoints 
order &.*•&>■*, + t.fvt: 4^ 



AP 



o Hezbollah threatens street 
piotesls w> • r-ouis *fjo 

s> lioq says it needs $100 biltion in 

aid i-T.r'-i MtKUija.;* 

» Democrats inciease hope of 
winning Housa t .--^ m, r.-'u;.- a-j.- 



83* 



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Clusty also provides a number of advanced search options and preferences, 
including the option to add your own customized tabs to the main search page. 

Clusty stands out as one of— if not indeed — the best metasearch tools available for 
free and without registration on the Internet. When clustering works (and the 
Vivisimo technology was independently rated as accurate 90 percent of the time), it 
offers advantages for automatically grouping huge amounts of information logically. 
Because there is no human intervention, Vivisimo's clustering algorithm "also helps 
in discovering new areas of subject development, avoiding the 'mummy's curse,' in 
which human catalogers have to recognize a term before approving it for usage and 
then leaving the earlier material using the term un-indexed and irretrievable by that 
term as an authorized descriptor or metatag." 27 



Jux2 



http://www.jux2.com/ 



Jux2 lets users query three search engines — Google, Yahoo, and Live Search (still 
referred to as MSN Search) — and then shows you: 

1 . The Best Results from all three search engines and the total hits for each. 

2. What only Google found and what is missing from Google. 

3. What only Yahoo found and what is missing from Yahoo, 

4. What only Live/MSN Search found and what is missing from Live/MSN 
Search. 



27 Barbara Quint, "Vivisimo Clustering Chosen to Enhance Searching at Institute of Physics 
Publishing Site," Infotoday, 25 March 2002, < http://www.infotoday.com/newsbreaks/nb02Q325- 
2.htm > (14 November 2006). 



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|J(US£ ^ sen* \ ZZZ? ™ 

A Baiter Wjy to Sc v?^ \ Compare Goose's Compare Vahoo's Compare MSN'* 

■ Best Results Reso , to g esul|3 Results 

What only Google found 

ATROPOS : The deity from Greek Mythology 

Greek Mythology. Meet the Classical Gods of Ancient Greece ATROPOS: Oldest of the three FATES. She's the 

one who cuts the Thread of Life with her fatal ... 

K;V, .;/ ..:-.-- .M*irh+**n itotr>ir ftft?iii**ft'ni#^te»*-?^tTrife^.AhEr'd*MNi ■■■■■■ i^TF '■P-.'.-'S [#6 on Google] 

vwvMf.katsudon.net/QVjfic/atropos.html 

ht.t-:-:^.^v''..ic-f-.;.;^i.r, 5 -iv'gvh:v/ii^^prw htrr.l [#7 on Google] 

Amazon.com: Hornblower and the Atropos (Hornblower Saga (Paperback ... 

Amazon.com: Hornblower and the Atropos (Hornblower Saga (Paperback)): Books: CS Forester by CS Forester. 

rirt,.i :.-'■'-'■■■'■.'- -■■..■*' &\ >L^r\> .;.- .r -../oV.iu.ioi-/ Ui/cj*1- s; '/ - / ':■ .1 1 .': S^2?^ ? v " o U- n ■: '■: [#9on Google] 

What's missing from Google 

http;//en .wi ki pedi a .orq/wi ki/Atro pos 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Atropos is also a British entomological journal - see Atropos (journal). In 
Greek mythology, Atioposwas the third of the Moirae. ... It was Atioposwho chose the mechanism of death and 
ended the life of each mortal by cutting their thread ... 

KbV.:;7e...-< j - •:.rrCi<*.':. r qfv>.k--:~i*.<>op~>. [#Jon Yahoo!, #3 on MSN] 

Bloqger: User Profile: Atropos 

Atropos Gender: female Industry: Fashion Occupation: Model Location: Ohio : United States About Me I'm a 22 year 
old female who enjoys exploring deviant fashion as a form of self expression 

H*- .../..- ■.,*■■■.■ i'-^-;it;.ccr:-i/p--:vf.-/4t.::.4IJ'S [#5on MSN] 

I believe you will be as surprised as I was to see how little overlap there often is 
among the "big three" search engines. 



Dogpile http://www.dogpile.com/ 

Dogpile, despite its name, is a good metasearch engine. Dogpile includes Live 
Search results, along with those from Google, Yahoo, and Ask Jeeves. This is, of 
course, very good news because Dogpile is now drawing from all the major US- 
based search engines with the exception of Gigablast. It also searches smaller or 
lesser-known search engines and directories, including the MIVA (formally 
FindWhat), LookSmart, Ask, About, and more. Interestingly, the European version's 
name is Webfetch because of "unfortunate associations" between Dogpile and 
manure. 



Mamma http://www.mamma.com/ 

Mamma, the "Mother of All Search Engines," might just be exaggerating a wee bit. 
Mamma offers web, news, image, and yellow and white page search options. 



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Search engines queried are Ask, Wisenut, Gigablast, and Entireweb (a serious 
misnomer) and directories queried are Open Directory, About, Business.com, and 
two pay-per-ciick sources. 



The Pandia Metasearch Engine http://www.pandia.com/metasearch/index.html 

The famed search guide site, Pandia, offers its own excellent metasearch engine. 
The Pandia metasearch engine "collects and sorts the hits, takes out duplicates, and 
presents the end result in a simple format. "The first results you'll see are from what 
Pandia describes as the "essential search engines and directories," which include 
Google, Yahoo, HotBot and Wisenut. Strangely, Pandia continues to list AlltheWeb 
(Fast) and AltaVista as search engines while they acknowledge at other places on 
their site that Yahoo subsumed both engines. Still, this is a very good metasearch 
site. 



More metasearch sites: 

Ithaki http://www.ithaki.net/indexu.htm 

IxQuick http://www.ixquick.com/ 

Metacrawler http://www.metacrawler.com/ 

Search.com http://www.search.com/ 

Surfwax http://www.surfwax.com/ 

Open Directory's List of Metasearch Sites 

http://dmoz.org/Computers/lnternet/Searching/Metasearch/ 



Megasearch Sites 



Megasearch sites simply store several search engines under one roof, but you have 
to do the searches one search engine at a time. They are becoming more 
sophisticated and better as time passes, serving as good entry points for finding and 
evaluating search engines. They are especially useful for locating international 
search engines. 

All Search Engines http://www.allsearchenqines.com/ 

Find It Quick http://www.quickfindit.com/Search Engines/ 

Search — 22 http://www.search-22.com/ 

SearchEzee http://www.searchezee.com/search.shtml 

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Types of Searches and the Best Ways to 
Handle Them 



The first thing to ask yourself is the one question a lot of people never consider: is 
the Internet the best place to start? In general, the Internet has become so good at 
answering factual questions— -the kinds of things you find in an almanac, an 
encyclopedia, or a phone book — that it is now usually better in terms of speed, 
timeliness, and accuracy than other resources. For example, if I need to know the 
world's largest hydroelectric plants, I can open an almanac and look up this 
information or I can type [world's largest hydroelectric plants] into Google, Yahoo, or 
Live Search, where the first result links me to a page at Information Please.com 
that contains the answer to the question. 

Still, compared to traditional library-type resources, the Internet may be: 

> slower (though this is changing with new technologies). 

> less reliable (large amounts of bad data in among the good). 

> disorganized (a library with all the books on the floor). 

> frustrating (lots of "broken" links). 

> hard to use (generally poor search tools and too much data to sift through). 

> risky because of growing privacy and security threats. 
This being said, why do we need to use to the Internet? Because: 

> it has almost unlimited amount of data (also a minus... too much of a good 
thing and way too much of the bad). 

> the data tend to be current. 

> it offers multimedia (video, audio, charts, tables, illustrations). 

> it allows the individual to do much more of his own research. 

> it is relatively inexpensive (at least in some countries). 

> most importantly, it contains a vast amount of unique information. 



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You've thought through your research question and decided to use the Internet to 
find information either because you've already tried traditional sources without 
success or you believe the Internet is your best option. You're sitting in front of your 
terminal, you've logged onto the Internet and you're staring at a blank screen. Now 
what? Let's start with a (relatively) easy type of search. You need to find general 
information about a fairly broad topic. 

Let's say you need to research a broad topic unfamiliar to you, for example, Java. 
The best approach may not be to type Java into a search engine. Why? Because 
you'll probably get millions of hits, and the first ones may be to commercial sites 
trying to sell you something relating to Java and will undoubtedly also include other 
meanings of Java, such as Indonesia and coffee. If you are looking for general 
information on a topic, wikis, specialized (vertical) search engines, and virtual 
libraries are often better starting points for researching general or broad topics than 
big search engines. 

The single biggest mistake searchers make is using the wrong search tool. For 

example, search engines are generally not the best tools for finding current news 
(use a news search engine), for researching broad topics (use a specialty directory 
or virtual library), or for performing specialized searches such as scientific research 
(use a specialty search engine). That's why the number one rule for web research is: 



Rule One 



Use the right tool for the job 



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Let's go back to the Java example where you want to find general information on the 
web about Java programming. Start with the Yahoo directory and see what 
categories it offers on Java. You can ignore the sponsored results and the 
categories about Indonesia, classic arcade games, and commercial Java services. 
Instead, your best bet is Programming Languages > Java: 



^^HOOf SEARCH 

Directory 



Search: ^ the Web | f the Directory | *" this category 



Search 



Programming Languages > Java 



Directory > Computers and Internet: > Programming and Development > Languages > Java 

CATEGORIES 



Industry Categories 

♦ Developers^ 

Additional Categories 

♦ Applets (45) 

♦ Booksffl 

♦ Cl asses (3) 

♦ Compilers (9) 

♦ Events (2) 

♦ FA0s(5) 

♦ Games (65) 

♦ Guides, Tutorials and 
Documentation (27) 

♦ Java 2 Platform. Enterprise Edition 
1J2EEH5) 

♦ Java 2, Micro Edition (J2ME) (8) 

♦ Java Advanced Imaging (JAi)ffi 

SITE LISTINGS By Popularity | Alphabetical (What's Thir^) 



Java Virtual Machines jJVMs) (5) 

J tit id 

Magazines (4) 

Mailing Lists (1) 

People (3) 

Porting Projects (4) 

Security (21) 

User Groups (18) 

Utilities (5) 

Web Directories (6) 



Email this page Suggest a Site 
Advanced Search 



SPONSOR RESULTS 

CocoBase Q/R Persists 
Data for Java 

Get CMP, BMP, Session, 
Transparent Persistence 
for Java applications. ... 
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vww.traininghott.com 

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Generate Java classes 
from XML schemes or 
UML models, or generate 

wvvw.al* ova. corn 

Complete Java Training 
Hands on instructor-led 
■complete Java training. 



Computers_andJnternet/Programming_andJDevelopment/l_anguages/Java/ 

Right there on one page is a wealth of promising links to documentation, reference, 
tutorials, news, downloads, articles, etc., and to the most lucrative resource of all, 
the metaguide. In this case, take a look at Java Boutique, which is a collection of 
useful Java information, news, forums, and more collected in one convenient 
location. 



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I lESBE F1ND THE WGHT 1BM ftATI0NAL ANALYSIS DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TOOLS FOR YOUR PROJECT 03 



Color.-Hlo Tech Online: IT 
S<Mvices. Education 



LaokSnmrt Soaich Markciuirt & M.iii.ifliim Data Ttnoutth 
Qnlh i e Ariwnishig VJrtujIizaHoii 



Best Buy For Business. Rmi Best Buy Hit Business, timl 
nat.ih.ise Sotlw.ne and mwe. Conimnet SecuirtvH.irdtt.ire. 



Web Design Semccs: 
flphis.Net 



Genomic D.Tt.ih.-iso-Dirvcn Woh 
Apps for .NET In Mimnes 

Best Btry foi Business. Find 
, sonvf.itft Applications and 
'. more. 





BOUT [QUE 



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I SuOnWl | Swrti | fofuma | 



^t^^^^^^^j^^^^^^^j^I^^^^^^^I^^^^^^^^^ilii^w^^j 



Articles; 

Tutorials 

Rovlow* 

Java News 

iOEs ond Taota 

GtoSRUry 

Aprjjetsand Apps: 

Apptots by Calogwy 

A{iplot3 bv Date 

AjipJotsbvNama 

Applications. 

Sorvtata 

Submit 

Suurcu Corip 

Community: 

MO 

llsoro Poll 

Dietusoton Forum 

fJonioci Us 



|5\ Newsletters 

|Cgi Gettlse latest tram 
-**"^ DevX Sel^gd lo you 



New on Java Boutique 

Tylgr ^lf ■ JSP/S«rvlelj SOAP Ftevitws ■ DbvToqJ» g| g pmv 
Sor1«dS«t BfXJ SorfdMao Mao> Easi.r with Two Hew HuHano Interfaces 

The new Java. util package contains two new interfaces of this 
package: java.utll.rsfavlgableSet and Java.utll.NavlgableMap. Both ftaxe 
been introduced to ease your suffering when working with SortedSet 
and SortedMap. 

How po Java's Lrrty Mgwjyre Lk>? Comparing Array?. Lists, nod Map« 

Java offers several solutions for storing objects in an ordered list: 
arrays, Lists, and Maps-to menlion the best known. But which one Is 
the best for your application? This article analyzes tne performance 
benefits and drawbacks of each solution with real-life, real-lime 
examples. 

flopfc jxcwol: J»v» EE 5 Tutorial. The 3rd Edilion 

This latest edition updates existing chapters about JSP. EJ8, and 
Servtels, while adding new chapters on ihe Sun Java System 
Application Server 9, Web-tier technology, and wet) services. Take a 
look at Chapter 9 for art Introduction to JavaServer Fates, a 
server-side user interface component framework for Web apps. 

Slrlpaa TlfcftS Svmsioir* N <x* Lft YP' 

Struts has done a good job all these years, but It may be time for a 
new framework's day in the sun. Learn about some of Stripes' 
features and how developing a Stripes application is a step up from 
Struts." 



Featured Partner Developer Zones 

IrAat Go PanWIrt Portal 

AM064 OevSourcc 

OttvX SkU'bulldlnnlrQW 1QM dovloPTWsrkg 
IBM Rational Tpo|s and L^earrMnp, Showya^ 
Avaya DgvqJ pBfif CyvwfliQn Center 
Microsoft Vis ual Studio 6wtan»lbllltv 




Thanks to thousands of individuals, corporations, and organizations, the Internet 
offers countless such metaguide sites on a huge variety of subjects. Which brings us 
directly to... 



Rule Two 

Let other people do as much work for you as 
possible (use their metaguides, their FAQs, their 
expertise to your advantage). 



Directories are not the only good sources of general information. A number of virtual 
libraries and reference desks have sprung up on the web and they tend to be 
terrific starting places for all types of general information because they have 
thousands of pre-selected links to sources of data the researchers know to be good. 

Let's continue with the Java example. If we go to the Intute Science, Engineering, 
and Technology page (formerly EEVL, the Internet Guide to Engineering, 



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Mathematics and Computing) and search on Java, we get back a list of highly 
relevant and carefully evaluated websites: 



intUtC : science, engineering & technology 

@@ nitijic- > Science, Encjinseihi; and Technology > Searth > Results 



;*iJu!eHoir.e Conta f ,t3. Help defrk Site rn^ 
| Jntute .Science. Engineering and Technology | 



i Aboitl no 

! A./ rtf ssiviirtl JH 


Internet cai i 


|Se<HCil 


m 


ftfiowse 


m 


Nfrw fssmntys 


iB 


jSii'jijest nsijft 


:1 


jVimnl Trninimj SiHtft £ 


|Sft|>[fon ffiiitfiihl? 
jluitite evcit^ 


m 


We re«rnmc(icf 


[fn4)In«t(fji(| e-junih.' 


I* a 


Hi>i tojtic? 


a 


!N«HuJrl li.iz,inls 


V: 


1 Science rlat.t 


h 


Subject p.H'fcs 




Timelines 




Woild ijtmie 





Search Results 

Se.ncli | \ in | All subjects H ^ 

A<\-j?.nr r o(j spare h Sjjfeieci A 2 Now t-^^ci;rr gg. HC'ip 



I Search 1erm(s) j,iv.i [subjecl(s): All] j 
! Results 773 ; 

Harvester results 4068 



.^Details Fu| | record {£ Qo tQ websj(e Sgve RecQrd 



Order try Relevance I AlD^a 



iii! 



Records marked, 



Now showing: 1 -25 of 773 records 
Page: 12345 ...31 

Pen oleum Systems of the Nodiiwest ,!<w) Pi evince. Jtjvii an<l Offshme % Details (5) (•) 
Sonlhesrsi Sutn.-m.i. Indonesia 

This report is available online from the USGS. Mature, synrift lacustrine shales of Eocene io 
Oligocene age and mature, late rrfl coals and coaly shales of Oligocene to Miocene age are source 
rocks for oil and gas in two important petroleum systems of the onshore and offshore areas of the 
Northwest Java Basin, Biogenic gas and carbonate sourced gas have also been identified. These 
hydrocarbons are trapped primarily in anticlines and fault blocks involving sandstone and carbonate 
reservoirs. These source rocks and reservoir tocks were deposited in a complex of Tertiary rift basins 
formed from single or multiple half grabens on the south edge of the Sunda Shelf plate. 
lin|i:.Vyiceiiwi>i)tt.CLii?(js.,(jyv.'ftiieiyy.W(>rl<l!:ti<;i(jy'Of ; !l!K'>OR ; 

Focus on J.iv.i ■ % Details 

Focus on Java, hosted by About.com, aims to create an environment for learning about the Java 
programming language, by editing and presenting contemporary information about its development. 

The site includes a weekly article on Java, as well as links of various sorts for JUGs, JDKs, and 
Usenet groups. There is a news section updated daily, tutorials, documentation and source code on 
all aspects of Java scripting and programming. The site also includes free tools and utilities as well 
as links to Java resource sites on the Web such as source code banks, web directories and online 
Dublications. 



In addition to the obvious SUN sites about Java, there are many others, such as 
links to Java FAQs, news, tutorials, course notes, seminar slides, articles, 
development tools, users' groups, mailing lists, books, conferences, links to web- 
based courses, and other resources. 

Now you have a new resource for future Java-related research. Naturally, the first 
thing to do is bookmark the page. 



Rule Three 




Bookmark constantly, organize your bookmarks, and 
back them up as though your life depends on it. 



One of the biggest and most influential entries into the reference/research world on 
the Internet is Wikipedia, a self-described free encyclopedia that anyone can edit. 
Because of its growth and importance, Wikipedia has earned a separate section in 
this year's edition. According to the Wikipedia, the term "wiki" describes "a group of 



40 



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Web pages that allows users to add content, as on an Internet forum, but also allows 
others (often completely unrestricted) to edit the content. The term wiki also refers to 
the collaborative software (wiki engine) used to create such a website (see wiki 
software). In essence, the wiki is a vast simplification of the process of creating 
HTML pages, and thus is a very effective way to exchange information through 
collaborative effort. Wiki is sometimes interpreted as the acronym for 'what I know, 
is 1 , which describes the knowledge contribution, storage and exchange up to some 
point." 28 The most obvious potential problem with an encyclopedia that "anyone can 
edit" is quality control, and in fact, one of the Wikipedia's co-founders admitted 
serious problems with the quality and accuracy of some (perhaps a lot) of the 
Wikipedia content. 29 While there is a tremendous amount of good information in 
Wikipedia, it should not be relied upon as a sole source. Neither should it be ignored 
as this example of a "disambiguation" page on "Java" shows: 



'?-<&. 



S create account loy m 

* aiticle discussion j ; edit this page j; history ! 

Java 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 

The term Java can refer lo: 
In geography: 

* Java (island), the most populous island in Indonesia 

■ Javanese language, a language widely spoken on the island of Java 

* Java coffee, a variety of coffee plant which originated on the island of Java, or a slang word for 
coffee 

* Java Trench, a subduction zone trench off of the island of Java 
» Java, Georgia (Republic of Georgia) 

* Java, New York (United States of America) 

■ Java, South Dakota (United States of America) 
In computer science: 

* Java is a technology developed by Sun Microsystems for machine independent software, which 
encompasses: 

» Java programming language, an object-oriented high-level programming language 

* Java virtual machine, the virtual machine that runs Java byte code 

■ Java platform, the Java virtual machine plus associated libraries 

■ JavaScript, a scripting language (unrelated to the Java programming language). 
Java may also mean: 




WlKiPEDlA 

Tbt Free htiydopcdij 

navigation 
s Main Pa-.je 
a Community Portal 
k Current everts 
« Recent changes 
a Random article 

m Help 

« Contad us 
w Oonfrtions 

search 

\— ~~ 

Go | Search | 

toolbox 

« What links here 
» Related changes 
* Upload tile 
a Special pages 
w Printable* version 



Wikipedia also has the advantage of offering a free encyclopedia in a number of 
languages besides English, including French, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, 
Swedish, Italian, German, and Japanese. 



28 "Wiki," Wikipedia, Wikipedia, 2005. Answers.com < http://www.answers.com/topic/wiki > (14 
November 2006). 

29 Andrew Orlowski, "Wikipedia Founder Admits to Serious Quality Problems," The Register, 18 
October 2005, < http://www.theregister.co.Uk/2005/1 Q/1 8/wikipedia quality problem/ > (14 November 
2006). 



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To review, the best starting places for general information on broad topics are web 
directories/subject guides, virtual libraries, and reference desks. There are hundreds 
of such websites, but I've selected a few of the best. 



About 

Encyclopedia.com 

Encyclopedia Britannica 30 

Hotsheet 

INFOMINE 

Information Please 

Internet Library for Librarians 

Intute (formerly RDN) 

The Internet Public Library 

Librarians' Index to the Internet 

The Library Spot 

Martindale's The Reference Desk 

My Virtual Reference Desk 

Pinakes Subject Gateway 31 http 

Wikipedia 

WWW Virtual Library 

Yahoo Reference 



http://www.about.com/ 

http://www.encyclopedia.com/ 

http://www.britannica.com/ 

http://www.hotsheet.com/ 

http://infomine.ucr.edu/ 

http://www.infoplease.com/ 

http://www.itcompany.com/inforetriever/index.htm 

http://www.intute.ac.uk/ 

http://www.ipl.org/ 

http://lii.org/ 

http://www.libraryspot.com / 

http://www.martindalecenter.com/ 

http://www.refdesk.com/ 

//www.hw.ac.uk/libWWW/irn/pinakes/pinakes.html 

http://en.wikipedia.org/ 

http://vlib.org/Overview.html 

http://education.yahoo.com/reference/ 



Web Tip 



Think of search engine databases as 
huge warehouses in which everything 
from diamonds to debris is stored. Your 
job is to find the jewels amid the muck. 






30 Although full-text articles require a paid subscription to Encyclopedia Britannica, the site is still a 
useful starting place for research and includes free access to the Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 

31 Pinakes is the gateway to Intute and dozens of other equally valuable specialized research sites. 



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Search Savvy — Mastering the Art of 
Search 



While directories and virtual libraries contain information selected by people, search 
engine databases are mostly unfiltered, that is, no human being is looking at the 
data being indexed to determine its value, authenticity, and reliability. Search 
engines are where the researcher's experience, knowledge, judgment, and intuition 
really come into play. Because of their vast scope and size, search engines are the 
heart and soul of Internet search and research. No other resource reaches as far or 
wide or quickly as a search engine. A researcher must learn to use search engines 
to their fullest extent despite their limitations. 

Individual search engines have some very important advantages over directories, 
metasearch, and megasearch sites. Foremost among these is the fact that they 
have much larger databases of indexed sites. However, no single search engine is 
best Each has its own advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, there is a 
remarkable lack of overlap among search engines databases, so it is vital that 
you train yourself to use more than one search engine. 

Greg Notess ran an interesting little experiment that demonstrated the need to use 
more than one search engine. He was looking for the real name for an AOL screen 
name, a piece of information that is often hard to find. One only search engine — in 
his example, Yahoo, found the name — while Google, Live, Gigablast, Ask, and 
Exalead all failed to locate the information. It could have been any search engine, 
not just Yahoo, that provided the data, but the point is clear: you must try multiple 
search engines, especially when looking for obscure or hard to find information. 

On a larger scale, the metasearch engine Dogpile touted the results of a 2005 study 
they did in collaboration with researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and 
Pennsylvania State University showing a lack of duplication in the top results of the 
major search engines. 

"When the researchers ran 12,570 different queries through search engines at 
Yahoo, Google, MSN and Ask Jeeves, they found that only 1.1 percent of the 
results appeared on all four engines, while 84.9 percent of the top results were 



32 Greg Notess, "Overlap Showdown: Only 1 of 6," Search Engine Showdown, 28 December 2006, 

< http://www.$earchenqineshowdown.com/bloq/2Q06/12/Qverlap showdown only at 1 of 1.shtml > 
(16 January 2007). 



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unique to one engine. Only 2.6 percent of the results were shared by three 
search providers, and 1 1.4 percent were delivered by two search engines." 33 

I am not surprised by the results, although I doubt the lack of overlap is quite as 
significant as the study indicates. The researchers used a relatively small sample, 
they only looked at the top ten results, they included paid results, and — probably 
most significantly— Dogpile sponsored the study. If a study to test metasearch 
engine results compared to individual search engine results concludes that 
metasearch engines do a better job, it is hardly surprising (and not necessarily 
convincing). 

You can read the Dogpile/University of Pittsburgh and Penn State University study 
and take a look at Dogpile's "Compare Search Engines" page to see how the 
comparison works. 

Dogpile's Compare Search Engines http://comparesearchengines.doqpile.com/ 

"Different Engines, Different Results" 

http://comparesearchenqines.doqpile.com/OverlapAnalysis.pdf 




Rule Four 



Use more than one search engine. 



All search engines have their own way of doing things, which means there is no set 
of rules or guidelines that users can apply to them all. It helps, however, to 
familiarize yourself with the kinds of features available so you will at least know what 
to look for. 

Often research involves the search for specific information: a telephone number, 
a name or title, a specific company or product, a piece of equipment, etc. Even 
researching a general subject may require a broader data set than a virtual library or 
subject guide offers if you need to find out as much as possible about a subject. For 
example, if I need to know everything available on the web about Mexico and 
NAFTA, I cannot limit myself to someone else's edited list. Besides, there won't be 



33 Dogpile.com in collaboration with researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and Pennsylvania 
State University, "Different Engines, Different Results, A Research Study," July 2005, 
<: http://comparesearchenqines.doqpilexom/OverlapAnalysis.pdf > (14 November 2006). I have 
serious doubts about the accuracy of this claim, but the general conclusion of the study that there is a 
lack of overlap among search engine results is valid, if exaggerated. 



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much, if any information because I am looking for specialized information (Mexico) 
within a big topic (NAFTA). 

Compared to directories and metasearch services, individual search engines offer 
much greater flexibility and many more options for searching, not the least of which 
is the ability to search using boolean expressions. Search engine companies have 
concluded (probably rightly) that boolean searches are beyond the ken of most 
users, although you may find the boolean queries permitted by the best search 
engines are inferior to what you've used before. 

One of the hottest areas of contention surrounding search engines has always been 
and continues to be search engine index size. I recommend you take size claims 
with a grain of salt. Search engine index sizes are self-reported and not validated by 
any objective third party. This old contest came to a head in 2005. First Yahoo 
claimed to have indexed over 20 billion "items" in its index. These items included 
"just over 19.2 billion web documents, 1.6 billion images, and over 50 million audio 
and video files." 34 Yahoo's claim at first appeared to mark the beginning of another 
competition to retain the "honor" of having the biggest search engine database, 
something Google had prided itself on for years. This time, however, instead of 
fighting back with bigger number counts on its homepage, Google dropped those 
numbers entirely as part of its seventh birthday celebration in September 2005. At 
the same time, Google announced a "newly expanded web search index that is 
1,000 times the size of our original index... which makes Google more than 3 times 
larger than any other search engine." 35 Google did not offer any specific number but 
insisted it offers the most comprehensive collection of websites and documents on 
the Internet. Yahoo makes a similar claim. The answer? There is no one "best" 
search engine or site; researchers need a good toolkit of many resources when 
looking for rare information. 

Determining search engine database size is something more akin to alchemy than 
arithmetic, so I suggest you take all such estimates of size with a large dose of 
skepticism. Besides, numbers are one thing and good search results are quite 
another. What good do 20 billion web documents do if not one of them provides the 
results you are seeking? Relevant results are the best measure of a search 
engine's value, but from my experience, having a larger pool in which to fish for 
these answers really does make it more likely that a search engine will retrieve the 
results users seek in the case of obscure information, which is after all the kind of 
information we are often seeking. Search engine size wars are almost always a 
good thing for researchers because it keeps the big players on their toes and 



34 "Our Blog is Growing Up— And So Has [sic] Our Index," Yahoo! Search Blog, 8 August 2005, 
< http://www.vsearchbloq .com/archives/0001 72.html > (15 November 2006). 

35 "We Wanted Something Special for Our Birthday," Google Blogspot, 26 September 2005, 
< hUp://qoogleblog .bloqspot.com/2005/09/we-wanted-something-special-for-our.html > (15 November 
2006). 



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motivates them to improve their services. This past year's competition was no 
exception. 

Another important fact to remember is that most search engines do not index entire 
websites or documents. It is no longer clear exactly how much of a webpage the 
major search engines index. For example, Google used to only index approximately 
the first 100KB of HTML, and reportedly the first megabyte of PDF documents, but in 
October 2005, Google dramatically increased the size of its cache limit. Yahoo 
indexes at least the first 500KB of HTML and PDF documents. As for Microsoft files 
types, my experimentation with them indicates that, in most cases, Yahoo indexes 
virtually the entire file, even in the case of very large documents. 

The following is an overview of the major search engines in terms of their features, 
how to use them effectively, and what makes each one distinctive. It is important to 
remember there is no such thing as a perfect search engine. Each one has its 
advantages and drawbacks. The only way to fully exploit a search engine is to take 
the time to learn to use it, which means you must read the instructions. 



Rule Five 



Read the instructions 



46 



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Google 



Google first gained fame and widespread use because of its single-minded focus on 
search, exemplified by its "clean" interface, and its PageRank™ "weighted link 
popularity." In simple terms, Google gives each webpage a rank based on the 
number of other pages linking to it and the "importance" of those pages, where 
importance is derived from an overall link count. While PageRank is imperfect, it 
works better than most other approaches to ranking search results and, indeed, is 
one of the primary reasons for Google's success. 

Some of Google's features that helped to create this very successful and powerful 
search tool are: 

> cached versions of webpages; Google was the first search engine to offer 
this option, which let users peek into its vast database. 

> automatic conversion of non-HTML filetypes to HTML is available; Google 
was not the first to do this, but certainly has been the most successful. 

> backlinks (the link: syntax); unfortunately, Google now limits the number of 
backlinks it shows, greatly reducing the utility of this option. 

> Google seems to have increased its limits on the size of indexed pages. I 

found an indexed PDF document over 764K, a text file over 1000K, and a 
webpage over 366K. Very few webpages are larger than 500K. Google does 
not offer HTML versions of very large PDF or Word documents, e.g., the 
complete 9/1 1 Commission Report, but exactly what their cut-off size is, I do 
not know. 

> Google refreshes its index continuously, not on a schedule (this is a good 
thing); Google's Matt Cutts explains Google's refresh rate: "It's true that when 
an event happens on the web, our index can often pick it up in 1-2 days, and 
usually even faster. But a typical page in Google's main web index is updated 
every 2-3 weeks or faster; it's not the case that the entire main web index is 
updated every 2-3 days." 36 

> Google stopped advertising the size of its database in 2005, but Google is 
one of the largest if not the largest search database. 

In determining the overall size of its index, Google also includes urls of pages that 
it has not crawled and for which it has not indexed the text. These "orphan" 



36 Matt Cutts, "Google Update Speed," Google Blogoscoped, 26 July 2006, < http://bloq.outer- 
court.com/archive/2006-Q7-26. html#n28 > (14 November 2006). 

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pages may be any number of things, including pages with robots.txt command or 
tag . Unindexed pages are identifiable by what they lack: no summary, no page size, 
and no cached copy. 

vwwv.stat.vcu.edu/robotsM Google Orphans— no cached 

msusm copy, no summary, no page size 

iavangelistsnipsnap.org/space/SnipSnap/confi q/rob... 
www.atmos.washi nqtQn.edu/robots txt 

Sirnilar j^^fes 

fi chi erindi quant aux robots les endroits i nterdits # # voir http ... - [ Translate this pans 1 

fichier indiquant aux robots les endroits interdits # # voir 

http://info.webcrawler.com/rnak/projects/robots/norobots.html User-agent: * Disallow: ... 
www.ann.jussieu.fr/robots.txt -1k- Cached - Similar paqgs 

wvw.pamarys .ku .It/robots .txt 



Indexed page — cached copy, 
summary, page size 



Similar pages 

s agi ttanus.student.utwente.nl/robots .txt 



Google no longer displays the number of pages searched on its home page, but a 
search on [the] returns an estimated 4.8 billion pages, so that represents the 
minimum number of pages in the Google database (in fact, it probably is far larger). 
Remember, all size claims are "self validated," so take them with a grain of salt. Still, 
for the types of Internet research we perform, bigger really is better because we 
have a much better chance of finding obscure information in billions of webpages 
than in millions. 

Customizing Google Preferences 

Google offers five basic Preferences settings: 

1. Interface language : if you are more comfortable working in another 
language, Google can display in dozens. 

2. Search language : generally, most searchers choose to search in any 
language, but there are occasions when it makes sense to limit your 
search to one or more specific languages. Google supports 35 languages, 
including non-Latin languages such as Arabic, Simplified and Traditional 
Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Russian, and Turkish. 

3. Filtering of pages containing explicit sexual content. 

4. Number of results : a purely individual preference, but 10 results per page 
is simply frustrating; Google lets you see up to 100 results per page. 

5. Results window : opens results in a new browser window. 



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The Google Results Page 

Once you've entered your search terms and selected the Google Search button, 
Google will present you with a list of results (hits). For each result returned you may 
see: 



Google* 

Home | 

AliAbojl Google 
Help l&iUmI 

Search Help 

Basics of Search \ 

Advanced Search ) 

► Imeipiet Results | 

Customize \ 

Google Features 
General FAQ 
Cowan Us 

Find on this site: 



SsggjSI 



How to'lnterpret youtSearch Results 



Each lenei fs a link to That element's definition: 



Google 



A 

-£S=L - 

[googte address -fpouniain vior*: 

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Q^-Tsp Ffni Maps by s etching *c a sirtei adcrasj win ft C4y « ap code 
| News resifls fo r google 



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*-V GaoQle Rtfi; Qvi Sysict To. Inhere local Seyfli fonta ■ ovn - S hou« »?a 



H 



jfGoogfe 
\ ... Aihvtij* Wish Us ■ Bcnix* j Sofctf»ws ■ Stftic»* * Tods • Jew. T i 
I P«», & rt*lp WOW Gw9te ■ Swchfofl i.?8SJ»7M <*b pogos J"^ 

t L M N 

Google Corporate ^formation Gotmfc Offices 

... 1M0 An*hafi(tfe Pirtvay Uountaln Vl»w. CA S4(W ... Turn r$h: o-tio CHAKLEStON 
Dt've pist Landiojs Orw; Turn ]«ti tntc ci.sway at [he "Google" sign st ... 
(=-„-r i'i'mc* gt-uij'.! -■.r-.ies'f**:' ! jd!ii*ti.l-.vi. : ■ :f.it ■ " 







> the statistics bar (F) describes the type of search, e.g., web, and shows the 
number of results returned as well as the amount of time it took to complete 
your search 

> a tip (G) may appear here, but not all queries generate tips. A typical tip 
might be "Try removing quotes from your search to get more results." 

> "OneBox Results" (H) typically include news, stock quotes, maps, weather 
and local websites related to your search 

> the title (I) of the webpage found 

> an excerpt (J) from the webpage with your search terms bolded 

> the url (K) of the webpage 

> you will see Supplemental Result only if Google retrieved the result from its 
supplemental and not its main index 

> the size (L) of the text portion of the webpage (omitted if page is not yet 
indexed) 

> a cached (M) link to the version of the site stored by Google if it is indexed 

> a similar pages (N) link for pages related to this result 



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> indented results (O) indicate Google has found more than one result from 
the same website; the most relevant page is listed first 

> a more results from (P) link if there are more than two results from the same 
site 

Google Basic Search http://www.google.com/ 

Google assumes as its default that multiple search terms are joined by the AND 
operator, so that a search on the keywords [windows explorer] 37 will find all the 
webpages that contain both search terms. Furthermore, Google will first try to find 
all the webpages that contain the phrase ["windows explorer"]. Google will search: 

> first, for phrases (keywords as one long phrase) 

> second, for webpages containing all the keywords with the greatest 
adjacency (closest together), 

> third, for webpages containing all the keywords, regardless of where they 
appear on the webpage 

Google will not return any results if there is no webpage containing all the search 
terms. Try this query to see what I mean: 

[kong spektioneer synecdoche] 

There is an exception to this rule. Google often returns results when a keyword is 
not actually on a webpage but is in a link to a website, usually as text in a link 
anchor. 



37 Matt Cutts, one of Google's software engineers who also writes a blog mostly about Google, let his 
readers in on a little bit of Google insider information. "At Google, we use [ and ] to mark the 
beginning and end of queries. So ["scorpio submarine"] means to do a phrase search for "scorpio 
submarine", while [scorpio submarine] means just to type in those words without the quotes-you 
leave the brackets out when you actually do the search." That's an interesting and useful bit of trivia. I 
have tried various schemes to distinguish queries and ended up using italics (not a very elegant 
solution). From now on, I will be using brackets to set off queries in UTW. Matt Cutt's Blog, 1 1 August 
2005, < http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/writinq-gooqle-queries/ > (14 November 2006). 



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!| This is G o o <j i e's cache of http://www.athensam5.net/myathens/ as retrieved on May 3, 2005 02:17:43 GMT. 

I G o * (j 1 e's cache is the snapshot that we took of the page as we crawled the web. 

I The page may have changed since that time. Click here for the currant page without highlighting. 

| This cached page may reference images which are no longer available. Click here for the cached text only. 

H To link to or bookmark this page, use the following urf: 

ij KtJtpV/www.googrlc.cojVscaich^q^cicht: 3TomyP* 4X^00 J: www. athcns-uns .rk«c/Trtyat;h«7i3/+useEJ\ame+l ogin+%22el icJi+hcre %22£hl =cn*20taig«t = 
|j 

Google is not affiliated with the authors of this page nor responsible for its content. 



These search terms have been highlighted: uset iidwe Iftfliinl 

These terms only appear in links pointing to this page: click here 




edu&crv n\h&w6 



Contact <js | Edus*^ 1 Athene | Help 



"I 



MyAthens 




Tuesday, 3 May 2005 



To access your organisation's electronic resources, log in to MyAthens with your Athens u$emam« and password, Please 
note that the password is case sensitive, 



< I 


Username: | 


\l , ■ j 






Password: | ; 


>¥ Login 

! fan This is i secure login. 



Forgotten your Athens account details? Don't have an 
Athens account? 

Check the Athens organisation list to contact your Athens 
administrator or to find out if your organisation uses Athens, If 
you arz not a member of one of the organisations listed, then you 
are not entitled to use Athens. 



Google limits the number of search terms to 32 keywords. It ignores any terms 
beyond that number. However, there are ways to force Google to search for more 
than 32 keywords . 

Google is not case sensitive. There does not appear to be anything you can do 
about this. 

In late 2003 Google introduced automatic word stemming or truncation, i.e., 
searching for variations of search terms. Normally, word stemming involves 
searching for plurals and verb conjugations such as drink, drank, drunk. However, 
Google's word stemming is not consistent and somewhat confusing. For example, 
stemming does not work either with single word or phrase searches, i.e., a search 
on [child] will not find children. Yet a search on [child health] will find child, childhood, 
children, and children's. Google will also find some variations of verbs, e.g., a search 
on [drink water] will find drinking water. Users should still search on all variations of a 
term, including plurals. There is a Google hack for disabling word stemming . 

Google automatically clusters search results. Multiple hits from the same site are 
indented and there is usually an option to see more results from a specific site. 

Google permits the use of the OR operator in simple search. The OR must be 
capitalized. 



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Beyond the use of the OR operator in Its simple search, Google does not support 
boolean search. 

While Google assumes that multiple keywords are a phrase, searchers can 
delimit phrases using double-quotes. For example, if I search on: 

[the last king of france] 

without double-quotes, Google will ignore the "the" and the "of in its search. The 
results I get include many irrelevant hits, such as music from a group called "The 
Last King" and an article about Lance Armstrong. However, if I enclose the same 
query in double-quotes, Google will search on exactly the phrase ["the last king of 
france"], and return a result with the name of the last king of France. Enclosing 
searches in double-quotes is much more effective for finding precise results than 
relying on automatic phrase searching. 

Google no longer routinely ignores stop words outside double quotes. Each of 
these searches will now return different results: 

[the last king of france] [last king france] ["the last king of france"] 

Stop words are English words that are so commonplace they are not included in a 
search unless the searcher forces Google to do so. The stop words Google 
recognizes include: a, an } about, and, are, as, at, be, by, com, from, how, I, in, is, it, 
of, on, or, that, the, this, to, we, what, when, where, which, with, why. There probably 
are others! 

However, Google's handling of stop words is inconsistent. For example, in the query 
[to be or not to be], Google ignores OR because it may be a logical operator, and it 
also appears to ignore TO and BE, only searching for NOT. Therefore, you may 
need to force Google to search for a stop word on occasion. There is a Google hack 
for forcing Google to search for stop words . 

It is unnecessary to use the plus sign (+) with any terms except stop words because 
by default Google searches for all keywords. However, there are many times when 
searchers need to exclude certain terms that are commonly associated with a 
keyword but irrelevant to their search. That's where the minus sign (-) comes in. 
Using the minus sign in front of a keyword ensures that Google excludes that term 
from the search. For example, the results for the search ["pearl harbor" -movie] are 
very different from the results for ["pearl harbor"]. 

Google's handling of words with diacritical marks such as accents or umlauts is 
inconsistent. By default, Google will search for terms matching those with and 
without the diacritic. As Google's Vanessa Fox explains, "When a searcher enters 
a query that includes a word with accented characters, our algorithms consider web 
pages that contain versions of that word both with and without the accent. For 



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instance, if a searcher enters [Mexico], we'll return results for pages about both 
"Mexico" and "Mexico."" 38 

For example, a search on [fagade] will return pages containing both facade and 
fagade. To force Google to search only for the term with the diacritic, put a plus sign 
in front of the term: [+fagade]. You may see a few pages that do not appear to 
have the diacritic, but that is probably because that term appears in anchor text or 

an inbound link that is pointing to the page but not actually on the page in question. 

However, Fox goes on to explain that results also vary depending upon whether you 
are searching at Google.com or a Google international site (e.g., Google.fr), whether 
your preferred language at Google is English or another language, and from where 
you are coming to the Google site as indicated by your IP address. If Google detects 
that your IP address geolocates to Peru, your search results will be different from 
those provided to someone coming to Google from Norway, regardless of the 
preferred language or the site you search. Also, users who have registered with 
Google and set up personalized search will find that their results are affected by their 
previous searches. In other words, while there are ways to manipulate the results 
Google provides, there is no way to control them. 

Google treats most punctuation marks the same way, as links in a search string. 
For example, Google handles a search for [c-span], [c.span], ["c span"], and 
[c?span] basically the same way. However, a search for [cspan] with no space or 
mark is treated differently. 



38 Vanessa Fox, "How search results may differ based on accented characters and interface 
languages," Official Google Blog, 32 August 31 2006, 

< http://qooqlewebmastercentral.bloqspotxom/2Q06/08/how-search-result5-mav-differ-based-on.html > 
(November 27, 2006). 



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Google will search for several punctuation marks and special characters: 

> the ampersand [&]: Google will search for [barnes&noble] or [barnes & 
noble] 

> the underscore [ _ ]: Google will search for a phrase such as 
[public_records.doc] or even more specifically [public_records.html] 

> the dollar sign [$], used with a number, for example [$100] 

> the sharp [#], for example [F#] 

> the slash, but only when used in the search [I/O] 

> While Google will not actually search on a plus sign, the search engine does 
recognize the difference between searches for [c], [c+], and [c++] 

Google Advanced Search 

Google has a number of "query modifiers" to restrict searches and make them more 
effective in many cases. These query modifiers can be used in simple search in the 
following syntax or on the advanced web search page using the appropriate menu 
options. The query modifiers Google supports are: 

> site: restricts results to websites in- a g iven ddmafh'. This syntax no longer 
requires you to add a keyword. Google's site: syntax will also search within 
folders, e.g., [site:jpl. nasa.gov/technology]. Remember you can add keywords to 
the site: search, [siterjpl. nasa.gov/technology "jpl spacecraft"] 

Advanced Web Search > Domains 

Examples of how to use the site: command : 

[shuttle site:www.nasa.gov] finds pages about the space shuttle at the NASA 
website. 

[site:info] finds all the pages in the Google database in the .info top-level domain 

["bulletin officiel" site:fr] finds pages in the French top-level domain about official 
bulletins 

[cirrus -site: mastercard. com] finds pages about the keyword cirrus that are not at 
the Mastercard.com site 

[site:jpl. nasa.gov/technology] 



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[site:jpl. nasa.gov/technology "jpl spacecraft"] 



Web Images Video News Maps Desktop moie 

Preference 



lsite.jpl.nasa.gov/technology "jpl spacecraft" Search f; v ,*" c * ,-5IS ~ 



Web Results 1 ■ 3 of 3 from jpl.nasa.govtechnology for "jpl spacecraft" 

Tip. Try removing quotes from your search lo gel more results. 

CASE STUDIES OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE DSN 

Manner 10 was the first JPL spacecraft, to transmit full resolution images in real time from 
planetary distances,; to photograph Venus,; to encounter and ... 
dGepsp3Ce.jpt.n3sa.gov/technology/95_20/case.h1m - 30k ■ C^:heri - Similar frag?" 

ipdf] The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network A History „. 

File Format PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML 

Mariner 10 was the first JPL spacecraft. (1) To transmit full-resolution images in real time 

from planetary distances. (2) To photograph Venus. ... 

deepspace.jpl.nasa. gov/technology/95 J20V95-2Q.pdf - Simijarj^cje?. 

Technology- Images & Videos 

JPL spacecraft have visited ail known planets except Pluto (a Pluto mission is currently 
under study for the early part of the next decade). 
wwv\'2.jpl.nasa.gov/technology/images_videos/iv_pages/P37079.html - 17k ■ 

i ached - Similar r^ges 



> intitle: restricts the results to documents containing the keyword in the title. 
Advanced Web Search > Occurrences 

Examples of how to use the intitle: command : 

[intitle:amazon] finds all pages that include the word amazon in their title 

[intitle:amazon "rain forest"] finds all pages that include the word amazon in their 
title and mention the phrase "rain forest" anywhere in the document (title or text 
or anywhere in the document) 

> allintitle: restricts the results to documents containing all the keywords in the title 
of the document. 

Advanced Web Search > Occurrences 

Example of how to use the allintitle: command : 

[allintitle:amazon jungle "rain forest"] finds pages that include a// the words in the 
title (not the text) of the document, e.g., 

<title>Amazon Rain Forest Jungle Tours</title> 

> inurl: restricts the results to documents containing the keyword in the url. 
Advanced Web Search > Occurrences 

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Examples of how to use the inurl: command : 

[inurl.nasa] finds all pages that include nasa anywhere in the url (address) 

[inurknasa -site:gov] finds all pages that include nasa anywhere in the url of sites 
that are not in the .gov top-level domain 

[inurl:nasa shuttle] finds all pages that include nasa anywhere in the url of the site 
and shuttle anywhere in the document (url or anywhere else). 

> allinurl: restricts the results to documents containing all the keywords in the url. 
Advanced Web Search > Occurrences 

Example of how to use the allinurl: command : 

[allinurhnasa shuttle] finds all pages that include both nasa and shuttle in the url 
of the site. 

> link: restricts the results to documents that have links to a specific webpage. 39 
Cannot use with keyword search terms. 

Advanced Web Search > Page Specific Search > Links 

Example of how to use the link: command : 

[link:www.noaa.gov] finds all pages linking to the NOAA homepage. 

[link:www.noaa.gov/wx.html] finds all pages linking to a specific page at the 
NOAA site. 

> info: presents information Google has about a webpage. This option is only 
available via the main Google search. 

Example of how to use the info: command : 

[info:www.noaa.gov] provides links to Google's cache of the page, pages that are 
similar to www.noaa.gov, pages that link to www.noaa.gov, and pages that 
contain the term www.noaa.gov. 



39 The Google link: command no longer shows all links as it once did in order to cut down on the 
amount of webspam created by hidden links on webpages. Therefore, the Google link: command is 
not nearly as useful as it used to be. 



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Google 



Web Images Video News Maps Desktop more » 



|info;vwvw.noaa.gov Search 



Advanced S^^roh 
Preferences 



Web 

NOAA Home Page 

an agency of the US Department of Commerce. Conducts environmental research, 

www.noaa.gov/ 

Google can show you the following information for this URL:| 



Show Google's cache ofwww.noaa.gov 

Find web pages that are simiiarto www.noaa.gov 

Find web pages that link to www.noaa.gov 

Find web pages from the site www. noaa.gov 

Find web pages that contain the term "www.noaa.gov 1 



> related: restricts the results to documents Google has determined are similar to 
a specific webpage, 

Advanced Web Search > Page Specific Search > Similar 

Example of how to use the related: command : 
[related:www.nasa.gov] finds other US government homepages. 

> cache: presents the version of the webpage Google has stored. This option can 
also be accessed by clicking on the Cached link on the main results page. 

Examples of how to use the cache: command : 

[cache:www. noaa.gov] shows the stored version of the NASA homepage 

[cache:www.noaa.gov hurricane] shows the stored version of the NOAA 
homepage with the keyword hurricane highlighted. 

With no fanfare, Google once again began showing the date and time when a 
webpage was cached. This is not a new feature in Google; the Google cache 
option showed date/time until mid-2000 when date and time unceremoniously 
disappeared. Now it's back. Who knows why? Who cares? It's a good thing. 
Here's what you'll see: 



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j This is G o g 1 e's cache of http://www.lib.virqinia.edu/sciencB/quides/s-clirn.hlm as retrieved on Oct 30 , 2005 03: 1 1 :51 GMT. 

Go (| I e's cache is the snapshot that we took of the page as we crawled the web. 
] The page may have changed since that time. Click here for the current page without highlighting. 

This cached page may reference images which are no longer available. Click here for the cached text only. 

To link to or bookmark this page, use the following url: 

Kt:ep://www. googl c . com/ jsaicK?q=cacht : JCBDAKfnoBeUJ: vmt.1 ib .Virginia . cdu/ 3C iencc/ guides/ s-el inn.htsnr^ihl =en 

Google is neither affiliated with the authors of this page nor responsible for its content. 



Important : there is a Google hack that lets you view the cached text only version 
without first viewing the cached page containing images and other non-text data 
that could send information back to the original website. Giqablast also offers a 
"stripped" cache option . 

> filetype: Google will search the content of many file types and must be used with 
keyword(s). However, there is a Google hack that lets you get around the 
keyword requirement . Microsoft filetypes are potentially dangerous to open in 
their native formats. Please follow these instructions for handling Microsoft files 
on the Internet safely . 

Warning : use Google option to "view as html" instead of opening certain file 
types (mainly Microsoft Word and Excel) that could contain macro viruses . 

Google will search the content of these file types : 

HTML 

Corel WordPerfect (wp) 

Lotus 1-2-3 (wk1, wk2, wk3, wk4, wk5, wki, wks, wku) 

Lotus WordPro (Iwp) 

MacWrite (mw) 

Microsoft Excel (xls) 

Microsoft PowerPoint (ppt) 

Microsoft Word (doc) 

Microsoft Works (wks, wps, wdb) 

Microsoft Write (wri) 

Portable Document Format (pdf) 

Postscript (ps) 

Rich Text Format (rtf) 

Text (ans, txt) 

Macromedia Shockwave Flash (swf) 



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Example of a filetype: search : 



Google 



Advanced Search Preferences Language Tools Search Tips 
|filetype:doc bulletin 



Google Search 



Imaaes f Grourjs I Directorv I News 



iSearched the web for flletypc:doc bulletin. 



Results 1 - 10d of about 197,000. Search took 0.41 second 



iDoci Teclinical Daails on Microsoft Product Activation for Windows XP 

jleFormat. MicrpatSft Word 2000 - View as HTML 
TecTffflt^rt-MSfffSl Bulletin August 2001. ... Appendix A: This bulletin 
and Microsoft Product Activation for Office XP Family Products. ... 
ww, microsoft. com/pi racy/toasics/activat ion/ wintlaw£productactivatirjritechnjcalrnarketbulletin.doc - Similar paq&s 



[filetype:doc bulletin] will find MSWord documents containing the keyword bulletin 

For details on how to use the Google filetype option, please refer to the Google 
Filetype help FAQ. Also, there are a number of undocumented file type searches 
available using Google. 



Google Filetype FAQ 



http://www.qooale.com/help/faa filetvpes.html 



Google Special Search Features 

Spell Checker: Google has a very good spell check option. When you input a query, 
Google checks to see if you are using the most common spelling of the keyword. If 
not, Google nicely asks, "Did you mean: x?" where x is the most common spelling. I 
really love this because Google doesn't presume. Sometimes you are intentionally 
misspelling a term. The classic example is [http referrer]. This computer term is 
almost always misspelled, so searching on [http referrer] won't yield nearly as many 
results as searching on the misspelled term. Google's dictionary also includes 
proper names. 

Calculator: the Google calculator will evaluate basic and complicated mathematical 
expressions as well as convert units of measurement and physical constants. 
Soople makes the Google calculator extremely easy to use. For detailed help in 
using the calculator, see: 



Google Calculator Help 



http://www.qooale.com/help/calculator.htmt 



Dictionary: Google has integrated dictionary definitions into its search options. 
Nothing could be easier to use. Underlined keywords appearing at the top of the 
results page are linked to Answers.com. 

Define: new to Google is the define option. To use it, enter define then a word or 
phrase. This feature augments the dictionary option by searching a wider variety of 
sources. For example, the query [define blog] will return a web definition as the first 
result. The advantage of the define option is that the definition appears at the top of 



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the Google results list, whereas using the dictionary option (clicking on define) 
requires the user to click on the link and go to that site to read the definition. 

-^ -3 Weh Images Groups Mews Froogle Local "**'' Desktop mote ;> 

CaOugte l^-wog _ ! ?s^m s^ ™* 

Web Results 1 - 100 of about 11,600,000 for define hi oq with Safesearch -on. (0;68 seconds) 

Web definitions for Blog | sponsored Links 

0JF*- Blog is short for weblog. A weblog is a journal (or news(elter) that is frequently updated | 

^>" and intended for general public consumption. Blogs generally represent the personality ! Set Up Your Blog for Free 

of the author or the Web site. j Instantly look like a pro & create 

www.bytowninternet.com/glossary - Definition in context | blogs that get noticed & read often 

\ wvrtv.typepad.com 

Translations: Currently, Google offers webpage translations to/from English and 
Arabic, simplified Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, 
Russian, and Spanish. If a page appears in the results list in one of the languages 
Google translation supports, you will see [Translate this page] after the page title. 
All the newest additions to Google's translation list use statistical machine translation 
software developed by Google and the quality of these translations is far superior to 
that provided by Systran. These languages include at present Arabic, simplified 
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Russian. 

Number Search: The numbers Google will search for include: 

> US Patent numbers : syntax is [patent 5521308] 

> UPS tracking: enter the tracking number with or without spaces 
[1Z9999X99999999] 

> USPS tracking: enter the tracking number with or without spaces 
[9999999999999999999999] 

> FedEx tracking: enter the tracking number with or without spaces 
[9999999999999999] 

> DHL and Airborne Express tracking: enter DHL plus the tracking number 
[DHL 9999999999]; DHL queries are the least reliable on Google 

> ZIP codes: enter a US ZIP code, either five or nine digits 

> ISBN: enter any International Standard Book Number 

> VIN Information: to find information about a vehicle's history, search on its 
17-character Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) 

> FAA airplane registration numbers: [n158ua] (simply enter the FAA 
registration number; no special syntax is required) 



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> FCC equipment Ids: syntax is [fee EJM386S303] 

Weather: The Google weather search is for US locations only. Simply enter the 
keyword weather followed by a city and/or state or even just a zip code (which works 
just fine by itself) and Google will present you with an attractive, succinct weather 
chart: 



Google 



Web imaass Gwupz t«e>vs 



wwKhci 94101 



Web 



Weather Tor San Francises, CA 

wed Thu 

&4-F fTTf f™^. 

Mostly Cloudy 

Wind-&v/aii2mph 

Humidity 1 82-% 63' | *8 _ 66" | 49" 



Frt 



55' | 51 " 



froqate Local 
Scotch 



tftM ' Oeshiop mole* 






Results 1 - 100 flf about 555 for wealltef 94101. 50,35 s&ontis) 



Eat 



& 



54' 



1 50" 



US Los ai Weatliw. Service 
Current weailief reports & fa ret^sis 
foi'vouf af*a with teaWme updates 



Airport Delays and Weather: To see delays and weather conditions at a US 
airport, enter the airport's three-letter code and the word airport. For example, to see 
delays and weather conditions at Baltimore-Washington International, enter [bwi 
airport]. At the top of the Google results page you will see the image of an airplane 
followed by a link to "View conditions at Baltimore-Washington International Airport 
(BWI), Baltimore, Maryland." The link takes you directly to the FAA's Air Traffic 
Control System Command Center's real-time status information page for BWI. 

Phonebook, Street Maps, and Stock Quotes: US residential and business 
phonebook lookups, US addresses, and US stock exchange data. Please see 
Google Help for information on using these features: 



Google Help 



http://www.google.com/help/features.html 



Google Guides: Did you know that Google publishes "a variety of reviewer's guides 
to selected Google products on the Google Press Center" designed for journalists 
who are reviewing these products? However, the guides are very well done and 
include a lot of useful set-up and user instructions. 



Google Guides 



http://www.gooqle.com/press/guides.html 



Google Services 

Google has many services hidden behind its spare homepage. By selecting "more' 
and then "even more" on the homepage... 



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Well jmitqes 'Vide a Naws Mags more. 



i^ugie -Search [ j in^ee^iigviH-ky :[ 



FfQj>ql» 



Amortising Ftop/stas -* Busings^ So^uttaras ■ Aboul Goa-glo 



You will see the many products and services Google offers that are not reflected on 
the "googlized" homepage. 



■£* Frooqlg 

1$ Shop for items to buy online and at local stores 

•3 images 

„£P Search for images on the web 



L ocal 

Find local businesses and get directions 



Maps 
£& View maps and gel direclions 

^£& News - now with archive searc h"**" 1 
*^^ Search thousands of news stories 



Scholar 

Search scholarly papers 



A Specialized Searches 






Search within specific topics 

Toolbar 

Add a search box to your browser 



0k ^^ 

*$£*.< Search TV programs and videos 

Q Web Search 

~\ Search over billions of web pages 

>~Q Web Search Features 

^5T? Find movies, music, stocks, books, and more 



^| Pieasa 

$m? Find, edit and share your photos 

W& SkalchUn 

)%£& Create 3D models for Google Earth 

ts^ IM and call your friends through your computer 

£%^~ Translate 

^ ** View web pages in other languages 

Go mobile 

y~[£y Maps for mobile 

vS^ View ma P s an ^ 9 et directions on your phone 

}/ Mobile 

Use Google on your mobile phone 

9$&' SMS 

0Jf Use text messaging for quick info 

Make your computer work better 

ttHgF A free collection of essential software 



/££h Web Accelerator 
Speed up the web 



Search 



Alerts 

Gel email updates on the topics of your choice 



$ 



r^£\ [jlog Search 



nd blogs on your favorite topics 



Book Search 

Search the full text of books 



•pQ Catalogs 

V=^i Search and browse mail-order catalogs 

^ Checkout 

j/-ti Complete online purchases more quickly and securely 



(S) ~ 



Search and personalize your compuler 



/a Directory 
^-^' Browse the web by topic 



Eanh 

Explore the world from your PC 



^| Finance 

M\ Business info, news, and interactive charts 



Explore and innovate 

■■■ Code 

Download APIs and open source code 

Co-op - now with Custom Search Engine ^'*"' 

Contribute your expertise and customize the web search experience 

^11 Labs 

(|| Explore Google's technology playground 

Communicate, show & share 



P§ Bloqqer 



Share your life online with a blog ■■ it's fast, easy, and free 



Calendar 



Organize your schedule and share events with friends 

Docs & Spieadsheets 

Create and share your projects online and access them from 

anywhere 



ll_J Fast, searchable email with less spam 

C£p Groups 

<?$" Create mailing lists and discussion groups 



News: Google News headlines are entirely generated using a computer algorithm 
that scours more than 4500 worldwide news sources. Google News also offers 
international editions for France, Germany, India, Italy, Spain, and several other 
countries. For details on Google News, see the news search engine section below. 



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Images: Google Images indexes more than a billion images in JPEG, GIF, and PNG 
(Portable Network Graphics) formats. The Advanced Image Search lets users limit 
searches by filetype, size of image, coloration, and site or domain. 



Google Image Search 



http://imaqes.qooqle.com/ 



Book Search: To use the book search, simply preface any search with the keyword 
book or books. The first three results, if there are any matches, will come from 
Google Book Search . 

Groups: Google acquired Deja, the last remaining Usenet newsgroup search 
engine, in 2001. Even before that, Google began its own Usenet archive in August 
2000. The complete Usenet archive, more than a billion messages dating back to 
1995, is searchable via Google Groups. In 2004 Google introduced a new version of 
Google Groups that includes a mailing list and discussion forum creation option to 
rival Yahoo Groups 1 similar service. Also new is the ability for registered users to 
keep track of their favorite topics using the star ($?) feature. By clicking the star next 
to a favorite topic, that topic is added to the user's "My starred topics" page. Postings 
now appear in minutes in Google Groups rather than the hours it used to take. 

Google Groups still offers both a simple and advanced interface to search the 
newsgroup postings. Both interfaces are extremely easy to use. Google Groups not 
only returns results (sorted by relevance or date), it also shows you the most 
relevant groups for your topic. So a search on the term oceanography suggests I 
might want to take a look at the related groups sci.qeo.oceanoqraphv and 
bionet.bioloqy.deepsea . Newsgroup searching in general and Google Groups are 
discussed in greater detail in a later section. 



Google Groups 



http://groups.qooqle.com/ 



Mobile SMS Search: This service is different from the SMS text messaging that has 
been available at AOL, Yahoo, Live Search, etc., for some time. The new Google 
SMS permits queries using mobile technology. Google's SMS service offers similar 
services but with different shortcuts. It is open to all US subscribers using a "major" 
US cell phone provider and also to most UK mobile subscribers. The US number is 
46645 (GOOGL on most phones) and for the UK it is 64664 (6GOOG on most 
phones). Google explains how to use the SMS search service and offers a number 
of sample queries at its new SMS webpage. 



Google SMS 

Patent Search (beta): New for 2007 



http://www.qooqle.com/sms/ 

Google Patent Search now has its own 
discrete page. Users could always search for US patents by number, but Google 
decided to create a separate page for these searches. The new site offers many 
advanced search options, including options to search by patent number, title, 
inventor's name, assignee's name, US and international classifications, and issue or 
filing date range. Even more valuable than the search options are the view choices. 



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The new Google patent search has the ability to show you the patent itself, complete 
with zoom, page scrolling, drawings, internal search, and other patents that 
reference the current one. Here is the drawing of H. K. Markey (aka the actress 
Hedy Lamarr) and George Antheil's 1941 patent for a "secret communication 
system" that used a new concept: frequency hopping. 



Google |ininventor:Hedy ininventor Kiesler ininvsntor:f Sb arch Patents | 

SECRET COMMUNICATION SYSTEM h^h^m^ 



^ Page | 



Sign in 



<f*> Full scieer 



Aug. Si, 1942, 



H. K. MARKEY ET'AL 

SECRET COSarjMCAlJOH STSTBN 
FU«d JiBW JO. 1*» 



232,38? 



2 Sh»at»-3ba0t 1 



r%i 




Google Patent Search 



9 Patent summary 

Potent number 22923B7 
Filing date: Jun 10, 1941 
Issue date: Aug 1 1 , 1942 

More aboul this patent 



& Patent sections 

Abstract 

[ Description 
i Claims 

B Search within this patent 

I Go I 



http://www.qooqle.com/patents 



Blog Search: Google Blog Search is a direct competitor with Technorati , until now 
the big dog on the blog search block. Despite all the chatter about them, blogs are 
still kind of mysterious and confusing in part because there are lots of things called 
blogs that don't fit the earlier definition. Blogs originally referred to on-line personal 
journals, often updated daily, but now everything using RSS or Atom (XML formats 
for distributing newsfeeds) seems to be considered a blog. Therefore, blog search 
engines generally restrict themselves to indexing and searching for anything that 
uses a site feed. Google Blog Search is no exception. The new Google Blog Search 
FAQ says, "The goal of Blog Search is to include every blog that publishes a site 
feed (either RSS or Atom)." [emphasis added] This means that Google Blog Search 
defines "blog" as any site with an XML site feed, and that is fine as long as we know 
what we're getting. However, Google Blog Search is apparently excluding feeds from 
news sources to try to prevent overlap between Google News and Blog Search. 



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Keep in mind that Google Blog Search only indexes the site feed, not the full 
content at the website that originated the feed. 

Google Blog Search indexes feeds dating back to January 2000. Also, one of the big 
advantages of the XML format is that it, unlike HTML, includes date/time data, which 
means you can use Google Blog Search to find information from a specific day or a 
range of dates. Google Blog Search will also enable users to search entire blogs or 
specific posts. 

Some of the Google Search operators work in Google Blog Search and it has its 
own unique operators, too, as the About Google Blog Search page explains: 

All of the standard Google Search operators are supported in Blog Search. These 
include: 

> link: [very useful in finding who's linking to whom] 

> site: 

> intitle: 

Additionally, Blog Search supports the following new operators of its own: 

> inblogtitle: 

> inposttitle: 

> inpostauthor: 

> blogurl: 

For example, a search such as [mandolin inpostauthor:Graham] will show you posts 
about mandolins written by people named Graham. Note that you can also use the 
Advanced Search option to achieve the same effect. 

In addition, you can restrict your results to any one or any combination of 35 
languages using the Advanced Search option. Google Blog Search will also give 
users the option of subscribing to the blogs in the news aggregator of your choice. 

The main drawback of Google Blog Search seems to be that it indexes only the 
content of feeds and often what is syndicated in a newsfeed is very sparse. 
Technorati wins hands down on this point because it does do full text searching. 
Google may eventually decide it needs to do so as well. After all, this is a beta 
version. 



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Google Blog Search 
About Google Blog Search 



http://bloqsearch.QOogle.com/ 
http://www.google.com/help/about blogsearch.html 



Directory: Google's web directory uses the Open Directory Project's collection and 
its own search technology to rank the sites based upon "importance" (which usually 
means popularity). Google Directory lets users limit searches to a specific directory 
category. For example, if I search the directory for the keyword [afghan], Google 
presents two categories: 



Directory %*3 



Preferences Directory Help 



Google Search 



Web | Images | Groups 



!eiated categories 



Directory 



Regional > Asia > Afghanistan 

Recreation > Pets > Dogs > Breeds > Hound Group ? Afghan Hound 



SEEMS! 



Google Directory for afghan. 



Results 1 - 100 of about 14,700,000. Search took 0.45 seconds. 



By selecting the Regional > Asia > Afghanistan category, I have the option to search 
only in this category, thus focusing my search and avoiding irrelevant results. The 
Google Directory contains over 1.5 million urls. 



Google Directory 



http://directorv.qoogle.com/ 



Video Search: As of the first of the year 2007, Google Video began to include 
results from YouTube , which it purchased in October 2006. For now, when users 
click on the YouTube results, they are taken to the YouTube website. YouTube 
videos do not appear on the Google video homepage, only in search results where 
they are recognizable from their address. 

Google Video Search is a way to search and view TV shows, including news, 
entertainment, and more, for free. The search includes not only national networks, 
such as ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN, but also local programming and shows from 
around the world. How does this work? Google Video indexes the closed captioning 
of TV shows so that when you search for a keyword, it finds that word in the 
captioning transcripts and displays a list of the shows with that keyword. In most 
cases, you can only see still shots of the show, but in a few instances, you will be 
able to view the entire broadcast. This is a very new Google option, and it is sure to 
expand and improve over time. 



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One of the best features of Google Video is that you do not need any special 
software to view the videos, only Macromedia Flash Player, which is a free browser 
plug-in that most users already have on their computers. 

Google Video offers users the opportunity to rank video using a system of one to five 
stars for users to rate videos as well as the ability to add labels (tags to describe a 
video) and comments. 






Gousie 

VideoO "'" 



Web linages Video News Maps [.■es k ; pp inoie >. 
liran Search £4hj>M±&yk 



Nevvl Upload your videos 



Top 100 Comedy Music videos Movies Soorls Animation TV shows Google Picks 






\tm ■ ^**». 




One hour video about Iran 



16.265 views - 



| 58 mm 23 so-c - Api 19. 2006 

i 




Download for | Windows /Mac Tj 

! 

| This is a one hour video all about li.in 

■< Frjv - Next Video >i 

Ptoylisl - Delail; - From user - Related - 
; Comments "' 1 "'' - Flag as inappropriate 

I Continuous Playback: 0[-i - OFF 

One hour video about 

Sran 
53 mm 



L»;'s Bomb Irani 

4tvs 

3 rni; 

Woman Police in Iran 



T 5f*Y | 4tvs Productions 



n - 




There are some of the operators that work in Google Video: 

title: enter the name of a TV show on one of the stations Google Video 
indexes, with or without keywords. For example: 

[title: nature] or [title:newshour robotics] 

genre: enter news, comedy, music, animation with or without a keyword; I 
recommend referring to the complete list of genres on the Advanced Search 
page. 

type: enter sports, music_video, movie with or without a keyword. 



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duration: short (< 4 min.), medium (4-20 min.), or long (> 20 min.) with or 
without a keyword. 

is:free or is:forsale determines whether or not the search finds free or for 
purchase videos. 

language: limits the search to videos in a specific language using the same 
digraphs as main Google search. 

Google Video http://video.google.com/ 

Google Scholar 

In November 2004, Google introduced a new tool called Google Scholar. Here's how 
the Google site describes it: "Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for 
scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, 
abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research. Use Google 
Scholar to find articles from a wide variety of academic publishers, professional 
societies, preprint repositories and universities, as well as scholarly articles available 
across the web." Moreover, "Google Scholar... automatically analyzes and extracts 
citations and presents them as separate results, even if the documents they refer to 
are not online. This means your search results may include citations of older works 
and seminal articles that appear only in books or other offline publications." Google 
Scholar not only indexes journal articles, dissertations, and technical reports, it also 
indexes books, which means you can use Google's new Library Search (OCLC's 
WorldCat search) to locate the book in a local library or find a place to purchase the 
book online. 

Although a number of scholarly search sites and tools already exist — e.g., CiteSeer, 
DOAJ, ArXiv, and even Google's own partnership with IEEE — the fact that the 
premier search engine has branched off into scholarly search is obviously 
significant. Google Scholar searches across a far wider range of sources than any 
other publicly available scholarly search tool currently available. Users should be 
able to read at least an abstract of articles that require registration and access the 
full text if they or their institution have a subscription for the content. The best thing 
about Google Scholar is that it gives users the range, power, and flexibility of 
Google. As far as I can tell, all the types of Google syntax — site:, inurl:, filetype:, 
etc. — work with Google Scholar. You can limit your search to file type using either 
the filetype: or ext: syntax, e.g., [ext:pdf] (filetype: and ext: work interchangeably). 
The most useful addition to Google Scholar is probably the new author: syntax 
(which, by the way, already existed in Google Groups search). 

As you can see from this query, Google Scholar searches and retrieves scholarly 
references from many types of sources and also provides a handy "Cited by" link 
that shows all the pages referring to the original work. 



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Google 



I author: candy "artificial intelligence" 
Scholar V*? a:/ 



Scholar Results 1 - 14 of14 for authoi:candy"aitificial intelligence". (0.09. seconds) 

ibook] Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach - Library Search - Web Search 

S Russell, P Norvig, JF Camly, M Malik, DD ... - Citedjw 1S5S 
Englewood Clis. WJ: Prentice Hall. 1 995 

[citation] Creative design of the Lotus bicycle: implications for knowledge support systems research - Web Search 

L Candy, E Edmonds - Cjie_d_byj:0 
Design Studies, 1996 

Support for collaborative design: Agents 3nd emergence 

EA Edmonds, L Camly, R Jones, B Soufi - C : iTed_by_:!8 

... 10 Jones, RM and Edmonds, EA A framework for negotiation. In CSCW and 

Artificial intelligence, J. Connolly and EA Edmonds, Eds. ... 

Communications oflhe ACM, 1994 - portal.acm.org - portal, acm.org 

Issues in the Design of Expert Systems for Business 

E Edmonds, L Cattily, P Slattsr. S Lunn - Ci!"L4_.b_l_l 

... INDEX TERMS Primary Classification: I /Computing Methodologies 1.2 ARTIFICIAL 
INTELLIGENCE 1.2.1 Applications and Expert Systems Subjects: Office automation. ... 
Expert Systems: Human Issues - poital.acm.org 

{pop] Introducing creativity to cognition 

L Candy, E Edmonds - Cited by 3 

... fortunate to welcome. To anyone who has even heard of Artificial Intelligence, 

Marvin Minsky needs no introduction. In his forthcoming ... 

Proceedings of the third conference on Creativity & ... , 1999 - por1ai.acm.org - porial.acm.orci 

Google Scholar also offers an advanced search option. It certainly simplifies 
searching for articles by author, articles published in a specific publication, and 
words in the articles' title. However, as with most date searches, forget it. I searched 
for articles about chemistry published in the year 2020 and found three. Either 
Google knows something about the future that we don't or their software is 
misreading some number as a year. The advanced Google Scholar search also let 
users limit their search by publication. This is somewhat misleading because the 
"publication" can be a citation, article, or book, although there is no way to tell 
Google Scholar to distinguish among these choices. Also, the publication searches 
are imperfect; a search limited to the publication Nature also returns results from 
Nature Medicine, for example. 

During 2006, Google Scholar added a new feature that "will make it easier for 
researchers to keep up with recent research... It's not just a plain sort by date, but 
rather we try to rank recent papers the way researchers do, by looking at the 
prominence of the author's and journal's previous papers, how many citations it 
already has, when it was written, and so on. Look for the new link on the upper right 
for 'Recent articles 1 — or switch to 'All articles' for the full list." 40 



40 Dejan Perkovic, "Keeping up with recent research," Google Biogspot, 20 April 2006, 
< http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2006/04/keepinq-up-with-recent-research.html > (31 October 2006). 

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Also new for 2006 was a related search option: "For every Google Scholar search 
result, we try to automatically determine which articles in our repository are most 
closely related to it. You can see a list of these articles by clicking the 'Related 
Articles' link that appears next to each result. The list of related articles is ranked 
primarily by how similar these articles are to the original result, but also takes into 
account the relevance of each paper." 41 

Peter Jacso has called Google Scholar's quality into question in his excellent and 
thorough analysis of Google Scholar's citation ability. Jacso, Professor of Library 
and Information Science, University of Hawaii, concluded that "Google Scholar (GS) 
does a really horrible job matching cited and citing references." 42 There are 
numerous other scholarly citation search options (CiteSeer, ISI Highly Cited , and 
Scirus) that, for now at least, are superior to Google Scholar. 

However, I would not count Google Scholar out in the long run. Google Scholar is 
yet another example of what are called "vertical search engines," that is, search 
services that focus on indexing and searching specialized data sources. Vertical 
search has fundamentally replaced the portal concept as a more targeted, less 
manpower-intensive, and more cost effective means of getting the right information 
to the right people at the right time. 

Google Scholar http://scholar.google.com/ 

Advanced Google Scholar Search 

http://scholar.gooqle.com/advanced scholar search 

Google Trends 

Google unveiled Google Trends in May 2006 and set a lot of people thinking about 
its potential utility. Google Trends is a new technology that lets users see how many 
searches have been performed on one to five terms and where those searches 
originate. 

"Google Trends analyzes a portion of Google web searches to compute how 
many searches have been done for the terms you enter relative to the total 
number of searches done on Google over time. We then show you a graph with 
the results — our search-volume graph — plotted on a linear scale. 



41 Luiz Barroso, Distinguished Engineer, "Exploring the scholarly neighborhood," Google Blogspot, 
22 August 2006, < http://qooqlebloq.bloqspot.com/2006/08/explorinq-scholarlv-neiqhborhood.html > 
(10 October 2006). 

42 Peter Jacso, "Google Scholar and The Scientist" Peter Jacso's Review Extras, October 2005, 
< http://www2.hawaii.edu/-iacso/extra/qs/ > (31 October 2006). 



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Located just beneath our search-volume graph is our news-reference-volume 
graph. This graph shows you the number of times your topic appeared in Google 
News stories. When Google Trends detects a spike in the volume of news stories 
for a particular term, it labels the graph and displays the headline of an 
automatically selected Google News story written near the time of that spike. 
Currently, only English-language headlines are displayed, but we hope to support 
non-English headlines in the future. Below the search and news volume graphs, 
Google Trends displays the top cities, regions, and languages for the first term 
you entered." 43 

There are some very important limitations to Google Trends, however. First of all, 
the feedback provided by Google Trends is based on a portion of Google's 
searches, not all of them. Google Trends seeks to provide "insights into broad 
search patterns," not detailed and verifiable data about searches. Second, "as a 
Google Labs product, it is still in the early stages of development," meaning it is 
prone to error because "several approximations are used when computing your 
results," but Google does not say what these are. 44 

Here's a look at Google Trends' results for the query comparing search terms ["north 
korea",dprk] for all regions and all years. Note that in Google Trends, you can 
compare terms by using a comma to separate them. 



Go-Q£$e'l> 



north koreo u .dprk 

au can compare searches tiy Stboarating wiih ( ontrr.as. 



Trend history 

®"nmi?i kftre.-T 0<t|)ik 




J Cilies I Regions Languages 



Top cities iniim giizadj 

1. Seoul, South Korea 

2. Washington. DC, USA 

3. Seattle. WA. USA 

4. Austin. TX, USA 

5. New York, NY. USA 



All Regions Jr|'j Allye^ars i£] 



;Aj DPRK confirms train explosion 
Xinhua ■ Apr 24 2004 

; Bj DPRK to suspend participation in six-party talks far 
"indefinite period" 
People's Daily Onlirr* ■ Feb 10 2005 

[c_i. US has "good discussions" with DPRK, says Hill 
Xinhua Sep 16 2005 

[Dj US not to atlack or invade DPRK 
Pe3ceJoum3lism,com - Sep 19 2005 



!_Ej China, OPRK mark 45th anniversary of friendship treaty 
Xinhua Jul ID 2006 

UN Security Council unanimously adopts resolution on 

DPRK missile launches 

Psnple's Daily Online - Jul 16 2006 






43 "About Google Trends," Google Trends, 2006, < http://www.qoogle.com/intl/en/trends/about.htmj - 
(31 October 2006). 

44 Google Trends. 



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Despite all its limitations, I am intrigued by the potential this tool offers. For example, 
if I were looking back over the past couple of years for a very obscure term, I would 
definitely use Google Trends to see if I could discern anything useful from this data. 



Google Trends 



http://www.QQQQle.com/trends 



Google Guides 

Did you know that Google publishes "a variety of reviewer's guides to selected 
Google products on the Google Press Center" designed for journalists who are 
reviewing these products? However, the guides are very well done and include a lot 
of useful set-up and user instructions. 



Google Guides 



http://www.google.com/press/guides.html 



V Web Tip 

Everything isn't on the Internet 
(or it's not free)! 

Contrary to popular opinion, everything is not on the Internet. In 
fact, much of the kind of information you are used to working with 
is not and never will be on the Internet. Unrealistic expectations 
about the kinds of information you may find on the Internet can 
lead to frustration and wasted time and effort. A general rule of 
thumb: the more sensitive, rare, or expensive the information, the 
less likely it is to be on the Internet. Also, much valuable data on 
the Internet requires payment . 



■ .- ; ■■ 



» 



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Google Hacks 



Google hacks — a term usually associated with the book of the same name published 
by O'Reilly Publishing — are tips, tricks, techniques, and scripts that make Google 
more powerful and useful. Some are extraordinarily simple, such as being conscious 
of word order, while others are either so complicated ("scraping the code") or trivial 
(Googlisms) that I doubt many of you will ever need them. 

Because there is so much interest in Google hacks, I thought I would catalog links to 
the best sites on the web for finding more information about Google hacks as well as 
bring the best Google hack techniques together in one place. 

First, a word about Google APIs, which are used to create many Google hacks. API 
stands for Application Programming Interface. Google offers its own free APIs 
developers' kit, which provides documentation and example code for using the 
Google Web APIs service. 45 That's fine if you are in a situation that permits 
downloading, installing, and running code from the web, but that is not always an 
option. However, many Google hacks either do not require an API key or, if they do, 
are available, thanks to the kindness of strangers, on websites. 

Best Google Hack Websites 

The Official (but not the best): Google hacks from O'Reilly . Taken directly from the 
book of the same name by Tara Calishain and Rael Dornfest, the complete list of 
100 hacks is here, but only a few have details about how to use them. 

Google Hacks http://hacks.oreilly.eom/pub/ht/2 

Researchbuzz.com: Google Hacks Archive . Much better source of Google hacks 
from Tara Calishain's website. Google hacks are listed by date and you can search 
the site. 

Researchbuzz http://www.researchbuzz.org/archives/gooQle hacks.shtml 

Google API FAQs . Everything you need to know about Google's API service. 
Remember, this process involves registration, downloading software, and other 
interaction with Google, so it's not for everyone. 

Google API FAQS http://www.google.com/apis/api_faq.html 



45 "As of December 5, 2006, we are no longer issuing new API keys for the SOAP Search API. 
Developers with existing SOAP Search API keys will not be affected." Google SOAP Search API 
< http://code. qooale.com/apis/soapsearch/ > (20 February 2007). 



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Stagqernation: Three Google APIs . 

> API Proximity Search (GAPS) "uses the Google API to search Google for two 
search terms that appear within a certain distance from each other on a page. 
It does this by using a seldom-discussed Google feature: within a quoted 
phrase, * can be used as a wildcard meaning 'any word.'" This is a very 
useful tool] it gives users the option of searching for two terms within one, 
two, or three words of each other in any order or a specific order. 
http://www.staqqernation.com/cqi-bin/qaps.cqi 



®#e©®89[nation] 

[SECOND JOCKEY 111 A ONE-HORSE TOWN] 



[code] [writing] [noted] 
[texts] [latest] [about] 



I COCle] '. Pl"gtns for M<»v*bl<* Type ( (JAP', j GARB CI | GAV/SH 



Google AM Proximity Search (GAPS) 



Read Me 



Find | | within 1 1 k^j woid(s) of | 

| in that_order j^J | Sort by title jy Additional terms: [^ 

Show ] All i^l results, with up to 1 10 ^r] from each query G Filter each query 
I License key (optional) 



^Search | 



If you have your own Google API license hey. we mould appreciate your entering 
it here. B will be used only for the searches you do with this script, and it wrill not 
be stoned anywhere or used in any other way. 



> API Web Search By Host (GAWSH) "uses the Google API to search Google 
for a query string, and returns a list of the web hosts found in the set of 
results. You can then expand any of these hosts and display only the results 
from that host... Clicking on the triangle to the left of a host will perform the 
same query again, but restricted to that host (using Google's 
"site:www.foo.com" query syntax), and expand the listing to display the first 
10 results." I have to admit I find this particular script more confusing than 
useful. I prefer to use Google's site: syntax, but others may find this API to 
their liking. 

http://www.stagqernation.com/qawsh/ 

> API Relation Browsing Outliner (GARBQ) uses the Google API to search 
Google for pages that are either related to (using the related: keyword) or 
linked to (using the link: keyword) that URL. Does not add a great deal to 
what Google can do already, beyond offering the option to view the results 
as snippets or urls. 

http://www.staqqernation.com/qarbo/ 

Google Rankings . This site contains a number of different options created as search 
engine optimization tools for website creators and maintainers. However, some of 
these Google tools are what you might call "dual use technologies." 



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> Keyword Density . Probably not something everyone needs everyday, but a 
pretty neat tool. It lets you enter a url, then see which are the words and 
phrases that address uses most in the form of a detailed report on their 
numbers and density. Although it was designed as a search engine 
optimization tool, I can see its utility as a rudimentary traffic analysis tool. 



Google Rankings 



http://www.qooglerankings.com/kdindex.php 



■\Sf. 




OcCXftt Raw^ 



Enter ifra domain or URL ofvgjjj v/ebstl? :q see which are I he wurds 
arcc phras.es ti uses, most, see 3 detailed Jsport sn their timbers- and densrl? 

iJSl erf your website: hirp://T™ 
Ignore words o/F" characters iniemgth or less. | Minimum occurrences; f~ 



Include the following: 

F include Page fjjle 

F Inc&icfe M&ta tag Keywords 

Flnr tude Meta tag Description 



Word Fitters 
F Use our default s;o& word list 
£ Ignore the follow na word fist 
r tncKide cmty she following word fist 
Separate words by a spacs or pus one wort) p# lin& 



piwfj^e,ir^j 



> Mass Keyword Search : This tool lets you enter from two to ten keywords and 
a url to see where (if anywhere) the site ranks in Google vis-a-vis those 
keywords. The tool only searches up to the top 1000 Google sites. This could 
be useful to see if an unusual term is found at a specific site. 

http://www.qooqlerarikinqs.com/mkindex.php 

> Mass Domain Search : With this tool, you can enter up to 10 different urls 
(domains) for the same keyword and check the position of the websites in 
Google up to the top 1000 sites. This could be useful to see where an 
unusual term ranks in a number of different sites at once. 

http://www.qooqlerankinqs.com/mdindex.php 

FindForward . If you love Google, you will probably find Philipp Lenssen's creation 
very useful. Lenssen has done Google one better by creating a simple way to power 
search Google with the help of the Google Web APIs. All users have to do is to enter 



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a query (FindForward supports all basic and advanced Google search options and 
syntax) and select the type of search desired from the pulldown list. As you can see 
from the list below, there are many possible types of searches available. Try the 
Search Grid option, in which you can enter up to five keywords to create a grid 
showing inter-relationships of the terms. Try [iran korea nuclear terror], for example. 
Then there is the potentially dangerous Just Files option for searching website 
directories that were (probably) not meant to be browsed. 



Find Forward 



http://www.findforward.com/ 



— FIND-* 
FORWARD 



The uber engine. About. 



[Wildcard Word jj 


Find 


Image Direct ^ 




Amazon 




Chat Search 




Search Grid 




Tags 




Get Questions 




Global 




Just Files 




Meta Search 




Backlinks 




Directory 




Old Pages 




Lucky First 




Randomize 




Ask Question 




1900-1950 




1950-2000 




Wildcard Phrase 




Grow Word 





Faaan Finder's Google Ultimate Interface . A useful and friendly Google interface that 
allows users to maximize Google power without learning the syntax that it deserves 
to be on this list. 

http://www.faganfinder.com/gooqle.html (for Internet Explorer) 
http://www.faqanfinder.com/qoogle2.html (for Mozilla browsers) 

Soople . A Google interface that makes Google's advanced features so easy to use 
it's amazing. The main page offers lots of query boxes that enable users to run 
complex Google queries without knowing anything about Google. But I think the best 
Soople tool is the calculator page. Did you know Google has a very powerful 
calculator function as a basic part of the search engine? Most people don't, and 
even if they did, they wouldn't use it because it is not what I would call intuitive. 
Therefore, the Soople calculator interface to the Google calculator is a godsend for 
the mathematically impaired such as yours truly. 



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SEARCH GOOGLE 

Mam Page 



460UT SQOPU 



Calculator- 



TranslatQ Phone & Location Superfilter 



Smart calculator (explain) 



Calculate! 



T*p: Convert many measures/units 
Like ' 15 va'ds in me tars ' 



[enter number \*z\ jenler number 
Calculate 



K Trigonometric functions texp UirQ 
| Smus 3 |i^le7e~rHJmber Calculate! 



Note; numbars aro aistimed bo- be radians 
rrth^rvise type 'decrees afef the n^mker 



In (logarithm hasg e) (gxpta in) 

1 [enter a numbe< Calculate! 



Find th e remainder aft er d ivision (explain) 

Divide.- (sfitaf e number ay: | enter e number 
Find the femaindgr [ 



iO 



Quick unit converter (explain) 

|Nunte ^oiooseurtit 






?n: Choose unit 



Convert 



10/ pc> Mutate the p ercentage of ...Jgxpiam) 

IToF" 



V 



enter a number percent of; |enter a number 
Calculate 



# root of... (expUian) 

| Choose roci ^J jemerantimbef Calculaigl 



1/ k 

j [/ F 



loo, (logarithm base 1U) (explain) 

entet o f^um ber CalculoAel 



Choose: determine the number of woys of 

ChOOSJng (expla in) 

| enter e number choose | enter a number 
Calculate I 



Soople Calculator 



http://www.soople.com/index. php?sub=calculator 



Compare Google Results From Different Countries . This is a valuable and much 
needed new tool. This site lets you run one query simultaneously against two 
different Google locations. What is more, it also lets you choose between two 
different Google datacenters. For example, if you select "www.google.com" as a 
datacenter, the query could go to a number of different access points. It is probably 
better to pick a specific Google datacenter. The site also lists many but not all local 
Google domains. If you select a local domain, the search and results' language will 
default to that country's language. However, if you specify a local Google domain, 
the tool may use any existing datacenter. 

It is not really as hard to use this tool as I've made it sound. You can easily play 
around with this tool and see what works for you. Here's an example of a search for 
a Spanish term in the US using the generic "www.google.com" and the local Google 
and datacenter for Spain. The results are quite different. 



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Google Geotargeted World-Wide Search across Data centers and Countries 

Query [el^enTz 



Location 1; [Uniiec S'.atss 3 

Oatac enter i | nviw cicogls com j*j 



Location 2: 



I (iocs!) 



Datacemer ;? | .^w/googfe 5? 



"3 
"3 



Gougle 



Wih tm^K^ WW*" f^y^ f^.^ flHwe 



favSfOI 



Sfeatn . 
Seer 



w«t> 



Ri^fc 1 - »*( *0* SI .700.00: lur ilvW** [B»tiM!Bgi) <& 30 f*!«rt4«) 



%n.jf1r 4m 'Mf-n' 5**1*r> fcfrt,<>; *ft|l nun ft In < 
.- .« n\-J<.Mf .'.T.- . I. 



'»'» Yi'iW4KIiJr J':J£-.T" A* •" 1 i ■-■'"■ . , ■ 

cjAd tim It* frfi. odd ,J»^ (n*^fc*rjlUr- or Ih* hvg, rarvj* 

'«» f.!>: ■ rj>*;f".^. "ii:^.tin;;^3'it-T. •» .' -->■ >■ - - '"v. 

Uij m»vk -.romtM «iw tijr* un-y ror l+^*ar i;nwsi .. 

— ■*■<,<■ ' r;--t ., > /v'if- ■ ,\i - ■ '^ .- ..7. Jl_j "■."/.. 

t*i: 5rav,i*(vif if fl« Ibhh4 p> J»«sr "dft^ie- C. Ivy*: r-i ttt pitai-gir^iS^r . 
**■ vi <•■■:;- r; '■ k."- . 'n«- ■j'.v:: '^ " ': >>S - i 



Google p 



Web tmatqss k f „MgS Q^eclcii 



;erca" *•" a tola la *ytr>t) <^ p.'i'j'nf-sencatalo *" 
Ef,panya 

Web Rebuttals, 1 - 20 d'dptOKimadameTO 30.500.0QO pei a alviiia? {0,19 s&g 



a-a Wares .com -Home 

Atv<iiez Ptimera empiesa espansls env»j»ia cur tnlefrel ds cszs, pesca, 
golf, nauttca, ^^tilscion, buceo v esqui Todos los productos a! fr=jor ptecia 
v. " (1 -.tt.Mfei v:o- ,-''- '2k - L _. __. r ;-=■ :i,-.[ t..i - y _'■ hcL- 1 .. ' 
TAnt<Ui VP ■ tv.-/'*' i- .. v.i-J" _■ >__".'- 1 . . .on. php'^p:- £,i ■ > - 1 2 
SU Pj-J h'iCJQ • ^.-w .i-j'^jroC t:0"f!'', . : -OtM-trp^pl ix ,., ;'."■ 13 






Alvarez Guitar 



Acajfl;c ar>d elecliic gyf:3rs Banjo-s and manilcfins 



1SMAELALVARE Z.COM 



-..J. 



1SMAELALVAREZ COM * D'ARiO ' 

W hermano Piimgo en cl tctc-d-ario de Tv-'ci A^al rr;j hpimano 

Ao:aftJo Ve\$z FL PfTIHOO en el Med'sno & leleitsion 

espanois ... 

wv-r 3*-!olvaier tDnv'dw--ir f - 5ik ■ 



<iiic- A(uar«7 Hnn'iA P^trif. 



Using Google to search for terms using non-Latin character and/or diacritical marks 
remains problematic. I recommend that you put a plus sign in front of any non- 
English term when using this tool. While the Google geographic comparison tool is 
imperfect, it is a useful and interesting way to see how Google handles queries 
differently depending upon geographic region. 

Compare Google results for different geographic locations 

http://ov-oy.eu/qooQle/world/ 

Simply Google . On one page you can see and use pretty much every Google 
search, find most Google sites, link to all the Google blogs, and even locate some 
other search blogs and sites. This really is a useful site. Notice the live bookmarks 
for all the blogs. Google search syntax works fine here (it's just an interface to the 
"real thing"). 



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Google Sites 

Gooole Analytics 


Goocjle Searches 

web r 


IAL ULiL 

Search 


:UNLT 

Google Blogs 

Official GootfeBfca 63 


Goiiole Accounts 


Imaqes 


Seaich 


Adwords API S3 


Goc-cle Abrts 


Groups 1" 


$*ath 


BSooeer Buzz &* 


! 2St££&Lm& 


News 


Seaich 


qaoqj* *$# S3 


p^stn^hsAr^ms 


Local f~ 

bioqs r 
Books r~ 


Search 


SfiffiOkfti&S) 


Goccte Sucaest 


Seauch 


Gaoqie Enterprise S3 


Goocle Sets 


Seaich 


Gooote Mms API H 


Gfc&e$l© Moon 


Seaich 


Gooala Readers* 


Cecclfc Ma.r$ 


Mars 


Seaich 


G^aJer ^saiircKcfl 


5&S£b&£$£l£& 


Schorr 


Search 


S^akMiS3 


Gooale Current TV 


Video 


Search 


Goaate..VHfettS 


Gccale Zeitaeist 


MUSiC 


Search 


Inside AdSense S3 




Feeds r 


Seaich 


Inside Ad Words 63 


Google Fun 


Base 


$$#ch 


ln$de DesKtoD S3 


ftsr^Ei&x 


Directory [ 
Finance \~ 
Catalogs [~~ 


Seaich 


Itwidft s ? temar> S 


EiJKiULJSLflDk 


Search 




^cer<base Gooate 


Seaich 


Other Blogs 


Goocle GuId 


Answers 


Seaich 


Goodie Eloaoscor>edSJ 


'jtccle Rom^ce 


History r 
Bookmarks H 
Linu* P 

Microsoft f™ 


Seaich 


Search Enoine Watch 




Seaich 


Iodide G^oole atf 


Downloads 


Seaich 


M$N$*ftrtf*0 


Desktop 


Search 


Xaim^&^sS 


Earth 


Seaich 


John Battel's Searchbteaww 


Talk 


M0VJ6S [movies 


Seaich 




Toolbar 


Definitions [define 
Weather |weat.hw 
bbc.CO.uk ]site:bbccouk 
Hie Answer |lhe answer to life, Jbe univers 


Seaich 




Video Player 


Seaich 




&&&M 


Search 




Pac< 


Seaich 





One thing that I found really interesting behind the concept of this page is that it has 
been "de-googlized." What does that mean? Well, "googlizing" a home page means 
stripping it down basically to one thing, in Google's case, that one thing is search. 
The critics of googlization point out that while that worked great for Google, it rarely 
works most of the time for the simple reason that most websites are trying to do 
something more than just one thing. In fact, "the experience of using Google is not 
the experience of using any other site. People go to Google to search the entire 
web. People go to other sites for other reasons and to do other things, sometimes 
many other things. Furthermore, Google is not simple! It just hides its complexity 
behind that plain homepage. 



Simply Google 



http://www.usabilityviews.com/simply qooqle.htm 



46 



Jared Spool, "Home Page Googlization," User Interface Engineering Brainsparks.com, April 6, 
2006, < http://www.uie.com/brainsparks/2006/04/05/home-paqe-qooqlization/ > (30 October 2006). 



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Google Related Image Search . The ever-creative Philipp Lenssen has developed a 
new tool that looks for related images. It is a small PHP5 script that is "first 
screenscraping Google Sets, and then it's screenscraping Google Images (once per 
term found in the set, which is why this takes some seconds)." < http://bloq.outer- 
court.com/forum/68971 .html > I have to say it is mostly a novelty at this point, but the 
results are interesting and could potentially be useful. Here are the results for the 
query [solar system, milky way]: 



Fiftcl Rented Images 



Term (like brrw or brad p> tx) : 
|*oloi system* milky *w/ Subffhl 



Pt&SullS for i:d3r System, /r./lky w#y: 





A>troiiumy 




Cosmctlnrjy 



Sill.* ^v-l' '■ 



A^lr^fUy^us 




fiiilb Astruoi.iuy 




t-'l.-ttw-'rctKi 









/ 



yhtfti'vatoititf*; 




-.unbent t.ifjhJ.*. 



«*stfef!lttw^ 







Ablnjl>k(!tj(.{y 



Notice that you can search for up to two terms separated by a comma. That means 
that you can search for [solar system, milky way] but a search for three single terms, 
e.g., [mercury, pluto, mars] may return strange results at this time. In any event, this 
is an interesting and unique tool, so if you need to search for related images, this is 
the place to start. 



Google Find Related Images 



http://bloo.outer-court.com/related/ 



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The Best Individual Google Hacks 

While not the only useful and interesting Google hacks, these are among the most 
valuable and less well-known techniques every serious searcher needs to know. 

How Google Parses Queries . Google is sensitive to the number and order of query 
terms. If you enter the query [windows explorer] without quotation marks, Google will 
first try to find all the webpages that contain the phrase ["windows explorer 3 '] Google 
will search: 

> First, for keywords as one long phrase. 

> Second, for webpages containing all the keywords with the greatest 
adjacency (closest together). 

> Third, for webpages containing all the keywords, regardless of where they 
appear on the webpage. 

Word Order Matters . Google gives more weight to the first term in a query, so put 
the most important search term(s) first Try these two queries and you'll see how 
different the results are: [new york city] vs. [city york new] 

Repetition, Repetition, Repetition . If you keep getting irrelevant hits, you can try 
repeating a keyword that will be emphasized by Google, such as [Java coffee coffee 
coffee], which cuts down considerably on the number of results about the 
programming language. 

Boilerplate Words or Phrases Yield Gold . Used in combination with keywords, 
standardized words or phrases can produce very useful results from Google. 
Whether it's "company proprietary," "not for distribution," or a copyright disclaimer, 
these are the kinds of identifying query terms that searchers need to look for. Tara 
Calishain sites the example of using "copyright * the new york times company" plus 
keywords to locate not only articles at The New York Times website but those 
reprinted elsewhere. 

Disabling Word Stemming . The problem with Google's word stemming is that 
Google does not give users the option to turn it off, which can frustrate users trying 
to perform precise searches. However, if you put a plus (+) sign in front of a 
term, this will disable word stemming. 

Searching on Stop Words . There are two ways to force Google to search on stop 
words such as the, a, an, I. The first is to include stop words in phrases enclosed 
by double-quotes, e.g., ["to be or not to be"]. The second way to force Google to 
search for stop words is to put a plus sign (+J in front of them, e.g., [+who +what 
+when]. 



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Google Wildcard . Google has tinkered with its wildcard and it is more useful but still 
woefully inadequate. The Google wildcard (*) can only be used to replace a term or 
terms in a query. It cannot be used to truncate search terms, e.g., [child*] to find 
children, childhood, etc., and it cannot be used to find alternate spellings of terms, 
e.g., [kazak*stan]. That being said, the Google wildcard is not useless. The wildcard 
search is very good at helping you do "fill in the blank" searches, and it works great 
not only in English but in other languages as well. Here are a few examples of "fill in 
the blank" searches using the wildcard (there is no need to capitalize because 
Google ignores uppercase): 



Google 



Wet [r03H£-> SiS^SS News Ei£Silli \-SSS. JJiSiSL 1 : 



Web 



Results 1 - 8 of about 11 foi " baliiniqig is the ' city ol "Bitter w5h SafeM^tcli on. (0.65 seconds) 



T*$ Find map* fcy Pitching for a ^Lied address wth city at rip code 

mti • '2nd annus! kgsggich Syiroosmm : OVERSEW & GENERAL INFCftMAtlQN 
eairitnoie Is 'lie Chaim Cfty nf Moiylaml While ait&netag i.v emfawec. you^i'i 
b4 staying in l he f-^m of downiovrfi. SaUtiWiffc's Inntsr Hasbor ... 

,i A (.li'c:;v ':'Jj''-tif:i-V'>.--;!^v.h?rr.| t, ■ : '- _. ...-'.; :■.-< _;. 

MarVand Mortoaoe Specta >sts com - fieai E sigte baterciorg- 

The city orBitlilniAie is (lis taiipesi ctty In .ill of M.ityl.irnl BalJinstjrg ;& one 
of the loading cities in t/arfe sr.e townoicc in M3fylw?d as welL ... 

■. < YA'-.'"i-i-7l'j"fJ^iviiCvEii..[...ct-ili..u- u-ir ■'•.■ ' _<= .'.*:a_b v'.-rnnc- iris- 1 Z< ■ •■'. : : ,-.i . : r ■ .■ f ■ j_ 

Travel cempare prices, reviews and buvsiNexTao- Pnce - Review 
Cfropjivgr. Shopping foi Products, Mqigag'JS.Tta-.^l. Oars 8, Mote.. All Calorie*. 

Maga:in«, Travei. - . A^iGTWtive, Baby. Books ... 

^f-.< '-'':- J conv~i>^i .'.^n.V2]7.3^'3f:-'E! >.;.: ■■.-o! f?Ji ■".. ■,]_• .:• :> j ■; l ,.•. 



M iiy;jnd Va :ascn Ro-itd's I Ho:eit 

Bjllimoie » by fai Ihe most exciting ciiy o( Maiyl.ind, rt proves ihs Cki}k« 
firtd Ravens foi sporv/.g ev.ertainmeni arid There is Ksrbo.*pl.ice wtuch (6 ... 
avav'* - -.? iv- coriv'-'Vj" r •'"ml .?7s ■ ■.L„J.._" * "- ■' '^' - ■ ■ - 

WD Mo.tQ-acti- Hon*; lo ans - MP Real Estate - Ba;tfogre 

Ihe ctly ol Bjillintoie is the Iniqesl city fit all of Maiylanil Bafttm&re is the 
leading r.i'v in tiade snrf cxnmsr«;e in Maryland as v/ell ... 



You can use more than one 
wildcard in a search, and the 
wildcard will find more tlian 
one missing term. 



Google 



Web 



Web images G-ajps News rtccole 
f * 9 o preside* *e do B^sil " 



Local j 
S«eich 






Results 1 - 100 of about T17 for " ' e o piesidente do Br.-Mil " (jQ.28 sesswd;) 



Usftr.t alk.F3tn<:k-br - Vvikurtedia C'^nimors - 1 ■ , . .- , ?i-., i.,r(-. i 

Luld a o i»ie*M4rii« *lo Brwil, W*dt 4 fi ji^sidome do Se^'ja? o Goreo 6 o no«r « 

do lugiv om ijLt 5 ei 03 encomraiam (iH^ GoiH) ... 

^rjinrni.siiS.V'i- '>/J .•'.' ^■'•v'k 'J^'.'i^l/''- P-rtiti.K b) 1'iK =. r :. j - S - i- ;,..■«.- 

gtar'iet^ :errd cl -ini-irjo -j .,,.,■.•-;.<. ; ; _. | 

Lul J e o PiesiJenie Jo Bia*il, nao so de brssiletro? que csnrt au voisigm nel?. 
tnas de Icde-* nas N6? esi)e?amos que el* se mar.jft-ste., qu« deix» de iazsf ... 
.v. v *-■ .:lSl , t i ■'. ■. = -tr .. .1 L'f' - jy- - ' -a - : - '" -•: 

PoRirn co? L^tt'.ros - Estectac c<jn br ■ { 'j ■■?= l il lull' i_ I 

0£U3 «juda 3 c»^frf quar ajudar BsmardQ Lopes Lula piesidenteLULA e o presidenre 
ilft Bta^l E'5-Ig ts^a'.rrts^w pelo povt> qi;e q'«t mudan^as ... 



Hie wildcard can be used at 
tlie begjauiing of a plnase. 



•■■Ifli? con'" uV-r> c n«:!3 ■'.'.■ 



: mudan^; 



82 



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UNCLASSIFIED //rOR OIT I G I AL UGC ON L Y 



/*-!% Web [maggs yro-ipa Nfws JLiHSlf ij3fal m t>l F .' , ' 



StfeSeaich :i tff 



o„ l 1 Ad yjrittd Sharon 



Web 



f' 3 £ ? »'cn fa' l nglisii te s u .1 ; -tj-*i Vdu cst? speedy youf search language in P^tejrences 

Yahoo' C-rcuos cfbbhu -nam s^lanno Message? - *- X3 of 2366 - r j : ..i : ,.:.. 

France? Albert EJn&tcIir «.icf<i e« tllm, A'^atts, en Match 14. 1979 , de pr»dr&e J 

humanist_a CM re Send Email, Way 8. 200G ... 

.(;' yroijp- ;, .t>f ^rrvj'5^;(;j.ji',K:jrtnnist/iihfirtomti:^;>i>pyt*A'' :■ ii'-'fTI I'."'*- - ''_' 

Einstein naci* an (Jim Algmania, tr> ie79 >■ omiyro a Estados Ufltfca sn 1933 donde 
fJ ! eciendo tr : PiinccnlOii f*Jut?<a Jtr3«y] on 1955 ... 

■."'V. .',.. ■ •=.:•■!;,! ).'cii. >.',,■; ■'■*ci ; !nUK':-"-'M :&'££•' ASh .._^jj±? • L^i..!^ 

f £! ^£^n.^l-J^iajps ■ ( ■ «=«'*'* '■ . . - 1 

'E«iis>ico slerr^r.- vnencano Altsrt EitvEieiu. waw a\ AleuitWia, el U de ms:io 
de *379 y n-urc e^ Prmcelon. fvjj. et 18 ds 3Dju da 1955. tuntnbuyii mH -.. 



Results 1 - 85 of about 2Wlbi "Einstein itrtdo er> * " (0,03 seconds) 



The wildcard can be used 
at the end of a phrase. 



Stripping the Cached Copy : while Google offers the option to view the cached text 
version of a webpage from the full cached page, there is a Google hack that lets you 
view the cached text version only without having to open the cached page that 
contains images or other non-text data that might be sent back to the original 
website or that might redirect you to another page simply by adding &strip=1 onto 
the end of the url the cached page as follows: 

1. Right-click on the Cached link [in red below] and select Copy link location in 
Mozilla or Copy Shortcut in Internet Explorer. 

2. Paste that location (url) into your browser's address bar Ido not hit return vet il. 

3. Add &strip=1 to the end of the url and hit return. 



/— •* t Web Images Groups News Frooqle Local "*™* 

CjOogle i** 



Search 



Desktop moie » 

Advanced Seaich 



Web 



Results 1 - 100 of about 1.720,000 for tiprk with Safesearch on. (0.21 seconds) 



Official Homepage - Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK ... 

Official Homepage of the Democuitic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK, North Korea) 

www.korea-dpr.com/- 10k - &a ch e rjj_3 1 rn \ja\_ jj age 3_ 

Official Homepage - Pernod Open Link in New Window 
Open Link in New lab 

Bookmark This Link 
5a ve Link Target As... 



KFA Forum - sow - osComj 
More results from www.kore 



DPRK - Democratic People'j i 

Links to news and information abor 

Kim Jong II. 

www kimsott comMl|nk.htm - 12k 

The DPRK 



Bookmark This Page 
Save Pacje As. , . 
Select AH 



Kim II Sung and 



| Properties 

The DPRK side expressed i^wlir'tTrel<reWTtTrrTorafonum on missile tests beyond 
2003 in the spirit ... Chairman of the National Defense Commission, DPRK ... 

www kimsoft.com/20G2AliJik-jp.htrn - 29k - Cjjdied - SjmN'irj-ao^ 



UNCLASSIFIED //FOR OFF I C I AL USE OMUY 



83 



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UNCLASSIFIED //rOR OIT I C I AL UOC ONLY 



This will show the cached version of the page that contains only text: 

mMMBBsmmmammBmMgaeBsaam 



This is G o o g I e's text-only cache of http://www.kor6a-dpr.CDni/ as retrieved on Oct 25 , 2005 04:54:39 GMT. 
G i * n I e's cache is the snapshot that we took of the page as we crawled the web. 



i'he fjdyK may have changed since that time. Click 
Ciick here for the full cached page with images irv 
To '.'.u\: \q l'i bookn^r!;, ihis page, use the following 

h«tp.//nww.googt«.e«^/3c*j:<:K' v q : =cictit;0TwJ_rDyljj»J 



Googit ii rxiifxr qfificned 



fhps:i w.m.t ircn^ have been highlighted: d|>rk 




current page without highlighting. 



*~ipc . cony + dp t hi hi =tn(aec ip=l 



?Aw> # tfai page no- mpcmidSefor in carters. 




Getting around the 32-word limit . For years Google had a 10-word limit for search 
queries, meaning that anything more than that, and Google would drop those terms 
from your query. However, Google expanded the number of terms searched to a 32- 
word limit. While the casual Google searcher will probably never notice the 
difference, professional researchers certainly will. There are many times when 
researchers need to search for long phrases (error codes, for example), exclude 
large numbers of terms to avoid unwanted results, run complex Google API 
searches, run queries of multiple sites, etc., and that darned 10-word interfered with 
the search. While there are a number of work-arounds all were unsatisfactory. 
Allowing more search terms is a big improvement, but I am sorry to report that the 
new 32-word limit only applies at present to main Google search, Google Images, 
Froogle and the Google Web API, while the 10-word limit is still in effect for Google 
Groups and Google News. This is especially disappointing vis-a-vis Google Groups 
because it has long been one of the best sources of information about complicated 
computer error codes and other computer arcana. Perhaps the folks at Google will 
see fit to expand the 32-word limit to include Google Groups. 

You can, however, still use the wildcard to trick Google Groups into searching 
more than 10 keywords. Google will hot count wildcards as search terms, so 
inserting a wildcard into a phrase will let you search for more than 10 terms. I have 
found this most useful when searching for a long phrase such as a computer error 
message, which may frequently run well over 10 words. By simply removing the 
"little words" such as an, you can easily search for the entire error message. 

Here's an example of an error message containing more than 10 terms: 
Windows Socket Error: An Invalid Argument was supplied (10022), on API 'connect' 



84 



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It can be written using wildcards to run the complete message as a Google Groups 
query: 

["Windows Socket Error: * Invalid Argument * supplied (10022), * API 'connect 1 "] 

Undocumented Google Filetype Searches . Google can search for many more file 
types than those documented on the Google FAQ page. Here are some — but not 
all— of the file types users can search for using filetype: plus keyword or another 
special syntax, e.g., site: (try [filetype:cgi bin] or [filetypejs inurhlogin]). 



, Urtdpctim^ted; 


Filetype 


Searches 


bak 


system 


backup file 


back 


system 


backupfile 


bat 


system 


batch file 


bin 


system 


binary file 


gz 


UNIX zip 


binary 


hip 


text 


help files 


ico 


graphic 


icon 


ini 


system 


initialization file 


js 


script 


Javascript 


log 


text 


log files 


php 


script 


HTML 


pis 


script 


PERL script 


sql 


language 


database 


tmp 


system 


Windows temporary file 


uu 


script 


encoding 


vbs 


script 


Microsoft's Visual Basic Script 



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Google Hack: Create Your Own Google Video RSS Feed . Users can easily create 
their own personal RSS feed of Google videos using a simple Google hack. Let's 
say you want a feed of Google videos about Iraq. Here's how to create it: 

1 . Go to Google Video<http://video.google.com/>and enter a search term, e.g., 
[iraq] 

2. The result will be http://video.qooqle.com/videosearch?q=iraq 



Tj-uwAsfi/elDH 



th Edt »bw Sa &»towta loots Heb 
B«& * ■" Home Rele#t , JW* | Q\ Kt|,://v»Je3 gcc^e.<my'yi<ifr*(*^th^=t*a<:8 t Gtf|xii=f« _*| so jjCi 



Ttes XML 61s &>es aot appear to bave any style infonaaaoti 8S80O2te4 with i& The docutneft tree is shown below. 



j 



<i<< veision-'2 0"> 

e nd^>GoogU V]-i?o - Video Seaicti [^acj-s/hie 5 
*-lnkk>hitp//videi:> g^o^e corrJvid?:esean;h' , q=iraqc/litiJ:> 
<clnaipnou>Seaicti results fo: q^ty fcaq]<*les«i|»cwiP 
<=e*>npi ator>Ck»o£r Vidto<tei»Ei*'i;»or> 

•:ntlf> Video Search [iraqj^/ritle^ 
<tiiili^hcpy i fV]-i?o,gc'Ofile.com/v]d£oeea]';h?q=L''aq^'luik> 

- <m\> 

<wUii* ]00«Avidih» 

« /linage^ 
- *ltnn> 

^tiil^lriq Vcicritn Speaks Out Ou Wai Cnmes^/iiite* 

- tf -fotlc> 

L^/'wi(fco.go^e. c arofadeoplay? de nd=-55379$0 522 S49547050&sourceid=ytaiclifr t d 
<tfink> 

- -^ £111(1 > 

< P utt>*r<oS\a 21 May 200i> 13 1621 PDT«.'|>nbDate> 
<&v style-'pofiftcrireJati^e, width 322psr. he#j268pir. fioarnghr. rcargia-left;1«a>. margjn-boffooi .5em.' i:?c -6b styte~'i>osii:on:abso^; top'G; tefcO. bore 

3. Now add &output=rss so that your new query string 
http://video.qooqlexom/videosearch?q=iraq&output=rss 

4. Now you can add this XML output to your favorite newsreader, e.g., Bloglines 
to create a Google Video feed: 



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Available Feeds 



Googte Video - Video Search [Iraq] 



'■I I! 



-&arch result* for quBvy; [traq] 
P'-3v'*fe^ This Fa^ui 



Options 




Folder 


| Top Level J 


Updated Items 


^ Display as New 




*~ ignore 


Display 


<** Default 


Preferences 


r Complete Entnee 




r Summaries if Available 




r Titles 


Monitored By 


r?B 


Blaglines 




SVOtiffer 





Every time a new video containing the tag "iraq" is added to Google video, it will be 
automatically added to your blog feed. Unfortunately, this hack does not work with 
Google search; that would be a very nice feature. Google Blogsearch and News 
have RSS/Atom feed options already built into them 47 

Getting around Google's keyword restriction for filetype: searches . The Google 
filetype: syntax requires a keyword. To get around the requirement for a keyword, 
use the filetype extension as the keyword, e.g., [filetype:pdf pdf]. 

Google's "synonym" (related term} search . If you place a tilde (~) in front of a 
keyword, Google will search for the keyword and for its synonyms. For example, a 
search for ["computer -security"] will find not only security but also vulnerability, 
encryption, secure, firewall. As you can see, this is not a search for synonyms but for 
related terms. 



47 



lonut Alex. Chitu, "Secret Feeds in Google Video," Google Operating System, 12 September 2006, 
< http://googlesystem. bloqspot.com/2006/09/secret-feeds-in-qoogle-video.html > (5 October 2006). 



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Google Search Sinker . This query option comes from Tara Calishain's website, 
where she explains how it works: "Search Sinker asks for two things: a query, and 
then a 'sinker" — a word that you want to emphasize as much as possible in the 
search, e.g., [Java] as the query and [coffee] as the "sinker." The script counts your 
query words, then fills up any remaining space in the query — remember Google's 
query limit is ten words— with your 'sinker.'" No API required. 

http://www.researchbuzz.org/2Q04/Q1/happy google hacks week 2004 2.shtml 

Use Google to "Search This Site ." Have you ever noticed how bad many internal site 
searches are? Maybe it's just me, but I can't ever seem to find what I want using a 
site's internal search. However, Google can perform internal site searches for you, 
and generally my experience is that Google will do it better. All you have to do is use 
the site: search syntax. So, if I want to search the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs' 
website for [afrique], all I need to do at Google is search on: 

[site:www.france.diplomatie.frafrique] 

Number Range Search Option . Google has a powerful numrange search, which 
uses two number separated by two periods (dots) and no spaces. Numrange has 
proven invaluable to malicious types who use it to harvest credit card numbers. But it 
has other legitimate uses as well. It may be important to indicate what the numbers 
mean, e.g., weight, money, pixels, etc. Google does recognize the almighty dollar 
sign (but results searching on the Euro symbol are inconsistent). I'm sure you can 
think of many uses for the Google numrange search, such as searching on phone 
number ranges, dates, address ranges, etc. Try a search such as [amman telephone 
61 7. .680] to see how this search works. Numrange can be used with other Google 
search options, such as [site:www.jordanislamicbarik.com 617. .780]. Also, you don't 
have to use two numbers: this search finds DVD players up to $150: ["dvd players" .. 
$150]. 



Numrange Searches 

Numrange can be used 1o specify that results contain numbers in 3 range you sel. You can conduct a numrange search by 
specifying two numbers, separated by two periods, with no spaces. Be sure to specify a unit of measure or some other indicator of 
what the number range represents. 

For example, you might conduct a search for DVD player $250.. 300 or 3. .5 megapixel digital camera. Numrange can be used to set 
a range for everything from dates {Willie Mays 1950..1Q50) to weights (5Q00..10000 kg truck). 



DVD player S250..350 



Gpogle-Seorc;; 



Numrange has other uses that I discuss under Google hacking . 



88 



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Yahoo Search 



In February 2004 Yahoo did what has been expected for about a year: it dropped 
Google. However, what had not been correctly predicted was the new search engine 
used by Yahoo in place of Google. Pretty much everyone expected Yahoo to go with 
the Inktomi search engine it purchased the previous year. Instead, Yahoo 
introduced a new search engine that "draws on" the technology of Inktomi and 
other search engines such as AlltheWeb and AltaVista, which are owned by 
Overture, a company Yahoo also acquired in 2003. After many years, Yahoo is a 
legitimate search engine and not just a directory or a pale copy of Google. 

Yahoo has been and remains one of the most visited and most popular websites on 
the Internet. It was one of the first web portals, debuting in 1994 as a relatively 
simple web guide and expanding rapidly to over 25 countries in 13 languages. Along 
with Google, Yahoo is one of the most recognizable brand names on the Internet. At 
the core of Yahoo was its directory of websites, a hierarchical list of sites organized 
by subject. Until October 2002, that list was compiled and maintained by humans. At 
that point, Yahoo switched to Google search results, thereby undermining, in my 
opinion, its uniqueness and value. 

Yahoo announced in mid-2006 what it claims is the "most significant redesign of the 
www.yahoo.com home page ever... [because] we're also on a mission to empower 
people to find information and turn it into knowledge, play, and meaningful 
communication." 48 In my opinion, this was sorely needed. What are you going to find 
on the new Yahoo homepage? A great deal of personalization choices: links to 
Yahoo email and Yahoo Messenger; local weather, traffic, events; and the most 
popular trends, primarily in entertainment and pop culture. The most significant 
addition to search is Yahoo Answers, Yahoo's version of "ask a question." 

The current Yahoo Search Technology (YST) combines the technologies of the 
various Yahoo search properties — Inktomi, AlltheWeb, and AltaVista — as well as 
certain Google-like features to create a very powerful search tool. Among these 
features are: 

> cached versions of webpages 

> automatic conversion of non-HTML filetypes to HTML is available 



48 



Yahoo! Search Blog, 15 May 2006, < http://www.ysearchbloq.com/archives/0Q0304.html > (31 
October 2006). 



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^ all backlinks are shown (Google has started limiting the number of backlinks 
it shows) 

> Yahoo refreshes its index continuously, not on a schedule (this is a good 
thing) 

> Yahoo limits the size of indexed pages to the about the first 500KB 

> Yahoo claims its database contains over 20 billion "items" (webpages, 
images, audio and video files); if true, it would be the largest search engine 
database 

> default operator is AND; searchers may use OR 

> search by filetype, but can only be used via the Advanced Search option 
(there is no special syntax) 

> it appears there is no upper limit on the number of search terms (Google 
ignores anything beyond 32) 

> an option to open link in new window (small double-window icon at end of url) 

At the same time it was introducing its proprietary search engine, Yahoo streamlined 
its search page interface so that it is resembles the Google homepage. 



YaSoO! search 

Web , lmaq?s | Video \ Audio ; DiiedOfy I Local I News \ Shopping i Jobs I More ? 



i' Vuul h c Ad^anted Search 



$ Tip. Get diisclions fast. Type; [city] map >> Tiy M 

r sho* Mail ■ Shov Ne^t l 

Se-arch Pi&ferences - Search Services 

CopyiiflMOMGB Y*hoo>1nc. All rights mtivtd, Privacy P-?licv - Ttrmj d( S^f-ite - CopviiahtflF Policy - Submit Y<mi Sitt 

One feature Yahoo Search offers that Google would do well to imitate is the ability to 
edit the search options. Here are the options Yahoo offers; you can select the ones 
you want to appear on your Yahoo Search page. With Google, you get what they 
give you. 



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Customize Yahoo! Search Homepage Tabs 

Select the tabs you want to appear on your Search Homepage and click "Save". 



r 


Tabs 


Description 




i ©. Wfth 


The most relevant results from across the Web. This tab cannol be removed. 


w 


; \gk^r Images 


Find photos and illustrations from all over the Web. 


w 


! p||l| Directoiy j 


Search Yahool's categorized guide to the web. 


p? 


;CK Local-- 


Find local businesses serving your area. 


w 


■ ^§gp News 


Search for news stories, pictures, and audloMdeo. 


w 


(0! Products 


Find millions of product reviews and prices on the Web. 


r 


i (35 Maps 


Find maps and directions to anywhere you'd like to go. 


r 


J§) People Search ; 


Search for people using Yahool's telephone and email directories. 


r 


^3 Trawl 


Search for airplane tickets, hotel reservations, car rentals, and more. 



Yahoo also introduced a number of international versions as well as "local" Yahoos 
for the US. These international versions can be very useful for locating information 
about a specific region or country. The pages are in the native language, so if 
Catalan is unfamiliar, you are probably better off sticking with the main Yahoo 
search page. 



TjJfflOOtSS^ Signup 

International Yahoo! 



Americas 




Asia PacHic 




Argentina 


US 


Asia 


Korea 


Sl37ll 


US in Chinese 


Australia & NZ 


Malaysia 


Canada 


U.S in Russian 


China 


Philippines 


Canada enfrenijais 


U.S en espancl 


Hong Kong 


Singapore 


Mexico 




India 


Taiwan 






Indonesia 


Thailand 






Jauan 





Europe 



Catalan 


Italy 


Denmark 


Norway 


France 


Spain 


Germany 


Sweden 


Greece 


UK & Ireland 



U.S. m Chinese 


Norw 

UK ft Ireland* 

, Canodaa 

UnitadStite** S » >aln * 

-... US, m fiussuri 


»V» •Sweden 
• Dennwrh 

• Germany 
• France 

• Italy 

• Greet* 


• A.it 

China* aKowi* 

a Ijpan 


U.S. fn espjrifil 


Mettko • 

• Braiil 




India* * Tai "* n 
« Hong Kong 

ThaiUod • , Philippine* 

■ Malaysia 
Singapore a 

a Indonesia 

»Au<tr*li»ftNZ 



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Yahoo is systematically adding "local" searches outside the US. During 2006, Yahoo 
added Germany and UK/Ireland to its "local" page. See the map section for more 
information. 

Yahoo International http://world .yahoo.com/ 



Customizing Yahoo Preferences 

Yahoo currently offers four basic Search Preferences settings: 

1 . SafeSearch Filter : choose among Strict, Moderate, Off. The Filter lock option 
requires registration. 

2. Languages : search in any language or one or more of 35+ languages, 
including Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Hebrew, Korean, etc. 

3. Display and Layout : 

Open search results in a new browser window when you click on the link. 
Note: Yahoo also offers an "Open this result in a new window" option 
following the link for each result if you do not select this option. 

Results per page : choose to display 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, or 100 results at a 
time. 

Show Save and Block links (to easily save or block pages to Yahoo's My Web 
service directly from search results) 

Show Instant Search results 

4. Subscriptions : search Yahoo's premium content sources such as LexisNexis, 
Factiva, The Wall Street Journal, Consumer Reports. Access to these 
sources requires a paid subscription. 

5. Multimedia Search : allows you to search and access songs already available 
from existing audio service provider. 

The Yahoo Results Page 

Once you have entered your search term(s) and clicked the Yahoo Search button, 
Yahoo will present you with a list of results or hits. Depending on the search you are 
running, you will see some or all of the following for a web search: 



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Wel> to ages ! Video Ar>dio D»ggjgf\ Local . News = Shopping More > 
Tj&HOOf, SEARCH ^ See^j 

Sea? ch ResulH ^ 10 ct *** a^a/xo kr ^jj^ ■ : "\ **c i^sas^yaa) 

■J Also fry, kenya nsvte papers . da:iy nafeon kenya , Kenya news , Kenya airways More... ' r,, ' K:,;f ' !n>r ' f - lF 

A I^l safari Maoic 

>,">u-«s«k s* syr i ^ Private African safaris in Kenya antt 

• Travefzoo. HandpjCked Ken ya Peats Tanzania, East Afeca.TweL 

wo-jy.lr -vs.2 : ; . ; ^ Trawlzoo handpicJts oinstandwg Kenya rec&lton o'esls and guides you directly lo the Quality ww* ■ stan'manic com 

c&wpsRies prewshng item 

• ViatoflKamm* KtnyaTourv^GAP 
vaa< kav*t: com Fjnd cheap flights and hotel rates for K«nyd from over I GO ?3C travel sites al Kayak, com. Adventures 

G. A. P Adventures inwles y«u?o 
truly &!periairitt Kenya wlis «i*... 

v* Kenya Visitor Guide - WonclFatfcook - Geu rate! Tips ^v$^-^'^ 

C Desa lly says Kenya to falsing fe; us tfoes. AH-' ms i3 : :3-:= >;: - ^ l.oui^.kl. * "s -Ji'i si. 
FIFA suspends Keiiva.fiotp ^n^^fcotball A*r %i.j '- shoe' N^/, . u; ^ i # £fv Kenya I-NpI 

^< **2& -«^s ■ F : -<^ " kQB Book you. hotel in Kenya cnlOw 

'*'*■' ^nilru!— J-:- with up U* 70% off Morales. 

B^^slNqin^uOiri 

Guide to all aspet's of Kenyan life and links to companies n the East A/rican legton. r^ ^ q^ :„ ^enva . He*D 

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2. r;tto.//edyc.queensu.ca^iclea/awploa(ls manVPfoieiKertvaDenmailf fancats.doc (microsoft P 
word) I : ,:;.. .r.^ ~ J [^nyaHotel 

Res^s du Programme Kenya-Dsr.emark progiamme tie formslron pour siss Oanois au Kenya el >ice wisa a pie Fir| d out about ^ ,e hotels in Kenya 

soulevee au .. writ au Kenya ohiq.je we sa .. p ' befe*e you baok Discounted rales. 



ylanty 

Feed starving children in^/rica. $50 



> A Also try : queries to help you refine your search. 

> B Results : 1-x out of total number of results. 

> C YAHOO Shortcuts Indicated by ^ next to the first result, Yahoo 
Shortcuts provide "links to useful content from Yahoo, its partners, or 
across the web." 

> D Sponsor Results are pay for placement results provided by Overture, 
a Yahoo company. 

> E File Type : if the document found is not HTML, the file type will follow 
the link, e.g., (MICROSOFT WORD). 

> F View as HTML : for non-HTML file types, select this link to see the 
page in HTML format. Microsoft file types are potentially 
dangerous to open in their native formats. Use view as HTML to open 
the document as a webpage instead of downloading it. This is a safe 
procedure. For more information, please review these instructions for 
handling Microsoft files on the Internet safely . 



UNCi_ASSiFiED //rorc ornc i AL ucc only 93 



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> G More pages from this site : select this link to search for other pages 
within this particular website that include the search term(s). 

> H Category : links to the appropriate category in the Yahoo Directory. 

> I Cached : links to a copy of the page as saved by Yahoo's search 
engine; search terms are highlighted on the cached page. 

> J Translation : if Yahoo offers a translation, you will see [Translate this 
page] following the link. 

Yahoo Basic Search http://search.yahoo.com/ 

Yahoo assumes as its default that multiple search terms are joined by the AND 
operator, so that a search on the keywords [windows explorer] will find all the 
webpages that contain both search terms. 

Yahoo will not return any results if there is no webpage containing all the search 
terms. Try this query to see what I mean: 

rollerskate handshake buckyball 

Unlike Google, Yahoo does not limit the number of search terms to 32 
keywords. Yahoo will try to match all the keywords you enter. 

Yahoo is not case sensitive. 

Yahoo does not have true word stemming or truncation, i.e., searching for 
variations of search terms. Normally, word stemming involves searching for plurals 
and verb conjugations such as drink, drank, drunk. However, Yahoo's word 
stemming is not consistent and somewhat confusing. For example, stemming works 
with some words but not with others, i.e., a search on [child] will not find children; a 
search on [drink] will find drinks but not drinking or drunk. Users should search on all 
variations of a term, including plurals, and not rely upon the automatic but 
inconsistent stemming feature. However, there is a Yahoo hack to disable word 
stemming . 

Yahoo automatically clusters search results. If you want to see more pages from 
a specific site, simply select that link following the url of the result. 



U nclpcu friented ^ 

Yahoo permits the use of boolean operators in simple search. The operators 
must be capitalized. Yahoo Search will run full nested boolean queries (those using 
parentheses), such as: 

[cardinals AND (bird OR catholic) AND NOT (baseball OR football)] 
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Yahoo recognizes double-quotes as enclosing a phrase. 

Yahoo does not have any stop words, i.e., commonplace words. In fact, you can 
search on any single letter or number. 

It is unnecessary to use the plus sign (+) with any terms because by default Yahoo 
searches for all keywords. However, there are many times when searchers need to 
exclude certain terms that are commonly associated with a keyword but irrelevant to 
their search. That's where the minus sign (-) comes in. Using the minus sign in front 
of a keyword ensures that Yahoo excludes that term from the search. For example, 
the results for the search ["pearl harbor" -movie] are very different from the results 
for ["pearl harbor"]. 

Yahoo will search for the ampersand [&]. Yahoo will search for [barnes&noble], but 
if you insert spaces — [barnes & noble]— Yahoo ignores the ampersand. Also, while 
Yahoo will not actually search on a plus sign, the search engine will search for [c+] 
and [c++], although it does not recognize the difference between one and two 
pluses. 

Yahoo Advanced Search 

Yahoo has many advanced search features that can be accessed from the 
Advanced Search page or, in many cases, employed in the simple search screen by 
using the correct syntax. 

Yahoo has incorporated from AlltheWeb and AltaVista most of the languages in 
which users may search; like its predecessors, Yahoo is superb at searching for 
non-English and non-Latin languages. Using either the language preference settings 
or the advanced search page, users can select from over 35 languages and 
encodings in which to search and see results. 

Keep in mind that if you search on a word using diacritical marks such as accents or 
umlauts, Yahoo will only search for terms matching those with the diacritic. 

However, if you search for the unaccented term, Yahoo will find the term with and 
without the diacritic. For example, a search on [fagade] will not return pages 
containing only the term fagade, but a search on [facade] will find both facade and 
fagade. 

Yahoo offers many "search meta words," i.e., special search terms to restrict 
searches and make them more effective. These special operators can be used in 
both simple and advanced search. 

> site/domain: restricts results to a specific website or domain, including a 
specific top-level domain. May be used with or without keywords. 



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Advanced Web Search > Site/Domain > Filter results from specific 
domains (com, gov, dell.com, etc.) 

Examples of how to use the site/domain: command : 

[site:amazon.com] finds www.amazon.com, cards.amazon.com, 
www.amazon.com/dvd/. However, it will not find www.amazon.com.br. 

[domain.ir] finds all the pages from the Iranian (.ir) top-level domain indexed 
by Yahoo. 

> url: use to find a specific document in the Yahoo index. This command is very 
limited in its usefulness and requires the full url (address), including the http:// 
to work. This command works best using the Yahoo Advanced Search to find 
all the words in the url. May be used with or without additional keywords. 

Advanced Web Search > Show Results > all of these words > In the 
URL of the page 

Examples of how to use the url: command : 

[url:http://impact. arc. nasa.gov/intro.cfm] finds this specific page as it is stored 
in the Yahoo index. 

> inurl: restricts results to any page with a term in its url (address). May be 
used with or without additional keywords. 

Advanced Web Search > Show Results > In the URL of the page 

Examples of how to use the inurl: command : 

[inurknasa] finds any site containing nasa anywhere in the url. Will find 
webpages at www.nasa.gov as well as pages at www.beeville.net/NASA/ 

[inurl:nasa.gov Columbia] finds any site at nasa. gov that contains the keyword 
Columbia anywhere on the website. 

> title or intitle: restricts results to pages containing a specific word or phrase 
anywhere in the webpage's title, which usually appears in the browser's title 
bar and is the HTML <title> tag. Title and intitle appear to work identically. 
May be used with or without additional keywords. 

Advanced Web Search > Show Results > In the title of the page 

Examples of how to use the title: or intitle: command: 



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u V ni A€ T < TlF"=n^ c ^P^FFrni IfSF^MI Y 



[title:amazon] finds all pages that include the word amazon in their title 

[title:amazon "rain forest"] Finds all pages that include the word amazon in 
their title and mention the phrase "rain forest" anywhere in the document (title 
or text or anywhere in the document) 

> link: restricts results to pages containing links to a specific url. Yahoo has the 
unfortunate requirement to enter the full url including the http://to use the 
link command, which adversely affects its usefulness. May be used with or 
without additional keywords. 

No Advanced Web Search Option 

Examples of how to use the link: command : 

[link:http://jpl. nasa.gov] finds all pages containing links to any page at 
jpl.nsa.gov 

[link:http://jpl. nasa.gov asteroid] finds all pages containing links to any page 
on the jpl.nasa.gov site and the keyword asteroid anywhere on the page. 

> linkdomain: the Yahoo link command finds every other page that links to a 
specific webpage, but linkdomain finds every page that links to an entire 
domain. Simply put, the linkdomain command should not be used with the full 
address while the link command requires the full address to work properly. 
May be used with or without additional keywords. 

No Advanced Web Search Option 

Examples of how to use the linkdomain: command vs. the link: command : 

[linkdomain:amazon.com] 

use to find links to an entire domain 

[link:http://www.amazon.com] or [link:http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/ysearch] 
use to find links to a specific webpage 

Here is an interesting twist on link searching, that is, finding sites that link to a 
specific address. This search, which works with Yahoo and to a lesser extent 
Live Search, finds pages that link to a specific domain or domains but not to 
another specific domain or domains. An example would help. Let's say I start 
by finding the sites that link to the Iranian Ministry of Defense. Here is the 
query I would use: 

[linkdomain:mod.ir] 



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This query returns 545 hits. Now, suppose I want to see which sites link to 
both the Iranian MOD and the Iranian Electronics Industries. I can do that 
easily with this query: 

[linkdomain:mod.ir linkdomain:ieimil.com] 

However, I see lots of sites that also link to the ever-present CIA World 
Factbook, which, while a wonderful resource, isn't want I want. I would really 
like to see the sites that link to both the Iranian MOD and IEI sites but not to 
the CIA Factbook. Can I do this? Sure: 

[linkdomain-.mod.ir linkdomain:ieimil.com -linkdomain-.cia.gov] 

While this technique has obvious applicability for search engine optimization 
("who is linking to my competitors but not linking to me?"), I think it is worth 
knowing about because you may come up with some creative ways to use it. 
Just as an interesting example, try these two queries in both Live Search and 
Yahoo. It's interesting to see what drops from the results' list on the second 
query. 

[linkdomain:cia.gov linkdomain:nsa.gov] 

[linkdomain:cia.gov linkdomain:nsa.gov -linkdomain:fbi.gov] 

I believe you will consistently find that Yahoo provides more results than Live 
Search for the linkdomain: searches. However, the results will vary, so it's 
worth using both search engines. Google does not offer a linkdomain: search, 
and its link: search has been hobbled. 

> search by file type: restricts results to PDF, MS Word, XML, and other 
filetypes. 

Yahoo does not offer a filetype: syntax . However, you can search by file type 
using the advanced search option: 

Advanced Web Search > File Format > Only find results that are: > 
All formats or one format 

There is also a Yahoo Hack that lets you search by file type . 

> Yahoo's video search now includes an option to search for MacroMedia 
Flash files. To limit your Yahoo video search to Flash files, go to Yahoo Video 
Search, select Advanced Search, uncheck all formats except Flash and run 
your query. A simpler approach is to enter the query [filetype:swf keyword]. 
This query only works in Yahoo Video Search, not Web Search. 



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Yahoo Video Search http://video.search.yahoo.com/ 

> Yahoo now links its cached copies of webpages to the Internet Archive's 
Wayback Machine. To use the link, select the Cached copy of a result, then 
click on "check for previous versions at the Internet Archive." That link takes 
you to the results of a Wayback Machine search of that precise url. 



"l^HOOf SEARCH 



back to results for "nasa astrophysics" 



Help - Help for Webmasters 



Below is a cache of htti>://cclsa ds.u-strasbg.fr/ It's a snapshot of the page taken as our search engine crawled the Web. 
WeVe highlighted the words: nasa astrophysics 

The web site itself may have changed. You can check the current page (without highlighting) or check for previous versions at 
the Internet Archive. 



not affiliated with the authors of this page or responsible for its content. 



The NASA Astrop hysics D ata System 




ade 



The Digital Library for Physics. Astrophysics, and Instrumentation 

Using Yahoo's More from this site option, you can select other specific 
pages to view using the Wayback Machine's access to the huge Internet 
Archive database. 



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IMfRMFI ARCHIVE 



Enter Web Address: [j 


Hip:// 


Q^HQl ™; Adif, Search Compare Archive Pages 



Searched for litti^: 'Ci1sacls.ti-stTtishiH.fi 



89 Results 



Note some duplicates are not shown. See all. 
* denotes when site was updated. 



1996 


pages 



1997 
2 pages 
Dec -10,1 997 



1998 
4 pages 
Jan 19, 1998 



Search Results for Jan 01, 1996 

2000 2001 
5 pages 9 pages 



1999 

9 pages 
Jan 25, 1999 



Mav 20,2000 * Feb 01. 2001 



Dec 22, 1 997 * Apr 29, 1 998 
Jul 1 4, 1998 : 



Feb 08, 1999 * Jun 09, 2000 
Feb 03. 1999 * Ju! 06. 2000 * 



Dec 12, 1995 * Feb 21. 1 999 * Aug 17,2000 
Mar 02, 1999 * Pel 17, 2000 ' 
Mar 02. ■! 999* 



Apr 



1999 



Apr 29, 1999 
Oct 12, 1999 



Feb 24, 2001 
Mar 01, 2001 
Mar 08, 200 1 
Mar 31 ,2001 
Apr 05, 2001 
May 16, 2001 
Jul 22, 2001 J 
Sep 25, 2001 



Oct 17, 2005 

2002 



2003 



2004 



10 pages 14 pages 20 pages 

Feb 25, 2004 * 
Mar 24. 2004 
Mar 25, 2004 
May 18. 2004 * 
May 22, 2004 
Jun 06. 2004 * 
Jun 09, 2004 
Jun 12,2004 
Jun 19. 2004 
Jun 27, 2004 
Jui 01 , 2004 * 
Sep 20, 2004 * 
Oct 14, 2004 
Oct 21, 2004 
Nov 12, 2004 
Nov 22, 2004 * 
Nov 25. 2004 
Nov 27, 20.04 
fjnv9fi ?nru 



* Jan 21, 2002 * 


Jan 30, 2003 : 


* Mar 19. 2002 * 


Feb 15. 2003 


* Way 31 ,2002 " 


' Mar 23, 2003 


* Jun 04,2002 


Apr 24. 2003 ' 


* Jul 21 , 2002 * 


Jun 02, 2003 


K Aug 02. 2002 


Jun 09, 2003 


* Sep 21 ,2002 


Jun 19, 2003 


: Sep 24, 2002 


Jul 28, 2003 


* Nov 19, 2002 H 


K Aug 06, 2003 


Nov 28, 2002 


Sep 20, 2003 




Sep 25, 2003 




Nov 21 ,2003 




Dee 04, 2003 




Dec 19, 2003 



This is an excellent way to use the Wayback Machine to its fullest 
because it integrates the power and speed of a huge search engine such 
as Yahoo with the powerful, though sometimes lumbering and hard to use, 
Internet Archive query tool. 



Yahoo Shortcuts 



Yahoo Shortcuts are special features and syntax designed to help users find 
specific kinds of information faster and more easily. The Shortcuts, indicated by the 



T& 



include: 



Local Shortcuts, including zip and area codes, weather, traffic reports, gas prices, 
and 

Maps: to map any US location, search on the street address, city and state or 
the word map and a location. Some international maps are now available. 

News & Information links when search term matches current news stories to 
include video and images. 

Travel Shortcuts: airport information, hotel reservations, exchange rates, and flight 
tracker. To find directions, terminal maps, flight delays, and weather conditions at a 



100 



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US airport, enter the airport's three-letter code and the word airport. For example, to 
information about Baltimore-Washington International, enter [bwi airport]. At the top 

of the Yahoo results page you will see a Yahoo Shortcut link marked by the 
Clicking on the Shortcut link takes you to the Yahoo BWI resource page: 



Yahoo' MyY.3hc.pl HjII 



ISLHOOfFARECHASE ^ 



Sign In 



l orn* - F eedba ck - ti^ljj 



Baltimore Washington Intl. Airport (BWI). Baltimore. MD 

Temiin.il liifonn.ition 

• Parking 



Phone: (410)859 7111 

A'ttlies$ m.iD 

BWI Terminal Building 

PO Box 8766 

Baltimore. MD 21240-0756 

Directions To / From Airport 

Ground Transpftrtaiion 



• Terminal Map 

• Airli ne;, and Terminals 

• 3.?^yjJU'.i...Qy>.!5P..'.s, 



Cm tent Ah poll Sums 

Departures : 
& Mo delays (15 mins. or less) 
Arrivals : 

& No delays (15 mins. or less) 
Sacurily Chec»'poini Wait Time; 



Weaihei 

.tfjft 47° /WF 

• Extended Forec; 

• Ii<j*£Lli££ 



Find BWI Airport Hotels 
Nearby Airports 

■ Washington. DC (IAD) 
• Washington. DO fDCAJ 



j Airport Oirectoiy 

! •Atia nia.GA fATLI 
j - Boston, MA (BQSj 
j ' ChicaflpJL (MOW) 
goJL iQRD) 

• DaHa vTXrOFW ) 

• De m^r, CO ( DEM) 
• Detroit, VII [DTW) 

■ Fort LaudeirialeJ~L (FL1 

■ Las Vegas" NV (LAS) 

• Los Angeles. CA (LAX] 
•Mianm.iLiM^ 

■ New Yoik" NY i'JFK) 
■NSW.york 1 NYjLGAj 

■ Newark, HjTeWR) 




Check-in 

(11/24*35 
Rooms Adults 



Check-out 

|1 1/26/05 



Childie 



^ f^Kraii-i 



What te Yohool F.weChase? 

This Yahoo! FareChase Airport Drectory page provides you with Irrtormatton 
aboul ETV\( Airport, including address, map and driving directions, terminal 



BWI Airport Limo S?ivice' 
St sir Limousins 

Star Limousine offers 
shuttle sortie** to Baltimore 
International Airport (BWI) 
in Marylan.,, 
www.s'^rsedsn.coiTi 

EWI Airport Shuttle and 
Transportation 

BWI airport shuttle, BWI 
door-to-door transportation. 
W« sortftt BWI airport to 
Maryland, Vi... 
wws.gearrports.com 

BWI Airport Limous : .ne 
Service 

Corporate dionti »etking 
optima) effidencv can 
reserve professional limo 
sorvice from BW.,, 
w.v.T.riq.'itr.andELfrr.cofr. 

Ground Transportation for 

EW! 

Low Internet fare for 



Reference Shortcuts such as: 

Dictionary Definitions: as with Google, Yahoo offers the define option. To 
use it, enter define then a word or phrase. Yahoo only refers to the American 
Heritage Dictionary; for definitions, so Yahoo's define option is more limited 
than Google's. 

Synonym Finder: similarly, Roget's Thesaurus provides synonyms for Yahoo 
Search. They syntax is [synonym keyword]. 

Encyclopedia: the Columbia Encyclopedia supplies the facts about a topic. 
The syntax is: ["facts about" keyword] 

Number Search: Yahoo offers many types of number searches. The 
numbers Yahoo will search for are: 

> US Patent numbers: syntax is [patent 5521308]. 



UNCLASSiFiED/ vrorc ornc i AL use only 



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> UPS tracking numbers: [1Z9999X99999999] (simply enter the UPS 
tracking number; no special syntax is required). 

> USPS tracking numbers: search on [usps 9999999999999999999999]. 

> FedEx tracking numbers; syntax is [fedex 9999999999999999]. 

> FAA airplane registration numbers; [n158ua] (simply enter the FAA 
registration number; no special syntax is required). 

> ZIP codes: enter a US ZIP code, either five or nine digits. 

> ISBN: enter any International Standard Book Number. 

> UPC codes: to find information such as the manufacturer for any product, 
search on the UPC bar code. 

> V1N Information: to find information about a vehicle's history, search on its 
17-character Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). 

Calculator Shortcut: a calculator, time zone calculator, and weights and measure 
converter. 



Yahoo! MvYahool M«ll 



^XHoorji^j?, 



the wet 



Search | 

Searrh Home 



r? Sign Up 

Yahoo! Help > Search Help > Search Tips. Prefeiences, & Y.ihool Shortcuts > 

WItal are Yahoo! Slwrtcirts? 

Yahoo! Shortcuts are special features designed to help you to find answers quickly. Click the title of a specific feature to learn more 
about it. 

Try a search using any of these Yahoo! Shortcuts: 



Yahoo Shortcut Help 
Yahoo Shortcuts 



♦ Airport Information 




♦ Hotel Finder 


■■■* — * " 

♦ Stock Quotes 




♦ Airline Registration Information 


♦ ISBN Numbers 


♦ Synonym Finder 




♦ Area Codes 


♦ Local Search new! 


♦ Time Zones 




♦ Calculator 


♦ Maps 


♦ Traffic 




♦ Dictionary Definitions 


♦ Movie Showtirnes 


♦ UPC Codes 




♦ Encyclopedia Lookup 


♦ News 


♦ VIN Number 




♦ Exchange Rates 


♦ Packaqes 


♦ Weiqhls. Measures 


and Temperatures 


♦ Flight Tracker 


♦ Patents 


♦ Weather 




♦ Gas Ptices 


♦ Sports Scores 


♦ Zip Cedes 





http://help.yahoo.com/help/us/vsearch/tips/tips-Q1.html 
http://tools.search.vahoo.com/shortcuts/ 



102 



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Yahoo Services and Specialty Searches 

News: Yahoo News headlines are entirely generated using a computer algorithm 
that scours approximately 4500 worldwide news sources. Yahoo News also offers 
international editions for France, Germany, India, Italy, Spain, and several other 
countries. For details on Yahoo News, see the news search engine section below. 

Images: the Yahoo image database contains more than a billion images and 
includes content from Yahoo news and movies. The advanced search options for 
images permit users to limit the search by size, color, and image type. Users of 
Yahoo Search can add the Image tab to the left-hand side of the main search page. 

Video: Yahoo Video search is extremely powerful. I address this option below in the 
video search section . 

Translations: Yahoo absorbed AltaVista's Systran translation page (Babelfish) but 
without the excellent virtual keyboard . Systran provides reasonably decent machine 
translations of web pages from many European and Asian languages. The 
translation page lets you automatically translate a search result, enter any url you 
like, or copy/type text directly onto the translation page. If a page appears in the 
results list in one of the languages Yahoo translation supports, you will see 
[Translate this page] after the page title. 

Yahoo Babelfish http://babelfish.vahoo.CQm/ 

Yahoo Language Tools http://tools.search.yahoo.com/lanquage/ 

Mobile SMS Search: This is a new service that is different from the SMS text 
messaging that has been available at Yahoo for some time, i.e., Yahoo Messenger. 
The new SMS at Yahoo permits queries using mobile technology. Yahoo's SMS 
number is 92466 (which spells Yahoo on most phones). Here is Yahoo's explanation 
of their service, which is presently only available to US Cingular, Sprint and Verizon 
subscribers: 

Right now you can search for any local information by sending a query with your 
location or zip code like: "pizza 94025," you can get a stock quote with: "s yhoo," 
weather information: "w 94025," dictionary definitions: "d garrulous," horoscopes: 
"h aquarius," WiFi hotspots: "wifi 94123," and more are coming. Hence typing V 
and the ZIP code get you a short weather forecast.' 

Yahoo Mobile Search http://mobile.yahoo.com/search 

Directory: As with Google, Yahoo's web directory uses the Open Directory Project's 
collection but the two versions are not identical. For example, if I search the directory 
for the keyword Java, Yahoo presents multiple directory categories: 



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UNCLASSIFIED //rOn ornc i AL UOC ONLY 



"XftjSdOlsearch 

sy— 



hava 



Yahoo! Search I ^f^ 

I Preferences 



Wei) ! : Images i Directory Yellow Pages Hews I Products 



RELATED DIRECTORY CATEGORIES 



Programming Languages > Java 
Indonesia > Java 
More ,. 



Sponsor Results 

Hands- On Java Training 
Nationwide 

Learn hands-on from experts in n\<u<i 



Then I can select an appropriate category where Yahoo Directory lets me limit my 
search to a specific directory category. 



Isearch 

directory 



Dire 



ln£&rr€sia > Java 

fire cto ry > Regional > Countries > Indonesia > Islands > Java 




»arch news 



*~ the Web ** just this categor 



Search 



Advance 



CATEGORIES 



Places in Java 

♦ Cities (1 6) 

♦ Provinces (3) 

Java Categories 

♦ Business and Shopping (453) 

♦ Community (66) 

♦ Education (73) 

♦ Entertainment and Arts (30) 

♦ Health (11) 



♦ News and Media (7) 

♦ Real Estate (1 0) 

♦ Recreation and Sports (1 4) 

♦ Travel and Transportation (59) 



Yahoo Answers: the biggest change to Yahoo search during 2006 was the 
integration of "ask a question" or Yahoo Answers into core search. Yahoo began 
integrating responses from Answers into its main search results in mid-2006. 
Although you can read answers at the Yahoo Answers site, in order to ask and 
answer questions users must register with Yahoo. If a question has already 
appeared at the Answers site, it will now turn up in the results from the main Yahoo 
search. Don't expect to get answers to esoteric or difficult questions (you are much 
more likely to get opinions about the best DVD player than an answer to a question 
about which languages are spoken in Afghanistan). But the reservoir of questions 
and answers will continue to grow, so perhaps we will see a richer set of answers 
than exist thus far. 



Yahoo Answers 



http://answers.yahoo.com/ 



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Yahoo Site Explorer: The Yahoo Site Explorer website is still in beta; its goal is to 
help users learn detailed information about a specific website: 

The Yahoo search database contains detailed information about the structure of 
the web. In addition to the web pages themselves, the database stores 
information about links among pages, and uses that information (as well as 
additional algorithms) to gauge the popularity of a given page. 

Site Explorer gives you access to this information so you can learn about a site. 
To explore a site, you submit a URL using a search box, just as you would for a 
normal web search. You can then click links on the results page to see detailed 
information. 

The Yahoo Site Explorer will reveal all the pages in a specific domain, all the pages 
in any subdirectory of a domain, and all the links to a domain. The main purpose of 
the Site Explorer is to help webmasters improve the rankings of their sites, as 
evidenced by the capability for sites to submit missing urls, the fact that Site Explorer 
provides 50 results by default, its web services APIs , and its ability to export the data 
to a tab separated (TSV) file for further analysis. The initial response from the search 
community has been lukewarm, but I like this new tool because it simplifies learning 
about a site and, unlike Google, Site Explorer provides all the links to a site (which 
Yahoo calls "inlinks") instead of a limited subset of links. 

Let's examine Site Explorer from the point of view of a researcher instead of a 
developer. Here's the Site Explorer result page for the url [http://www.who.int] 
showing all the pages in all subdomains of that website. The order is by the most 
visited pages at the domain according to Yahoo's records about the page: 



SEARCH 



Site Explorer h, 



pt^wWw.who:irit 



Page* (238.132* MrtwFfrftregff) 

Show pages jr&m: Ati aiiitiQmaifwI. O^v.ihrs.dQmain 

6 ; fMO Sisfctcrf Infarna oorj System 






Submit .um. 
Export fkuls to-lsy 



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Now look at the "inlinks" (links to the WHO website) Site Explorer found that show 
the link to this url (http://www.who.int) only: 



SEARCH r ^ 

Site Explorers !*&*#»« 

PgawC39J34-J InlfHks {ill Ml) 

Shew lnlinks-io;-URt I Enigejajge . 

2, ' }Qteir:o F*c -i: hv -li ve feev£j I- 



Submit URi 
Export c?su£s ta'TSV 



4. MQZxit-fezz. Thns- iS^D292£ 



?«9*ffls , : fif.«jgfei 






s££$m& 



5, U^K 






sffl^te.^/.:! :■•.:.: :::.... :.: ■\.^.:::;£L.:* 






s, arnzc? 



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L&^v^ 



w#^xm:£»ftu£XHJ^'£Mli<iZiapd ' 2^ft&u$***iftSiftto - 3ft ; 






(.(Pi 






By way of comparison, the site: search in Google — [site:www.who.int]— returned a 
whopping 2.2 million pages for this domain but only about 29,000 inlinks to the url, 
whereas Yahoo Site Search returned nearly 174,000 inlinks. However, I find it easier 
to explore a domain or subdomain using Site Explorer. Note the Explore URL link for 
every page on the results' list. This effectively lets you "dig" deep into specific pages, 
directories, or subdirectories in a very orderly way. Keep in mind that you cannot use 
any keywords or other special syntax with the Yahoo Site Explorer whereas both the 
Google and Yahoo site: command lets users include both other special syntax and 
keywords, e.g., [site:www.who.int inurhsars vaccine]. 

The main value of Site Explorer is the powerful inlinks command. Look at the big 
increase in the number of inlinks (917,704) when you look at inlinks to the Entire 
Site: 



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&L SEARCH P rr ™_ 



Site Explorer ma 

B&KlggLEI) ] hilltop. 17,784} Submit URt. 

SHsw jntinks I* URLI: Entire She export cssrfis to: TSV 



■i. vmmm 

<tiMR.«Mt& com- 1 * 7& - ■ •.••it!t«fl .. i3jr»iSL: 

S- -tfjftJE®i Wight li^. Nsfaps ' "rcara^inc gg ^jfflf ■ 

w^.v vii-iO:tol/fcji*sstt/*ri-:1Sfe ■■ gMfcft f - fasten 'JW L 
ff* fl<ft|tlfrflfifr friiYv S& -JiH^i- ^$ta URL 



Remember: Google will not let you use any keywords or other syntax with its link: 
command, and it purposely limits the number of inlinks as a way of trying to control 
webspam. However, Yahoo's linkdomain: syntax will let you use keywords:, e.g., 
[linkdomain:www.who.int sars]. The bottom line is that the Yahoo Site Explorer does 
not add any genuinely new functionality for researchers, while it does offer new 
capabilities for developers. You can do everything (and in some cases more) with 
the old Yahoo search syntax. So why use Yahoo Site Explorer? Because: 

> it provides an extremely orderly and easy touse way of digging deep into a 
site, 

> it provides if not a complete then a huge set of inlinks to a specific url, and 

> it ranks the pages of a site by their popularity in Yahoo's statistical records of 
the site. 

Yahoo Site Explorer (beta) http://siteexplorer.search.yahoo.com/ 

Yahoo Mindset: This new search tool from Yahoo Research Labs is worth a look, 
especially for those queries that turn up a lot of commercial/shopping hits at the top 
of the list when you are trying to find "academic, non-commercial, or research- 



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oriented sources." Mindset uses a single slider with two options: at the far left is 
Shopping and at the far right is Researching. You can move the slider anywhere 
along the continuum to minimize commercial results and maximize research results 
or vice versa. Here's a good example of the two different sets of results you'll get for 
the query ["windows xp"]: 

"Researching" Windows XP (ignore the sponsored results) 



MINDSET *" f^ 



■ 



owsxp 



ktttawtifctf *ifc 



Ott&rmg &*»**• 1 - -400 t^about 160803*7: H ■ "wintfuw* Hp" .<^0jjLltl'O.^^ 



*&0£plo<f 



laap ^j f#m8fih\i»u 






cr^frv?l&dM^$^ y\* stores^ ' '" '"" ' '" ' " "' v '' : ' ' 

.. e«j.LV 'IS- 

>* . fed* ^e^^ii^y;-;^ 



1 ^ II gsvcofn-r jS^affiESg^^ 

Th> jjoiiice-of theliest fr^Sukfes &n "m^m - ExLKftmttHGlwrTjfc^ 7*w Windows XP ftroakbg Companion 
(XPTG) is ihecomptete Wiiidow* XP and sysisfn.^itinizaiion gu&e .., 
c^*«^ ww«-^*83*s . : - . : ; tip 

2. {)5} Microsoft Windows !XP' y • 

Search Mtcfo-sofl.comJpi;- Microsoft Wtadawfc XP. Latesi.News. Lram Aboul SP2. Windows XP Setviee Pack-2;wilh 
Advanced Secuirt^ Technotegies heJpaymi prdecl your PC against 'viruses, hacfcws. and worms. Learn-about the bens$ts 
&f Windows XP SF2 here. ... Mrcrasoft Windows XP Professional x&4 Editisa SoialrM.eeriier. Window* XP Passional 
n64 Edition released, on April .„ 
—"" " ■ . S!ipjrarimii;r#s3f&^ 

3. (^ Windows XP StowsteDireeiiorM 

.„ Windows XPStiwfs .#t* Oirecrioa Microsoft is Gocnrct. t; ,,of:lhe majer security/ prrVacyy stability coneys ^VrViiidoWs 
XP.' Mr: Schfisier wote th^bo^&.App&e^Crjpto^rap&y „ ; 

a. ri^ OWjs Wthdow$:95^8^le/XP Twsaks and TJ.pa » ; 

Tvrtaks ijp.$ and:iue$:fai Windows 95; 9&M*. XR: YisualB&sic Scripts; UtJJErty, security, ispair image fHre*/iew + 1 bumbn at| , 
&ofitr9! ( secure, password prtxte^l : fM Tli? exceptions are fV Wnidowa XP; $$rne utilities' r>we beeo c$n»arSad id-Visual 



Sawe-.Ngw-a* Wmdws XP 

7? > ^ !jr- ^j fc^ W-- * ,& 

X*- : a* Tic* . *;ft» j^jftfl.ecB 

'WaadUs MP' grj Save 

<■■***» b W n* V^;« *fc &*«; ;N ^* 



Wiftdowa XP 



Maamaaft Windows ?P 
Tra^fl-; Handg On 



Student 



108 



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__ mjam _ "Shopping for" Window s XP _ _____ 

M^NDSET^ Kd^^ -ggsfa 

•^^M9S00^i 'HI: ■ ■ - ' vOnUnt t^fM.*^^^^^ &S$3£.., • 

Vf" '''.'___ ■_"■ _ ^j^Jyj.'""' ' * ! - >: ■•--'•' l '-V--v-» "■•' ' ■'* v--^v:v. •---■■ ': J ;:X ■-•,':' -r> |pBl W»^ 1i » m J f!p;: . 

' '"' .... MtttfL 

q&wal Microsoft sH e : for 1 heir 'fiamily ofopsrating systems; Widows )SP' 

. . , Here&whsl ypu protsaWy think; Miciosoft Wtn«km XP' W toe- most. popglar OS«ft tfe- ma*M ,- so '*'.., T>i^< aie twa **** - &< CQ,1!i 

reasons why Wta<l»ws XP is sn popular (a) : il „, 

:.. The Up.grate.veision riWMaw* XP'Prefessionai-b 'f^ r few^ricft;;and rras.a.fine tora/feca ... Asjilr*, bear irv mtstd that »' $,*'* M '^.'Va, t*^ ' ' 

Windows XP may csm^ely&u ta-sitfcfwE more- on ... -pioyi ^ ?, .^V, *: > : .i«;eki« 

4. i3$i Rji Cannpt>,ea is the bo^gfe Pric e Beater H?ec)las^ 

..: RJ Campbell^ the Scllwar© Phce 8eatet sp^ialis^-&Nfi£m<*fl OfScfl 2)D3and Windows XP:... 

SflitvrarePiiC8Beat8r.co.uk. WihVD.ws XP Hi6m& : Edition< + SP2 (DEM) t .potocr'Say . .. |£ S§^M2gli£LE^ 



Yahoo Mindset http://rnindset.research.vahoo.com/ 

Yahoo Instant Search: This is yet another attempt by a major search engine to 
provide answers instead of lists of search results, Yahoo's Instant Search tries to 
give you a single, relevant response to a query. As their blog explains, 

If search engines are so smart, why do they give you millions of results when you 
type in "boston weather"? Why even ten, for that matter? Why not just one? Or 
better yet, why not just tell me what the weather is?... 

Of course, the answer is that often there isn't one obvious "answer" to a query and 
you may want a number of possible sites to explore. However, sometimes you just 
want a straightforward response, and that is what Instant Search is trying to achieve. 
Instant Search works best (in fact, only works) with simple requests, e.g., [weather 
london] or [bwi] or [artificial intelligence] or [convert 150 dollars to pounds]. Keep in 
mind, Instant Search is not trying to be another Answers.com, which "researches" 
answers to specific questions. Rather, Instant Search tries to "guess" what most 
users would want to know if they entered a query such as [ravens]; Instant Search 
guesses most users are looking for information about the Baltimore Ravens and not 
about birds. Sometimes the guesses are good, sometimes not. 



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Instant Search employs the AJAX 49 web development technique that is starting to 
make a big splash. AJAX uses asynchronous JavaScript and XML (thus the name 
"AJaX") to allow interactive web browsing. You can see AJAX in action with one of 
the most intriguing features of Instant Search. You don't need to hit the Search 
button to get your answer. As you type, the answer (or best guess) will appear in a 
"speech bubble" below the query box: 

TOiHoO? SEARCH 

Instant Search 

\ infomk-iliort abouHbe fourth planet from the Sun and Vhe sevsrslh largess i 

,<a»av ■ in--;^-H-H o-j/in.its him' ] 



You can also add Instant Search to your Yahoo Search page by clicking on a 
link on the Instant Search webpage. I actually think Instant Search is closer to 
Google's "I Feel Lucky" option than to Answers.com, something the Yahoo press 
release announcing Instant Search alludes to: "Why feel lucky when you can be 
right?" Instant Search doesn't just link to a webpage but actually tries to figure out 
what you want and give it to you (fast). It will be interesting to see if this tool catches 
on. I suspect that people will find the magically appearing "speech bubble" irresistible 
for a while, but whether or not Instant Search has staying power will depend on the 
quantity, quality, and reliability of the responses it provides. 

Yahoo Instant Search http://instant.search.yahoo.com/ 

Yahoo Podcasts ; Yahoo's new search site is designed not only to find podcasts on 
topics of interest but also let users search podcasts by keywords, categories or user- 
generated topic tags. The new site is a variation on the traditional Yahoo directory, 
offering a category list by topics, lists of "what other people like" and "what we like," 
and a search box that lets users choose to search either series, episodes or both. A 
search on [spyware] returned 5 series results and 202 episode results. It is clear 
from the highlighted terms in the results that Yahoo's Podcast search looks not only 
at tags but at the content as well: 



49 "AJAX." Computer Desktop Encyclopedia . Computer Language Company Inc., 2005. 
Answers.com, < http://www.answers.com/ajax > (15 November 2006). 

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3 had to ftapp^^en&rallftlhe man whtf coined the term Spywwe, and wrote the first «vware removal »«F$ram, 
ad*es»es tf fhisi^ the ti&mate.»pywar« primer, what ttisj.hcw'fl wortfs, a»d.... 



'#.B^2S^I traitor 'SdsSO- ^->WIM>*<!; 'ri ; S^Up SSsU HM*-3a W&Z 



2. '7m *3* «■ <f* , Ci -f rtfrr «r MWKfc K=r^. Wflltt. 



KifspirSpyw**! MSr»itf9,.OflteZaio *PtK*; Cms Palmer Rock*. NSnotWMt, Sa*utt^3eo, Acinic. Vista ; «4*g dual 12, 



Yahoo Podcasts includes a player that does not require any installation so that users 
can simply click on thet^W n j button to hear the podcast in MP3 format. If you 
prefer, Yahoo Podcasts even lets users download a copy of a podcast for later 
listening. All this is free and does not require registration. The site is in beta as of 
now. 

Why is Yahoo breaking into podcasting in such a big way? Perhaps this is in 
response to the new study from Yahoo and Ipsos that shows that while RSS feeds 
are gaining ground among the technology elite, they have made little headway with 
most Internet users. At least that is what most users believe, but the reality is 
somewhat different. How's that? 'The survey found that 31 percent of respondents 
used RSS, but only 4 percent were aware of it . A full 96 percent of people 
participating in the survey told Ipsos Insight that they did not use RSS. Their 
obliviousness came from the fact that most people used browser-based feed-reading 
software." In short, folks are using RSS and don't know it." When users go to My 
Yahoo or Firefox's live bookmarks, they are using RSS technology. Moreover, the 
study found that even the most tech-savvy users prefer to use browser or web- 
based RSS readers than stand-alone software. That's easy to understand because 
people are so deluged with technology that unless it is easy to use or brings some 
indispensable new capability, people simply won't use it. The study concluded: 



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Internet users do not understand how to use the XML button, how to actively 
seek out RSS feeds, or even what the term RSS means. Instead, they need a 
simple interface where they can choose the information and content that interests 
them. This is where personalized start pages and browser-based experiences 
can help move RSS into the mainstream. 

Yahoo's new Podcasts Search tries to simplify and demystify not only podcasting but 
also RSS feeds so that users will feel comfortable enough to try a new technology 
and, Yahoo hopes, get hooked on it. I know I have pretty much given up on email 
newsletters in favor of RSS feeds at Bloglines because it is just so much more 
convenient. 

Yahoo Podcasts Search http://podcasts.vahoo.com/ 

RSS: Crossing into the Mainstream, by Yahoo and Ipsos Insight, October 2005 
[PDF] http://publisher.yahoo.com/rss/RSS whitePaper1004.pdf 



50 Chris Sherman reviews eight RSS readers (for parsing primarily XML formatted news and blogs); 
some are integrated into a browser while others are standalone products that must be downloaded 
and installed. Chris Sherman, "Choosing an RSS Reader," SearchDay, 1 September 2005, 
< http://searchenginewatch.com/searchday/article.php/3531486 > (14 November 2006). 



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Yahoo Hacks 



While Google hacks — tips, tricks, techniques, and scripts that make Google more 
powerful and useful— are plentiful and fairly well documented, the same cannot be 
said (yet) for Yahoo Hacks, despite the fact that O'Reilly published a Yahoo Hacks 
book in late 2005. Part of the reason for this was the absence of Yahoo APIs, a 
problem Yahoo recognized and rectified with its Developer site. 

Yahoo Developer Network http://developer.yahoo.net/ 

Yahoo Developer Network Blog http://developer.yahoo.net/blog/ 

While many of the hacks, mostly employing some form of API, are geared toward 
maps, Yahoo launched a webpage devoted exclusively to Yahoo and "mixed" API 
applications. 

Yahoo Search Application Gallery 

http://developer.vahoo.net/search/applications.html 

I recommend you pay special attention to the following applications that use Yahoo 
APIs, although you may find others even more useful to you: 

Link Harvester http://www.linkhounds.com/link-harvester/ 

This is a very powerful — but very slow— tool for examining links to a domain or a 
specific url. The example below shows the links to [www.mfa.gov.cn]. Link Harvester 
does the following: 

• quickly finds almost every single site linking into a domain or page. 

• scrapes past the 1 ,000 search result limit by making domain filtering a 
snap. 

• grabs number of pages indexed. 

• grabs links to any page. 

• grabs total inbound links, home page links, and deep link ratio. 

• tool is fast and free, which is great considering all it does. 

• grabs C block IP address information. 

• tool provides links to Wayback Machine and Whois Source (now Domain 
Tools) next to each domain. 

• free & open source 



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• uses the Yahoo API so it complies with their TOS [terms of service]. 

URL (ex. www.sita.com); Link Type: J^. 

[www. mfagov.cn 1 Domain z) [j^~^J Query | Start Over | 



51 



http://api. search, yahoo. conVWebSearchSeiviceA/1/webSearch?query=linkdOfriain:www. mfa.gov.cn 
Enlei silenamesyoii wan) to filtec 



Showing 201 unique domains from the first 250 results of 273 total tesults 



Links To Domain. 61D 
Links To Homepage: 255 



Pages Indexed: 121 

Deep Link Percentage: 58% 



7 Unique Educational Domains ('.edu> with 7 Unique C Block Addi esses 



PtW] [A] [GJ jT] [H] [D] fY| job svauedu.cn (21 210.47. 174.208 
r [W| [AJ [G] HI [HI [D] [Y| cawhu.edu.cn (2) 202.1 14,121 .41 
r \M [A| [G| HI [H| |pj HI www.hrtsz.edu.cn (2) 218.17.227.219 
r |W| |Aj [GJ [I) [H] IPJ (YJ www.scinqy.cdu.cn (21 211 64.115.10 



r [W] [A| [G] [T] (H| [D] [Yj job hzlc.edu en (2) 221 .12.26.151 

nVVj [A| [G] [II [H| [D] [YJ career ruc.edu.cn (2)202.112 117.116 
r |W| [AJ [GJ |T| [H| |D| [YJ iQb.hlju.gdu.cn (2) 210.46.96.35 



12 Unique Goveiment Oomalns f.gov, \mil) wllh 10 Unique C Block Addresses 

j T[W| [AJ |G] [T| [H] [D] |Y| www.mfa.qov.cn (4) 211 99 196.166 

| r |VV] (A] [G] [II [H] I2l (II ernbassY-laiikislan.fmprc.qov.cn (2) 21 1 .93. 196.218 

r |W1 |A] (61 Ml [HJ |DJ (YJ www.scptaciOv.cn (4) 61 15775.21 
' P [W) [A] [GJ HI [HJ |DJ |Y] wwwziqftz.gov.cn (2) 218 4.101 .3 
\ r |W| [A] |G| |T| |H| [D| |Y| gwv20D6.mop.qov.cn (2) 202. 106. 161.242 
' r (W) [A) [G] IJJ [H] |D] |YJ bsq sh uov en (2) 218.242.255. 1 18 



r KSfl [A| [G| [T] [H| [D| [YJ www gov en (2) 202.123.110.3 

r [yVl [*l [G| II] [HI |DJ [YJ wgzc.YWU.gcv.cn (2] 61 .153.32. 13 

r [W| [A| (G| HI [H| [DJ [YJ -ww. Changchun gov en (2) 221 .8.13. 135 

r |W) (A| |G| III [HI |0] JY] portal piefeiUifa.so.qov.bt (2) 200.230. 190.68 

r [WJ [AJ [G] |TJ |H] |0] (YJ wcm.fmprc.gov.cn (2) 21 1 .99. 196. 166 

r [W| [A| [G] HI [HI (D] [YJ wwwaicx.qov.cn (2) 218.75.53.69 



182 Unique Commeric jl Domains {'.com. \net . etc) with 126 Unique C Bl ock Addre sses 



ri^l [AJ [GJ HJ [H] |D) |Y[ www atimss corn (2) 204.14.134.23 
r (W] [A] |G| HI [HJ [D] | YJ www.chmaiiss.om (4) 210.51 . 190.235 
r[W] [A] [G] HJ [HJ [DJ [YJ www.tiaiag.com (2) 203.88.198.18 
r (j^yj [a] [G| IT] [HJ [D] | V J www comguomchina com [2) 67. 15.83. 1 43 
r[W| [A] (GJ HJ [HJ [p] (Y| www.popyard.oftj (2) 72.4.161.148 



TfWl [A| [G| [Tl [H| [D] [YJ wwvvvrjuoshj net. (2) 203.194.128.198 
r |W| |A| |GJ HI |H| |0| [YJ bubbleBncker9li.net (4) 21 1 . 100.24.5 
r [Wl [A| (GJ HI |H| [D] [YJ www.freefepubiic.com (2) 209. 157.64.201 
r |W| |A| (GJ HJ (HJ [0| [YJ spaces.msn com (2) 65.54.153.254 
r [Wl [AJ [GJ |T) [HJ |0} [Y| zivwikipe dia.org (4)207.142.131.213 



For each unique domain, Link Harvester provides [W]=Whois Source data for 
domain; [A]=lnternet Archive data for domain; [G]=Google cache of actual webpage; 
[T]=Google's text only cache of actual webpage; [H]=Google's text only cache of 
domain; [D]=Whois Source's information about the domain from the Open Directory; 
[Y]=Yahoo's Directory Listing of Whois Source data about the domain. 



Hub Finder 



http://www.linkhounds.com/hub-finder/ 



"Hub Finder looks for sites which have co-occurring links to related authoritative 
websites on a particular topic." Basically, Hub Finder locates authoritative websites 
on a particular subject, as in the example below, for java. In this case, the top sites 
(most authoritative resources) for java are shown. Hub Finder also permits users to 
download the data in CSV (Comma Separated Value) format that can be easily 
merged into a spreadsheet or database. 



51 Link Harvester, Linkhounds, < http://www.linkhQunds.com/link-harvester/ > (14 November 2006). 



114 



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Subject 



Java 

Google Key: 



1 5 zllYahooldf^-TJ Downloadcsv 



Include this site (o ptional) Link Type- „ , . Query 
I - " ■ v . r 1~ | UL . Application: i-J 

| I Domain i\ | SortBv J Start Over 



Enter up to 10 sites: 



http: //'jinArw. Java, com 



Queiytng ilie following 5 sites 

i: http://wwrt.java.com 
2: java.sun.com 
3: www.java com 
4. rdrwl yahoo.com 

5: javaboutique. internet. com 

Showing 45 sites with at least 2 matching hacklinks fioin 178 se.irch lesulrs 



12 3 4 

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[HI IB! 
[H][D] 
[H] |D] 

[H] Itll 
(H) I0| 

[hi \m 

[HMO] 
Id] [D] 
[H] [D] 



Site Nome 

[Y | biogs.stin.com (209.249. 1 1 6.203) 

\1) Java sun. corn (209.249.1 16.141) 

[Y| www.icp org (192.18.97.62) 

[Yj www.mic-rosofl.com (207.46.18.30) 

III wffA-.8uri.corn (209.249.1 16.195) 

[Y] wvw.ialkcity com (66.37.219.37) 

[Y] atjantis.tiiqdshciames.com (63.251.168.82) 

(YJ csmeiot straiics.com (64,158.108.35) 

[Yj dassent net (69.60.119 225) 



»-in .r-int 



The following Yahoo Hacks generally mirror certain Google hacks, with the 
exception of the originurlextension: syntax, which is unique to Yahoo and very 
powerful. 

> Disabling Word Stemming . Yahoo does not give users the option to turn off 
word stemming, which can frustrate users trying to perform precise searches. 
To run a precise search, enclose the term in double-quotes, e.g., ["drink"] will 
not find drinks (except in sponsored results). 

> Searching by Filetype . Despite the fact Yahoo mysteriously disabled its 
filetype syntax, you can use originurlextension: to search by file type, but 
this syntax is imperfect. 

Examples of how to use the originurlextension; command : 



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> [originurlextension:pdf "white paper"] finds pages indexed by Yahoo that are 
in PDF format and contain the phrase ["white paper"] anywhere in the text, 
title, or url. 

To search by specific type of file, use the syntax originurlextension: plus one of 
these or any file extension, such as cgi, log, zip, etc. Because this workaround 
is not a true filetype search, you can search on any file extension. 

o htm or html — standard webpage 

o pdf — Adobe Acrobat 

o xls — MS Excel 

o ppt— MS PowerPoint 

o doc— MS Word 

o txt — text 

o xml, rdf, rss— RSS or XML feeds 52 

Searchroller . Searchroller uses a JavaScript to let you create a neat little search 
query bookmarklet 53 for your future use. The bookmarklet comprises a set of 
domains you like to search on routinely but don't want to type in each time. For 
example, perhaps you'd like to search simultaneously on a whole group of news 
sites. Tara Calishain's script lets you input the urls for the news' sites once, then 
save them to your Favorites or Bookmarks. Each time you click on the bookmarklet, 
a screen will appear asking you to enter a query term or terms, then the bookmarklet 
will automatically go to Yahoo and run that query against all the urls you have 
previously selected. It's a great timesaver when you consider this is a typical 
Searchroller bookmarklet query, although it could be much longer: 

[iraq (sitexnn.com OR site:msnbc.com OR site:usatoday.com] OR 
[site:nytimes.com OR site:washingtonpost.com OR site:bbc.co.uk )] 

Searchroller 

http://www.researchbuzz.org/2004/10/new yahoo hack searchroller fo.shtml 

Artificial Proximity Search . Since Yahoo's APIs are so new and as yet not fully 
exploited, clever folks like Tara Calishain have come up with ways to force Yahoo to 
perform new types of searches. The proximity search lets you input one search term 
and look for it from 1 to 5 "spaces" (really, words) from a second search term. For 
example, I can search for henry within two words of thoreau and find many instances 



52 In order to read RSS or XML feeds, you need a reader or aggregator to parse this type of data. 

53 A bookmarklet is a tiny JavaScript application contained in a bookmark that can be saved and used 
the same way you use normal bookmarks. Bookmarklets do not require users to download and install 
software . For more on bookmarklets, visit < http://www.bookmarklets.com/ >. 



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of Henry David Thoreau. This tool is very good for finding names with the last name 
listed first, e.g., Thoreau, Henry David. 



YNAPS -Yahoo Non-API Proximity Search 

Try using an artificial NEAR search for Yahoo: 



Find Word One: (henry 
Within 1 2 ▼! spaces of 



Word Two: (thoreau 
Any additional words? \ 
Search | Start Over j 

Yahoo Proximity Search 

http://www.researchbuzz.orq/2QQ4/10/vnaps yahoo nonapi proximity s.shtml 

Boilerplate Words or Phrases Yield Gold . Used in combination with keywords, 
standardized words or phrases can produce very useful results from Yahoo as well 
as Google. Whether it's "company proprietary," "not for distribution," or a copyright 
disclaimer, these are the kinds of identifying query terms that searchers need to look 
for. 



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Windows Live Search 



MSN Search is no more. As of mid-September 2006, Windows Live Search was out 
of beta and officially supplanted MSN Search. It came as a surprise to no one that 
the new Live Search has the familiar clean, uncluttered look popularized by Google. 
Live marks a clear change in Microsoft's overall direction from a multipurpose portal 
to a search service: "Live.com is now first and foremost a search destination," 
according to Christopher Payne, Microsoft's corporate vice president. 54 

The question on everyone's mind is whether or not Live Search is any better than 
MSN Search or Google or Yahoo or any number of other search engines. Thus far, 
Live is not noticeably superior to MSN Search, but it is a one of the top three largest 
and most powerful US-based search engines. 

The new Windows Live Search: 

> uses its own database for web search. 

> indexes at least 5 billion pages. 

> offers cached links with the date Microsoft estimates the page was last 
updated (usually the date the Microsoft spider last crawled the page); 
sometimes a date will appear next to the cached link on the results' page if 
that page has recently been updated. 

> has a "Near Me" search option that only works in the US; it uses your IP 
address to determine your location; users can override this location by 
changing it on the Options page. Note that you cannot leave the default 
location empty, if you do not enter a location, Live Search will default to 
what it reads as your IP address's geolocation. 

> offers web, news, image, local, Q&A, academic, feeds, video, products, and 
new "build your own" searches. 

> offers preference control via "options." 

The "Search Builder" query customization tool has been replaced by the "Advanced" 
option; as with "Search Builder" the Advanced option opens a little window beneath 
the search form. 



54 Chris Sherman, "Microsoft Upgrades Live Search Offerings," SearchEngineWatch, 12 September 
2006, < http://searchenqinewatch.com/showPaqe.html?page=3623401 > (5 October 2006). 



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Customizing Live Search Settings ("Options") 

Live Search currently offers these user-defined options (preferences): 

> Display : display the site in a specific language (most major languages with 
some notable exceptions, e.g., Arabic, Thai). 

> Number of Results : choose to display 10, 15, 30, or 50 results at a time. 

> Group results from the same site : Show the first 1 , 2, or 3 results. 

> Open Links in New Browser Window : yes or no. 

> SafeSearch Filter : choose among Strict, Moderate, Off. 

> Location : set a default location; Microsoft detects your physical location from 
your IP address, but you may enter a new geographical location in its place. 
Remember: you cannot leave the default location empty. If you do not enter a 
location, Live Search will default to what it reads as your IP address's 
geolocation. 

> Search Language : search in any language or search in one or more of 38 
languages including Arabic, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Hebrew. 

The Live Search Results Page 

The clean look continues on the results' page. Once you have entered your search 
term(s) and clicked the Live Search button, Live will present you with a list of results. 
Depending on the search you are running, you will see some or all of the following 
for a web search: 



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<$M» Live Seatcii 



Cardinal stearin . 

Offers drug devetapisraril Benraces.-im ttw pharmaceutical and-tiistechndtogy 

tedustry- pahiafeiss r^TW^fan oo--tr&-rijj'a^y 1 ihWfter lalaikms. and; r>ews 






B 



. -€!sre-ers- i. Cmx JmzAiHz&fa 
' Chryimai Health m pm t**&rt6' provider. of products, service -arid: t^tf wntwt pys- 
; -^upfiEodK^ ihtf health .;..-: AS Carditis! 'Hsaltli every tteirsg; >*•(» da has Mb 
■ ui.ti^te. purpose-; lo M^ot? eu»*tM»w. tffll .-. 

product o$^M#war. 

^^.„^i^!.&^Jj^!.!|!,'?..l.i" Elto.LM.fliM 

Cardinal Mflf^h h i\n\QM' rsg _ provider: of produces, w vices $nd teehnotogiss- 
siifjpflr&ig #&g h^tr> ,. ? Wcrk^ng #t Cardinal Health,, cardinal Hzdih §Si 'quietly 
ti^nsfhrmetf ItsefSfrom the.'Fastest *.. 



Related searchfisr 
St Louis Cartfmab; 
Cardinal He/ih;h 

tew Cardinals 
Cardinal Bird 
LaiifSvflffe-'C-ardlrKa'S 

Cabins! RRtares 

^n^umMp «*«s ' Iff™ ' 
Cardinal Jf 

Looking for Cardirnil?;?fnct exactly 

Great Jsifaora Cardiff iSfis For m**, 
w'oT^fi, trSWai 

*>W £■ ■. , ;»*Ji(«?*a. ? .!(';?...«om 



> A Type of results (web, image, etc.): the number of resulting pages and 
estimated total number of results. 

> B The title of the webpage found, an excerpt from the webpage with the 

search terms bolded, the url of the webpage. 

> C Cached page : links to a copy of the page as saved by the Live Search 
engine; Live Search shows the last date the page was examined by its spider; 
search terms are not highlighted on the cached page. Important Note : the 
cached copy of Microsoft file types are safe to view. 

> D Additional results from the same site; clicking on "Show more results 
from..." will bring up the pages from that site that match the keyword(s). 

> E Related Searches offer options either for similar terms or terms with 
multiple meanings, e.g., "cardinal." 

> F Sponsored Sites are paid results. 



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Live Basic Search http://www.live.com/ 

Live Search has changed little about its basic search internals in terms of how it 
handles queries and the number of basic search options. 

Live Search assumes as its default that multiple search terms are joined by the AND 
operator, so that a search on the keywords [windows explorer] will find all the 
webpages that contain both search terms. 

Live Search recognizes double quotes as enclosing a phrase. 

Live Search will not return any results if there is no webpage containing all the 
search terms. Try this query to see what I mean: 

[rollerskate handshake specktioneer] 

Unlike Google, Live Search does not limit the number of search terms to 10 
keywords. Live will try to match all the keywords you enter. 

Live Search is not case sensitive. 

Live Search does not offer any word stemming or truncation, i.e., searching for 
variations of search terms. A search for [child] will not find [children]. 

Live Search automatically clusters search results. If you want to see more pages 
from a specific site, simply select the link following the url of the result. 

Live permits the use of nested boolean queries in simple search. The operators 
must be capitalized. Live Search will run nested boolean queries (those using 
parentheses), such as: 

[cardinals AND ("st louis" OR arizona) NOT (bird OR catholic)] 

Live Search will ignore stop words, i.e., commonplace words, if the query 
contains non-stop words; the query [to be or not to be] will only search for the term 
"not." However, you can search on any single letter or number by itself, e.g., [1]. You 
can also force Live Search to look for stop words either by enclosing the query in 
double quotes ["to be or not to be"] or by placing a plus sign in front of the stop word, 
e.g., [+1 number] or [+to +be +or +not]. 

Otherwise, it is unnecessary to use the plus sign (+) with any terms because by 
default Live Search searches for all keywords. However, many times searchers need 
to exclude certain terms that are commonly associated with a keyword but irrelevant 
to their search. That's where the minus sign (-) comes in. Using the minus sign in 
front of a keyword ensures that Live Search excludes that term from the search. For 
example, the results for the search ["pearl harbor" -movie] are very different from the 



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results for ["pearl harbor"]. You may use the boolean operator NOT instead of the 
minus sign. 

Live Search interprets the ampersand [&] as a space, so these searches are 
virtually identical: [at&t], [at & t], ["at t"]. Also, while Live Search will not actually 
search on a plus sign, the search engine will search for [C++], although it does not 
recognize [c+]. 

Live Search Advanced Search 

Thus far, while Live Search added more advanced search options, it still falls behind 
Yahoo and Google in the number and type of advanced search options it offers. 
Nonetheless, Live Search has several advanced search features that are accessible 
by clicking on the "Advanced" link, which opens a small window that used to be 
labeled "Search Builder" in MSN Search and is still called that on the Help pages. 
The advanced search options may also be employed directly by using the correct 
syntax in the query box. Live Search's web search help is accessible from a link on 
the Live Search home page, but I prefer the old MSN Search, which is still available 
and at this point still accurate. 

Windows Live Search Help http://search.msn.com/docs/help.aspx 

Live Search now offers as many languages in which users may search as Yahoo 
and Google. Using either the language preference settings or the advanced search 
window, users can select from nearly 40 languages in which to search and see 
results. There are three ways to specify a search language: 

1. in the Advanced search window, select Language, then pull down and click on 
a specific language. 

2. type your search terms into the search box, and then add language: followed 
immediately by the two-character language code. For example, to search only 
for sites in French: [language:fr keyword] 

3. a more permanent change would be to go to the Options page and change 
your primary search language. 

Live Search does not distinguish words using diacritical marks such as accents or 
umlauts. Live Search finds terms matching those with and without the diacritic. The 
term [fagade] finds facade and facade, and vice versa. 

Live Search offers several special search terms to restrict searches and make them 
more effective. 



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> site/domain: restricts results to a specific website or domain, including a specific 
top-level domain. Can be used with or without keywords. 

Advanced Search > Site/Domain returns results from specific domains (com, gov, 
dell.com, a country digraph, etc.) 

Examples of how to use the site: command: 

[site:amazon.com] finds www.amazon.com, auction.amazon.com, 

www.amazon.com/dvd/. However, it will not find www.amazon.com.br. 

[books -site:amazon.com] finds pages containing the keyword "books" that are 
not at any amazon.com website. 

[site:ir] finds all the pages from the Iranian (.ir) top-level domain indexed by Live 
Search. 

> country/region: on the Advanced menu; it is identical to the site/domain search 
for a country digraph. However, if you do not know a country's top-level domain, 
you can use the Country/Region pull-down menu to select the country, and Live 
Search will automatically enter the correct country digraph for you. 

> language: restricts results to pages in a specific language. Users must specify a 
language using the two-letter code or use Advanced Search. Can be used with or 
without additional keywords. 

Advanced Search > Language uses pull-down menu to select languages. 

Examples of how to use the language: command: 

[language:ro] restricts results to sites written in Romanian. 

[Ianguage:es domain:mx mexico] restricts results to sites written in Spanish in the 
Mexican top-level domain that contain the term "mexico." 

> url: unlike Google's url query, Live's url query checks to see if the domain or web 
address is in the Live Search index. This query is not really intended to be used 
with other search terms. 

Examples of how to use the url: command: 

[url:nasa.gov] or [url:education.jpl.nasa.gov] will check to see if a site is indexed 
by Live Search. 

> inurl: restricts results to pages that contain search terms within the url of a site. 
Multiple terms can be used, but all must appear in the url (this query is similar to 
Google's allinurl: query). 

Examples of how to use the inurl: command: 



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[inurkmicrosoft] finds all pages containing "microsoft" anywhere in the url 

[inuitmicrosoft downloads] finds all pages containing both the terms "microsoft" 
and "downloads" anywhere in the url. 

> inbody: restricts results to pages containing search term(s) in the body of a 
webpage. Can be used with or without other search terms. 

Example of how to use the inbody: command: 

[inbody:amazon -inurkamazon] finds all pages containing the term "amazon" 
anywhere in the body (text) of a webpage but which do not contain the term 
"amazon" in the url of the page. 

> intitle: restricts results to pages containing search term(s) in the webpage's title. 
Can be used with or without other search terms. 

Examples of how to use the intitle: command: 

[intitle:amazon inbody:brazil] will find pages that contain "amazon" in the title of 
the webpage and "brazil" in the body text of the webpage. 

> contains: restricts results to pages that have links to specific the file type(s). Can 
be used with or without other search terms. 

Examples of how to the contains: command: 

[music contains:mp3] finds webpages that contain links to MP3 files and have the 
keyword "music" in them. 

["final report" contains:pdf] finds webpages that contain links to PDF files that 
have the phrase "final report" in them. 

> link: Restricts results to pages containing links to a specific url. Can be used with 
or without additional keywords. 

Advanced Search > Links to returns results for pages that currently link to a 
specific url. 

Examples of how to use the link: command: 

[linkijpl. nasa.gov] finds all pages containing links to the specific domain 
jpl.nasa.gov. 

[Iink.jpl.nasa.gov asteroid] finds all pages containing links to any page in the 
jpl.nasa.gov domain and the keyword "asteroid" anywhere on the linking 
webpage. 



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> linkdomain: Restricts results to pages that link to any page within the specified 
domain. This is a broader search than the link: query. You can use this option to 
determine how many links there are to a specific page from sites indexed by Live 
Search. Can be used with or without additional keywords. 

Examples of how to use linkdomain: 

[linkdomain:jpl. nasa.gov] finds all pages containing links to any page at 
jpl.nasa.gov, including echo.jpl.nasa.gov, voyager.jpl.nasa.gov, etc. 

[linkdomain:jpl. nasa.gov cassini] finds all pages containing links to any page at 
jpl.nasa.gov and that also include the term "cassini" at the linking website. 

star [linkdomain:jpl. nasa.gov -site:jpl. nasa.gov] will find all pages containing links 
to any page at jpl.nasa.gov from sites other than jpl.nasa.gov (this eliminates 
internal links from the overall results). 

> linkfromdomain: Restricts results to pages that are linked from the specified 
domain. This query only works with second-level domains, e.g., [domain.com]. 
You can use this option to determine how many links there are from a specific 
page. Can be used with or without additional keywords. 

Examples of how to use linkfromdomain: 

[linkfromdomain:nasa.gov] finds all the pages the nasa.gov domain links to, i.e., 
links from nasa.gov to site x. 

[Iinkfromdomain:nasa.gov standards] finds all pages the nasa.gov domain links to 
that contain the term "standards" on their webpage, i.e., links from nasa.gov to 
site x where site x contains the keyword "standards." 

> Results ranking: allows users to emphasize different factors to get a different 
set of results for the same search. 

1. Type your search terms into the search text box, and then click Advanced 
Search. 

2. Select Results ranking, and then move the equalizer slider(s) in the direction 
you want. 

Live Search Help explains Results ranking in this way: 

"You can put emphasis on different factors to get a different set of results for the 
same search. The sliders control: 

• Updated recently: To modify your search to add emphasis to sites that 
have been recently added to the search index, move the left slider up. 



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• Very popular: To add emphasis to sites by the number of other sites that 
link to them, move the middle slider up. 

• Approximate match: To put the most emphasis on the match between 
your exact search words and your results, move the right slider down. 

Notes 

• Approximate match overrides the first two slider rankings. 

• Results ranking applies to web searches only." 

It is easier to visualize how to use results ranking by looking at an example. In this 
case, the search on ["saudi arabia"] has been reranked to emphasize pages that 
have been recently updated {frsh=100} means the "freshness" ranking of these 
pages is 100 or the most recently updated pages in the Live Search database: 



l"saueti arabia" ffrsh=l 00! 

Search terms Updated ler^ently Very popular Approximate match 
Site/Do main 

Unks to t ■ * 

Country/Region 
Language 
Results ranking! 



I i i 

Static Less pernor Exact match 

Slide the bars to weight these factors. *.v .*•'.■. ■ ; r^ 



> filetype: restricts results to a specific filetype. Can be used with or without 
additional keywords. The file types Live Search will search for include the major 
Microsoft file types and a few others: 

Microsoft Excel (xls) 

Microsoft PowerPoint (ppt) 

Microsoft Word (doc) 

Portable Document Format (pdf) 

Rich Text Format (rtf) 

Text (txt) 

Examples of how to use the filetype: command: 



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[filetype:doc domain:nasa.gov] finds all Word files at the NASA domain in Word 
format. 

[filetypeixls "financial data"] finds all Excel spreadsheets that contain the phrase 
"financial data." 

Live Search does offer safe previewing of non-HTML file types, and this is 
especially useful for Microsoft file types, such as Word documents and 
PowerPoint slides. In order to access the safe HTML versions, users must 
select the " Cached page " on the results page: 




I Wfcfe 



f0#$ype:-dot report »«&• i ni wajtttj r*#s$* ■ £&&£&£ * Mmm4 
GUdefirres flor a i Rgyss&fl ppgqr^m Risooft 

Guidelines f&i Prep&nnq 5 Revised Program Report, in Spring 20*0? . X ffev'isad 

.Program Report d&&$ not ra^Lire the submission -of all cEawponente of the original 

report. 

W: Ww,ncat^^m/docu8Tieri:U /u ra^rai^f^ vie **/ £ tfkf $iir%& s&e vl sad Pn:&gr acn&Bip ort >&*c 



J rasa 



> IP: flips all ;the*sit^%v6Ti a.spe5ific,ho5t,cdniguter; Can be used with or without 
additional keywords. 

Examples of how to use the ip: command: 

[ip:66.21 8.77.68] finds all the sites on this specific host computer. 

[ip:66.218. 77.68 "computer security"] finds all the sites on this specific host 
computer containing the phrase "computer security." 



> p&di;one.of twoi 



I It limits 

searches to text within a feed. Feeds are specially formatted brief descriptions of 
content with a link to the full version of that content. RSS (and the competing 
Atom) feeds are in XML format. These feeds are usually used for syndicating 
web content such as blogs and news. The feed: command only searches the text 
of the feed, which is often a very condensed description of the full web content. 

Example of how to use the feed: command: 

[feed:"trojan horse"] 

Each of the results represents an XML feed that includes the phrase "trojan 
horse." There is no point in clicking on the link in a browser because that brings 



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up the XML page that most browsers are not designed to parse. The cached 
copy shows the search terms as they appeared in the feed. 

> hasfeed: shows the pages that offer feed links and, if you add a keyword 
(something I'm pretty sure Live intended you to do), the pages with feed links and 
that also have that keyword somewhere on the page. 

Examples of how to use the hasfeed: command: 

[hasfeed :"trojan horses"] 

The results are webpages that offer news feeds and contain the phrase "trojan 
horses" on the webpage. This does not guarantee, however, that the news feed 
will be about Trojan horses, but the chances are good that if you are looking for 
sites with newsfeeds about this topic, you can find them using this query. 

[hasfeed encryption site:microsoft.com] 

This query should find the pages at the Microsoft website with feeds about 
encryption. What this query actually finds are pages at the Microsoft site that 
contain both XML feeds and the word encryption in the text, so a little research 
will reveal which of these Microsoft newsfeeds are the most appropriate to the 
topic of encryption. 

This command is listed at the Live.com but is not working properly: 

> inanchor: restricts results to pages containing search term(s) in the webpage 
anchor. 

Live Search Special Features 

Spell Checker: Live Search has a very good spell check option. When you input a 
query, Live checks to see if you are using the most common spelling of the keyword. 
If not, just like Google, Live nicely asks, * Were you looking for x, where x is the 
most common spelling. The Live Search dictionary also includes some proper 
names. 

Dictionary Definitions: as with Google and Yahoo, Live Search offers the define 
option. To use it, type [define] then a word or brief phrase, e.g., [define king cobra]. 
Live's define option is more limited than some others because it only refers to 
Encarta. 

Encarta: Microsoft's encyclopedia and general reference source Encarta provides 
answers to questions and facts about a topic. Users can type questions and 
(sometimes) get direct answers to them by simply entering a question and clicking 
on Search. Live Search does a much better job of correctly answering questions 
than MSN Search did (unlike its predecessor, it correctly identified Chirac as the 



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French president). Live Search can also directly answer certain specific questions, 
such as [how tall is the empire state building]: 




W*$F 




bow tall i!t th> empire state tiuilrfing F-^-ae \ J. 3?i,35? :ti*>. -« • pg^g ■* * &g$ggj 

-■■•'■ s ■■ ' ... -'-:■: : f 

s» - *.-,■' p r — -■■■.. -~^gr:t—- ■■:•>>? ■■■ :^--'-- ■■ .. .:^- : ,: 

i -■ .', . _■ ■ : ' ' ,. '■ ■■-•'!? 

ft ffirfofci State Sulidi^ Ft&w mfrfflft, U^f>ed Stetts bright: '381 
m/i,2 : 50 ft ^f^-.jrY^ 



W<^*v*sb irrv? 

&VC qif'taanej jatifvenifs'sucti a? f'Letva 
N< FPtfV; m$& ami raw on sase 

*tect'*#tM9 5ay<? pn-.hotefe near 
Empire «t*»t«» fcu'Wing;_Mgw Vqrf;. 



Live Search no longer has the Encarta option that used to exist on MSN Search. For 
now, the easiest way I have found to invoke Encarta from Live Search and to take 
advantage of the Encarta Free Pass is to limit your search to Encarta using the site: 
syntax, e.g., [site:encarta. msn.com keyword]. This will give you two hours of free 
Encarta research. 

Measurement Conversions: Live Search uses Encarta Answers to convert 
distance, weight, time, volume, and temperature. The conversions may be stated as 
questions, e.g., [how many seconds in a year?], or as a simple phrase: 







® 2S depress Fa-hrerr.beit =■ -3u8SQ0S'9 dtepree^ Celsius- *!&**&&&, 

RSS Results: when added to the end of any search result, the &format=rss 
parameter will provide users those search results via RSS. "When you subscribe to 
this RSS feed from Live Search, you'll get the top ten search results for this query 
delivered to your RSS Reader or personalized site. You can subscribe to any 
number of RSS feeds of Live Search results and view them all in your RSS Reader 
without re-running your search queries." To use this option, first search for your 
terms., e.g., [tsunami relief]. On the results' page, add &format=rss to the end of the 
url in the address bar and hit return: 

http://search.live.com/results.aspx?q=tsunami&mkt=en- 
US&form=QBRE&go.x=0&go.y=0&go=Search&format=rss 



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The resulting page will look something like this; from here, follow the instructions on 
the webpage: 

Thfs-iWh*' RSS. reeflior yoiir march, When you subscribe to xm rss faed rnqm-MSN-^arch. you's g«r-the top-.ten; 
search result? rormis qiasefy. delivered to. 'fiHr RSS rteaaeror person'aSzed.^.You.ea'ri iiiHadrsbe to aoy numfc&f of'R$S 
seeds of MSN Seafcnireaiteiarid-yi'ewmemti ȴ*# RSS Reat^r.^oU^runriingyDtir search- guerles; if you woufca 
tike to'learrv more about -RSS and haw.to*use rt vtsiour hei>] topic.on She subject &i£# 8aarh : R8S'- Fastis 

You can subscribe- toitffis reed-by copytog:tne ufi-and pasting it irao your RSS;feaow 
tvttp/fttart Ml v *. c onrcrer esurts:a$j*x?.<f^urwriti Mormapr ss *f ORftf^RORE 

Osr, if-you a&eady . use one of these refers, you can sutisc ra&e-with Just- one dicK 



Pacific- Tain^mii Museum Horiregacie 

Museum mpr^i^puiftie education ^out-tsunamis por me people wwRauffc-Re^oft-Tfe museum tmb aiso,0f«#yfc 

social and cultural history and. serve aia-iMng-metsariai to mo$e *«io losL.mat ... 

2**fepte*D*l9'QBl>ff- 

Tsunami - Wi^ pedig, jhe free ^cy:ofop6di3 

A tsunami (pronunciation Vsy'neimtf of/t9U , nfl:mif ) js'a series of wavetfwtien s body of wafer , such as amocean.is 
rapidly-displaced on.a masa&'e Kile. Earthquakes , mas* 'movements auove or,.. ' 

2003 jfgj an Ocean jg^^j fe* WiHfogtii & t^ fre^.t nc^gtagg^ g 

f he disasraris toown in Asfa and in the Hrte$natjaaal.media.3$#ie A*Jan Isunamf . and.ateo catted the BrjKJncjDay 
isunsm in Australia , Canada jkem Zealand „ and the Uriited Kingdom as it.tooh place orr ... 

Welcome to Tsunami! Tsunamil is hosted and maintained at me LtriiversiEy ofV^hrigton try the Department of Earth 
and Space Sconces s This wetrsaetsdedicated to pwvidlng.general ...., ■ 

Number Search: Live Search offers many types of number searches, including: 

> UPS tracking: enter the UPS tracking number [1Z9999X99999999] or [ups 
1Z9999X99999999J. 

> USPS tracking: enter the tracking number or USPS plus the tracking number 
with or without spaces [usps 9999999999999999999999]. 

> FedEx tracking: enter the tracking number or FEDEX plus the tracking 
number [fedex 9999999999999999]. 

> DHL and Airborne Express tracking; enter DHL plus the tracking number 
[DHL 9999999999]; a DHL tracking search must include DHL in the query. 

ISBN: enter any International Standard Book Number or [isbn 9999999999],. 



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Calculator: Live Search uses the Encarta Calculator and Equation Solver to perform 
mathematical functions using "operators, exponents, and roots, factorials, modulo, 
percentages, logarithms, trig functions, and mathematical constants." The Encarta 
calculator appears to be the most sophisticated of all those offered by major search 
engines because it will even solve complex algebraic equations, such as 4x A 3- 
2x+.9=0 

The Live Search calculator uses the following symbols: 



Add 


+ 


Subtract 




Multiply 


* 


Divide 


/ 


Raise a number to an exponent (For example, 3 A 2 is 3 squared) 


A 


Specify the order of operation 





Find a percent of a number 


% of 


Find the square root of a number 


sqrt 


Find the sine of an angle 


sin 


Find the cosine of an angle 


cos 


Find the cosine of an angle 


I 



http://search.world.msn.com/docs/help.aspx?t=SEARCH FROC FindFactsNStatistics.htm 



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Live Search Services 

Images: the Live Search image database is no longer Picsearch. Instead, Live 
Image Search uses Microsoft's own proprietary image database. Images are 
displayed as thumbnails (small versions of the original images), and the user can 
resize the thumbnails either using the slider or the dropdown "all image size" menu. 
One of the other changes to image search is the addition of a Scratchpad, which lets 
users drag and drop images onto a collection of images on the right-hand size of the 
screen. At this time, you do not have to have an account with Live in order to retrieve 
your image collections (they are retrieved based upon a cookie set by Live). When 
you mouse over an image, it zooms to a slightly larger size and moves toward the 
center and a box appears that shows the image source and size, and a link to the 
page where the image resides. If you click on the link, the linked page appears on 
the right with a "show image" in the top left corner. At present there are no advanced 
search options for images. 







j t*fl*' ; Afcvi 



. % sr.tf. r-:-rtz-A :-;*■■■<:■: " 



U-wan Mcewttl f?*e**s* 



Also, when you search for a famous person using Live image search, look for the 
"Related People" window to appear on the right side of the screen. This can be an 



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extremely useful tool in finding relationships between people in the news or historical 

figures. 

The Live image search respects some but not all of the web search syntax and 
some of it is not really very useful for image search: 

> site/domain: restricts results to images from a specific website or domain, 
including a specific top-level domain (com, gov, dell.com, a country digraph, 
etc.). May be used with or without keywords. 

Examples of how to use the site: command in image search: 

[site:amazon.com "twelfth night"] finds images of "twelfth night" that are from 
amazon.com; note that the images from amazon.com may reside on another 
website (amazon.com is in the image's url). 

[site:ir] finds all the image pages from the Iranian (.ir) top-level domain indexed 
by Live Search. 

> inurl: restricts results to images that contain the term in the url of the image 
itself. Can be used with or without other search terms. 

Examples of how to use the inurl: command in image search: 

[inurl:amazon "rain forest"] finds all pages containing "amazon" in the url of the 
image and "rain forest" anywhere on the webpage. 

> intitle: restricts results to images that appear on pages containing search term(s) 
in the title of the webpage. Can be used with or without other search terms. 

Examples of how to use the intitle: command in image search: 

[intitle:amazon brazil] will find pages that contain "amazon" in the title of the 
webpage and "brazil" anywhere on the webpage. 

[intitle:amazon inurl:brazil] will find pages that contain "amazon" in the title of the 
webpage and "brazil" in the image's url. 

Video Search: Live video search is clearly trying to be competitive in the video 
search market. In October, Microsoft announced a new partnership with Blinkx to 
power its video search. This looks like a very good move for Microsoft. "Blinkx 
already powers video search on sites ranging from AOL to ITN, Lycos and Times 
Online. It also indexes video from the likes of BCC, Fox, MTV, Sky News, Reuters 
and YouTube and makes and makes videos on those sites searchable on Blinkx or 
partner sites. To date, the company has indexed more than six million hours of 
audio, video, and TV programming to make it searchable." 55 However, as of this 
writing, the Live video search has not yet been updated to reflect this 
partnership. 



55 Eric Auchard, "Blinkx Signs Microsoft Pact," Reuters via Yahoo, 9 October 2006, 
< http://news.yahoo.eom/s/nm/2Q061009/wr nm/media blinkx dc 3 > (17 October 2006). 



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As of now, the Live video search results include a thumbnail image from the video 
with the title, source, length, and format. All videos are viewed at the originating site, 
as shown below with the Newsweek On Air interview with Iranian President 
Ahmadinejad. 



ahniaditiRJad 



~4*3 farefet 




AiM: 



'1&)d Hamburg 





S^tT24^'ap06: Newswsl Weymouth ar^Fat^rWghadrtam, 

author of "Prom, the ^erromt's Q.ow&of View," (Prssgsr Security 

Euro- Arab L 
(i983)'meli,. 

Siawpc/riteF, .Mj 
$€ translates b{ 

******* -&*sj 

Jim 

0«mis Mi8er goes 
priceless. 

• »#LSri>»lflgjJ Iran C? 

iranVPfesictent said hi , 

uranium enrichment .de-Vt ?*! 

■ 
1 1 ■ 



MA. Kfifki'J 





■!i. Tak 




Tad ton Gf ; vwtfi ; Ahmndiri3Jad 



. A^t^^irt^-ivid i ' [Eon Dbftsry tS .y«jw ^ w ^ ^ ^ t 

Iran"? P/£s<c)em saw* his c*fumry is wiring lb"' discuss a" suspemfem of 

uranium enrichment.., 9/2006 Reuters 



You can use some of the web search syntax for video search. Note the difference 
between these two searches: 

[site:reuters.com iran] 

[reuters iran] 

The first query returns only those videos on Iran from the Reuters website; the 
second query returns queries from any site that includes the keywords "reuters" and 
Iran." We will have to wait and see how these query options change once the 
results come from Blinkx. 

News Search: as of now, the Live news search is only a list of stories listed by 
relevance. MSN Newsbot < http://newsbot.msnbc.msn.com/ > remains Microsoft's 
premier news page. However, if you want to search for news stories, MSN Newsbot 
takes you directly to the new Live news search. Most of the web search 
commands work for news search. Especially useful is the site/domain: syntax, 
which lets users limit a news query to a specific source: 



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[site:washingtonpost.com iran] finds pages at the Washington Post website that 
contain the keyword "iran." One big drawback of the Live news search is its inability 
to list the results by date. 

Feed Search (Beta): This search is virtually identical to the feed: websearch. It 
limits searches to text within a feed. Feeds are specially formatted brief descriptions 
of content with a link to the full version of that content. RSS (and the competing 
Atom) feeds are in XML format. These feeds are usually used for syndicating web 
content such as blogs and news. The feed search only searches the text of the feed, 
which is often a very condensed description of the full web content. 

Example of how to use the feed: command: 

[feed:"trojan horse"] 

Each of the results represents an XML feed that includes the phrase "trojan horse." 
There is no point in clicking on the link in a browser because that brings up the XML 
page that most browsers are not designed to parse. The cached copy shows the 
search terms as they appeared in the feed. 

Live Book Search (beta): Microsoft added its own proprietary book search in late 
2006. Details are in the Book Search section below. 

Academic (Beta): Microsoft introduced Academic Search Beta for scholarly search 
earlier this year, and it is now also a Live search option. Academic search still has a 
separate website at the Windows Academic Live Beta Homepage . Clearly, 
Academic search is intended to compete with Google Scholar and other scholarly 
search sites. Unlike Google Scholar, Academic search focuses on computer 
science, physics, medical, and electrical engineering publications. As with Amazon 
and Google Scholar, Academic search has partnered with the Online Computer 
Library Center (OCLC). "OCLC's involvement in Windows Live Academic is part of 
the Open WorldCat Find in a Library program," 56 and also provides metadata from 
WorldCat to Academic search to give researchers access to the resources in library 
collections around the world. 

As with almost anything, Academic search has good features and weaknesses. Here 
is a snapshot of the first page of results on the search [neural network]. When you 
execute a query, you will be presented with an interface that looks like this. One of 
the first things you notice is the split screen, which I actually like. 



56 "WorldCat live in Windows Live Academic search tool," OCLC Newsletter, Issue 2, 2006, 
< http://www.oclc.org/nextspace/002/updates.htnn > (17 October 2006). 



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safH^T .^$i$s un& Qi 



w^pf-n*' <m r ' i'-4-(5? : 4;^j -■■- 

Wt cii- *vrnG*jrst. network w-fodm* rv&uralrn?twa«^ i$H'( 






A-tio ysi fu zzy neural net work: Vha yaqiffi , neayalnetworfe j 

ft N^ei-fci^y Neural Network; Th* ■■-■■^m. h^falNetwarfc r&ng'StJli 
^wWlfilft, *nrf ii We^sKAriy h$ <H tf-6v'<tfN«feM 5c&pM and 



>.. - yifirffehgd version (2QC)L) 

Isss^eurai-netwqrfc- based ki?y\Qs& sar^al srtd $t£sta s^stero, 






, i ; #b&racl. Bfferex- &£f*» 



7ti% ■ 

.4 ,. v , u ~- = ■ a ;^ ■■ '^ ~ ; &£ 'vsis- ...:' ' - ■IF"' 

IjjyiUJI ft^JPt! 4ft 

.M* s f:-i i : , 

"Thifpfiper tfivc^^s.a n-jvs^-litur^'arcHrliscUjtfe.whie of-iiroii&r 

j^^w*c*'i£i.$nv> : c> neural :p*T3>i?gr vfoqave*? 

.'-:. .*■ v: 

fiW *sr. -'■ ■■r-xire ^jt^h- -.*- j* T w> b«** ars Ua^c^ifee<J &$$ the te«sfc»a' 

! *F 



On the left you see the results; on the right-hand side of the screen is more detailed 
information that appears automatically as you click on different results. You have the 
option to view the abstract or properly formatted citations: 

1. Slider bar : This allows you to expand or contract the amount of 
information contained in the search result 

2. Preview pane : This pane allows you to obtain more information on the 
result that you are hovering over with your mouse on the results pane 

3. Abstract : one of the options in the preview pane - choosing this option 
will allow you to see the abstract of the article that you are hovering 
over with your mouse on the results pane 

4. BibTeX/RefWorks/EndNote : citation options in the preview pane - 
choosing one of these options will allow you to see the formatted 
citation (BibTeX, RefWorks, or EndNote format) on the preview pane 
for the search result that you are hovering over with your mouse on the 
results pane. BibTeX, RefWorks, and EndNote are different formats 
that allow users to create citations automatically. The EndNote RIS 



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format is compatible with EndNote, Reference Manager, and ProCite 
programs. 

5. Search result : the actual search result; this includes links to the full text 
of the paper, link to search the web for that paper and potentially links 
that allow you to search your library for access to the full text from their 
subscription 

6. Sort by options : allows you to sort the search results by relevance 
(default), oldest or newest date, author of paper, journal, or 
conference. 

The best things about Academic search are: 

> a list of journals it searches (something Google Scholar sorely needs); still, 
the list is too general (for example, IEEE Computer Society encompasses a 
huge number of journals and publications): 

< http://academic.live.com/AcademicJournals.htm > 

> the preview pane is a good idea— no need to open new windows. 

> the slider to view more or less information. 

> the ability to extract citations (if you need to cite the information, this is a big 
benefit). 

> the "find it in a library near you" search: [worldcatlibraries keyword]. 

Academic search needs to improve: 

> lack of citation search (everyone seems to agree this is the biggest problem 
that simply must be rectified). 

> no advanced search (may come later). 

> not enough content. 

Edit Macros: http://search.live.com/macros/default.aspx 

This new feature allows users to "create their own search engine," so to speak. Of 
course, you are not really making a new search engine. In fact, what you are really 
doing with a basic macros' search is automatically generating a "site:" search. A 
basic macros search for ["north korea" "nuclear test"] on CNN, Reuters, and USA 
Today is equivalent to: 

["north korea" "nuclear test" (site:www.cnn.com OR site: www. reuters.com OR 
site:www.usatoday.com)] 

The advantage of the macros is that they are much simpler to create, especially if 
you want to search 30 sites, and you can easily save and retrieve your macros, but 
you must sign in to Live.com in order to save and retrieve your macros. 

UNCLASSIFIED //rOR OITIC I AL UGC ONLY 137 



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Find Macros: 



http://qallery.live. com/default. aspx?-l=4 



Using other people's macros may be a much more fruitful activity. Microsoft has 
created a special page at its Gallery website to help users find already existing 
macros to add to a Live search page. The macros are by type: top categories, top 
downloads, and what's new, as well as new macros highlighted at the top of the 
page. Users can add any macros to their Live Search homepage by clicking on the 
"Add to Live.com" button. However, be careful. As of now the only way to 
remove/delete a macro that you have added to Live.com in your browser is to delete 
the browser's cookies (Microsoft, this needs to be fixed!). Also, if you try to add an 
uncertified macro to Live.com, you will get this: "This third-party application could 
include code that is unsafe." While the danger from these simple macros is probably 
very small to non-existent, this message does not exactly instill confidence, so 
caveat quaesitor. 





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Given the newness of Live Macros, there are not very many to choose from yet; 
however, I expect to see this list grow and there are already some useful macros, 
such as the "reference" macros. Here is the reference macro added to the Live 
Search main menu with the results from querying the reference macro only. 



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I Til I " IT" - i« :-. 

Urm;Iu«v235 is «n &dle»e'S:fw$rtfu$* *hs£ differs from tti* £t*m#m'$ e>tter ccmmon 
j$&tigit, u 3 rapidly «?«p«n<1i«9 %s*o"n chain 

resetters. » L**, h is fisafcf 

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Tbt'flWlt sfein'd.-sns.X^rsat-s'r'than W&) 9&6 most sr/a&Na-is ura*' fti» p^aji £ hs^B&g 

UMBTiftinir^M ^h5|N^'«JX IS $ VfSr.cs) 
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These p$e~gfaph£ sbpw&j- the rstotive-pnKMjrs&n-s t^'i«raB*J»s53fi (biue) ansrf 

'K"i£-5!Qn odsurs wish slow ngsutrons ■^■tM-r^o^vely r«r?. is-noi^s Mranitmi«>233 (the ■ 
cniy naturally Dccurt^g £ssiie material), w^fch ni'usi. b&. s«par*tftd fro:** th® plemtt'vl 
isotope &4|ftUlfNfc?S ftp 2i , .. 

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Uranium. 235 Rinosoms 

Wg Msya tzvar? Unamorn'235 



I believe there are too many results from Wikipedia in the reference search, but you 
can easily eliminate the Wikipedia results by adding [-site:wikipedia.org] to any query 
(conversely, you could limit your search to Wikipedia by adding [site:wikipedia.org] to 
your query. Live Search Macros are only the latest in a number of "create your own 
search engine" options, all of which are variations on complex queries of already 
existing search engines. For comparison, see the section on Custom Search 
Engines below. 

QnA: Live Search's new QnA (question and answer) search is mostly fluff, at least 
for now. You can look at the questions and responses to see what I mean (typical 
questions: "How can i get my Space Cadet Pinball that was preinstalled in Windows 
XP back in Windows Vista?" "Do you think the Internet is contributing to Intellectual 
Laziness'?"). Lots of opinion, not a lot of fact. Let us hope this is not all that "Web 
2.0" portends. 

Live Platform: In September 2005 Microsoft announced it would begin offering APIs 
for Live Search, Virtual Earth, Spaces (weblogs), Messenger, Gadgets, and Expo 
classified ads database. These have begun to rival Google in terms of innovation 



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and shared technology. To keep abreast of these changes, I recommend the MSN 
Developer Center. 

MSN Developer Center's Windows Live Platform and Services for Web Mashups 

http://msdn.microsoft.com/live/default.aspx 

Microsoft subsequently opened Windows Live Dev (Beta), a "one-stop shop for the 
Windows Live Platform, including information on getting started with Windows Live 
services, latest documentation and APIs, samples, access to community areas and 
relevant blogs, and announcements of future releases and innovations." 57 Microsoft 
is trying to make it easy for users to integrate their products with Live regardless of 
platform, browser, or language. Certainly the first two are a departure for Microsoft, 
which in the past had made the requirement of a Windows platform and an Internet 
Explorer browser a necessity in most cases in order to "play ball" with the software 
giant. A further example of Microsoft's reluctant openness is the fact that Microsoft's 
Internet Explorer 7+ browser will not default to Live Search, something other search 
engines had objected to. 

Windows Live Dev (Beta) http://devJive.com/ 

Microsoft is working very hard to improve and expand its search properties, so much 
so that at times one feels as if we can see them working under the hood as we 
watch. Clearly, there are many things that need improvement and many things that 
are very good about Live.com. It will continue to be one of the top search sites on 
the Internet. If you are interested in keeping up with news about and changes to Live 
Search, there is a blog devoted to it; the blog offers RSS and Atom syndication. 
Also, all the Windows Live Beta projects are accessible through one webpage if you 
want to see what Microsoft is planning. 

Windows Live Ideas Beta http://ideas.live.com/ 

Live Search Weblog http://bloqs.msdn.com/livesearch/ 



57 Windows Live Dev, Live Dev News, 8 June 2006, 
< http://dev.live.com/bloqs/devlive/archive/2006/05/19/15.aspx > (17 October 2006). 



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Gigablast 



The Gigablast search engine, which has been around since 2002, is still not quite in 
the same league as powerhouses Google, Yahoo, and Live Search, but it is well on 
its way to becoming one of the best search engines. That's something of a surprise 
given Gigablast's humble origins and unique status among major search engines. In 
case you're not familiar with Gigablast, it is different from its major competitors most 
notably because it is still owned and largely run by the guy who first wrote its C++ 
code in 2000. Matt Wells is still the very hands-on proprietor of Gigablast. Its 
database now indexes over 2 billion pages, up from 650 million in late 2004. 
While this falls short of the size of the Google, Yahoo, and Live Search databases, 
it's not bad, especially considering a lot of the "stuff' in those databases is dross and 
the numbers are not verified independently. 

How does Gigablast stack up to the big boys? Gigablast has some very nice 
features, some of which are unique to it, such as the IP range search (something 
AlltheWeb once offered). 



Gigablast 
Strengths 



http://www.giqablast.com/ 



> simple interface 

> cached copies with date indexed [archived copies] 

> cached copies of webpages without images [stripped] 

> links to Internet Archives [older copies] 

> clusters results by default (can be turned off) 

> no limit on number of search terms 

> file types indexed include Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint, as well as 
PDF, PostScript, HTML, and text; syntax is: 

o type:pdf for Adobe Acrobat PDFs 

o type:doc for Microsoft Word documents 

o type:ppt for PowerPoint presentations 

o type:xls for Excel spreadsheets 

o typeips for PostScript files 

o typeitext for ASCII text files 

o type:html for HTML Web pages 



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> unfcjj|p feattire: IP rang^g; Gigablast adds the ability (unique as far as I know) 
to search on an IP address range. [ip:21 6.239.41] will find all IP addresses 
that begin with 21 6.239.41 

This query finds all the sites in the Gigablast database that begin with the IP 
address 66.218.77: 



WM&Ml: „._..™„ .. _™„ .JlJP^lH J !^L 

Resurts 14o 10 of aftout 70,3«7 forip;6&2 18:77 . 

YafK&l jgeoCiites ." 

8? - 33l1:Ic'- ■ [arc.Hfog tt lOffl '-. W\p pM -' Mitt Hfeil -Mexeei; Jul 26 200.5 -mosdifted; 

•Jul- 2 7 2005 

Rat#s -pil ars 

ufy%m bwomi^^Sft&tim &m wwpm t - 2 ; 3k Mareftiyefl't&iwl - jstrlm*e*il ^ ialdercxjpj^l -indexed: Jiil 26 2G05 < 

mod Si 4d; Art 28 2005 

[ Mote le^utts- from tfijs sifel . 



This query finds all the sites in the Gigablast database residing on the specific 
host whose IP address is 66.218.77.68: 



jipi6S.;21.8:77;6fr; . . '" ..']'..... J fl Q JJ 

Re'sults-l.to 10 *af aboui-4A;i52 for ip:66.218.77.CS . 

SMScheerieadina 

d^r^itie-n: The 'official cheerfeading page for SMS 'in Manassas, Virginia, provides tiyoutinifbmialion, team news, and 
tomatrs. 

Cafe gote, Sagitgt -C hgfetfeaajfagi: Vooth .and'-Rgra^pn 

wy^v.^teltesx;om/sabFe^^^ • 30;3k - Lareh^edydopfl -.[stitflMdl.- iol ci g. rcoplest - indexed: Oct Oa-200S- 

modified; Feb "1 8 :2005 



> other special syntax includes link:, site:, title:, and suburl:, which searches 
for webpages that have the keyword anywhere in the url 

> although Gigablast will ignore stop words in a long query, users can search 
on any word or number by itself 

> default operator is AND; OR and AND NOT also work; nested queries (with 
parentheses) are supported 

> M^Me^ea^ meta tag§; only search 
engine that will display the metatags in the results list, but the syntax for this 
query is very complex. Please see the Gigablast review at Search Engine 
Showdown for details on this type of query: 

"Meta Tag Searching and Display: Gigablast is the only search engine 
indexing meta tags beyond just the meta description and meta keywords that 
some others index. It is the only search engine that can also display meta 



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tags in the results list. Gigablast claims to be indexing all "generic" meta tags. 
In addition, it can display the meta tags in the results list. Doing this requires 
adding commands to the URL of the results list. At the end of the url, add a 
&dt= followed by the word(s) for the meta tags, followed by a colon, and then a 
number to represent how many characters from each meta tag should be 
displayed. So, for example , adding &dt=keywords+author+generator+description:30 
will display the meta tag content for meta keywords, meta author, meta 
generator, and meta description tags for any records retrieved. Use a + 
between meta tag words. It seems that this "generic" meta tag approach 
excludes more complex meta tags like Dublin Core , which use a syntax like 
DC.Creator. The dot syntax will not work for the display command, although 
Gigablast does index some of the content of these tags." 58 



Sample Output of Meta Tag Search 



a^kQ ,. Rebad Q http : //www . gigablast ■ CQm/search?kl z= 1 34827&q=dublin+core&dt=ke„ :, *ff 



add string to the end of 
resulting url in address 



DC-dot 

..DC-dot now conforms with the Expressing Dublin Core in HTMUXHTML meta and I 

..Now you can click on the DC-dot button, wherever you are, to create Dublin Core m< 

about.. ..This service will retrieve a Web page and automatically generate Dublin Cor 

metadata, either as. . 

Description 1 Give DC-dot a URL and see the Dublin Core it generates. 

Keywoi <ls: Dublin Core, DC; generator; editor; Warwick Framework; SOIF; TEl; USMARC; XML; OILS; ROADS; RDF; IMS 

yeneialor : HTML Tidy, see www.w3 org 

description: A CGI based Dublin Core 

Category. Reference: Libraries: Libr3iy and information Science: Technical Services: Cataloguing: Metadata - Dublin Core 

www.ukoln.ae uk/rneladaia/dccjot/- B.8k- [archived copy] - [stripped] - [older copies] - indexed: Oct 05 2005 ■ modified: Dec 1 1 2001 

Dublin Core Metadata Template 

..When the list of Qualifiers for Dublin Core elements is finally decided upon, this template 

will.. ..You may include my name and email-address in a list of those using Dublin Core. 

Additional DC. ..Dublin Core Metadata Template.. This service is provided by the "Nordic 

Metadata Project" in.. 

Dev,rlption' from the Nordic Metadata Project 

Category Reference - Libraries Library and Information Science: Technical Setvices: Cataloguing: Metadata: Dublin Coie 

www.lub.lu.se/cgi-taiitfnmdt.pl - 40.5k- [archived copy] - [stripped] - [older copies] - indexed: Oct 05 2005 

Dublin Core/MARC/GILS Crosswalk 

..For conversion of MARC 21 into Dublin Core, many fields maybe mapped into a single 

Dublin Core.. ..in the Dublin Coie to MARC mapping, two mappings are provided, 

one for unqualified Dublin Coie.. ..The following is a crosswalk between the fifteen elements 

In the Dublin Core Element Set and MARC 

Description - Library of Congress 

keywoi (Is. MARC Dublin Core GILS Crosswalk 

author: Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office 

description: Crosswalk from Dublin Core 

Category. Reference: Libraries: Library and Information Science: Technical Services: Cataloguing: Metadata: Crosswalks 

icweb.loc.govj'maic.'rfccfoss.hlrni- 1 8.6k - [archived copy] - (stripped] - [older copies! - indexed: Oct 06 2005- modified: Dec 31 2002 

> clearly displays date webpage was indexed and, in some cases, modified 

> search query spellchecker (Did you mean? option) 



58 Greg R. Notess, "Review of Gigablast," Searchengineshowdown, 17 September 2006, 
http://www.searchengineshowdown.com/features/qiqablast/review.html > (14 November 2006). 

UNCLASSIFIED //rorc OIT I C I AL UOC ONLY 143 



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> undocumented feature: will search in some specific languages, but I don't 
know how many; use languageide to search for webpages in German, for 
example. 

Weaknesses 

> most obviously, the Gigablast index is still smaller than those of Google, 
Yahoo, or Live Search 

> no truncation 

> is not case sensitive 

> no wildcard 

> limited file type searches 

> limited language options 

> poor documentation 

Gigablast Options & Services 

Custom Topic Search: Gigablast offers some special options, the most important of 
which is a Custom Topic Search, which I discuss in detail under the Custom Search 
Engines section below. If you don't read anything else about Gigablast, please 
take a look at this innovation. 

Directory: As with Google and Yahoo, Gigablast's web directory uses the Open 
Directory Project's collection but Gigablast use a Tiypertechnology for searching the 
directory that allows its users to perform searches over websites, not just the actual 
pages, under any topic in the directory, in effect, instantly creating over 500,000 
vertical search engines Additionally, all directory searches are enhanced by the 
massive amount of link information from Gigablast's multi-billion page index." So a 
Gigablast directory search returns not only DMOZ categories but "Giga Bits" and 
website listings as well. 

XML Search Feed: Gigablast also offers an XML Search Feed that will run up to 
1000 queries per day with a maximum of ten results each. But remember, you must 
have XML parsing software to read XML feeds, so this new feature isn't an option for 
all users. 

XML Search Feed http://www.qiqablast.com/searchfeed.html 

Giga Bits: Gigablast has its own refine option called "Giga Bits." Giga Bits are terms 
that appear in a blue box at the top of a results page to help refine and focus your 
search. 

Related Pages: Gigablast's Related Pages were introduced in March 2005. Related 
Pages are "relevant search results which do not necessarily contain the searcher's 



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query terms." Related Pages are results that are contextually related to the query 
terms without having a direct connection to them. The Related Pages appear in the 
yellow box on the results page. 



W&Jm^m^m^^^ 1 |"attificiel intelligence" 

Results 1 so 10 of about 2,640.799 for " artificial intelligence - 



Gigs BBs (more; 



26% Artificial Life 



30% cm Artificial intelligence Repository 23% ™? m \ tntel ^ sn ^ 
k§ESHHiy 

2e% ^f^T°!!: omf,{AmStiime 23* mimes 



Reference Pages 
Related Pages Quote) 

100% siqarl acm erg 



^° EsxslislsaLystes 



10 



Search | 



y . <v Artificial Intelligence 7fiQ , Distributed Artificial 

n * Resources ^* toteitiqance 

Artificial ^Miflanc^ 20% jQhflMcCarth¥ 

Research L 

21 % Ar tificial i nt el ligence Pepol 20% Modern Approach 
5%A5gnlheWeb 



80% The Mults-Asient Systems Lab 

75% !£££ Computer Society 

The IEEE Computer Society is one of the major international 

professional bodies for IT professionals. 



Anierican Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAA!) 
.Welcome to the American AssociationJor Artificial Intelligence! Founded in 1979, the.. 
American Association for Ajtf1(cial!irtelN<jente (AAAl) Is a nonprofit.. ..aims to increase 
public understanding of artificial Mellkjeiice. improve the teaching,. 
. * ii '! :-. i 'Nonprofit scientific society devoted to advancing the scientific understanding of the 
mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in 
machines" 
■or- ■:■'.' I,cmpu*eis: r.rti'ic:a' tnteil gems, assc-ciaticns 

'f wiaii J r 1 - 1 3K • jarc hived co PVl - ISiWJ^' MMlS^SMir ^^^ May 1 5 2Q05 - modified Mar 31 2005 

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory 

Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Aboul 



Gigablast still "runs on eight desktop machines, each with four 160-GB IDE hard 
drives, two gigs of RAM, and one 2.6-GHz Intel processor. It can hold up to 320 
million Web pages (on 5 TB), handle about 40 queries per second and spider about 
eight million pages per day. Currently it serves half a million queries per day to 
various clients, including some metasearch engines and some pay-per-click 
engines." We are not talking about a huge "server farm" here. Interestingly, despite 
keeping his search engine "small," Gigablast creator/proprietor Matt Wells says "I am 
a firm believer that bigger is better," and toward that end he is hoping to get the 
Gigablast index up to 5 billion pages. For more on Wells and Gigablast, read his 
interview with his former boss at Infoseek in the April 2004 edition of AMC Queue: 

"A Conversation with Matt Wells: Steve Kirsh of Propel Software Interviews 
Gigablast Designer," ACM Queue, vol. 2, no. 2, April 2004, 
http://www.acmq ueue. com/modules. php?name=Content&pa=showpaqe&pid= 135 
(15 November 2006). 



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Exalead 



The French search engine Exalead, which introduced a new look in 2006, has 
features that make it worth special mention. Exalead offers both proximity searches 
and truncation, two options no other major search engine offers anymore. In 
addition, Exalead presents thumbnail images of websites in the results list (if you 
want them) and related search terms, directory categories, website locations, and 
filetypes. Exalead now claims to index more than eight billion pages. Although this is 
far smaller than some major search engines, it is a respectable number and one that 
is sure to increase. 



While the new version of Exalead did away with one of its best features — the safe 
page preview — Exalead offers a number of other unusual or unique features 
designed to create a very powerful search tool: 

> Exalead refreshes its index continuously, not on a schedule (this is a good 
thing). 

> default operator is AND; users may use OR. 

> Exalead does not publish a search term limit; it handled some very long 
searches perfectly while it had trouble with others. 

> truncation, proximity, phonetic, and true wildcard searches. 

> as of now, Exalead has no sponsored links. 



0xciead 



Wel> ( Imapes 



I 



^V^feSiW^B%j Advanced search 



Welcome to your exalead homepage. Ada a shortcut to personalize- it. 
Edit &n id<} 0O Erfrt f;'g 




Yellow Pages 



weather.com Witapedia 

Add mors shortcuts - Hide edit buttons 



Co 




Notice the images below the query box. Exalead lets users put "shortcuts" here by 
entering a title and url for your favorite websites. 



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Exalead is in the process of updating its help pages; thus far, you can find various 
types of help at these pages: 

Exalead http://www.exalead.com/search 

Exalead Refine Your Search http://www.exalead.com/search/?action=kourou&id-49 

Exalead Advanced Search Help 

http://www.exalead.com/search/?action=kourou&id=24 

Exalead Search Syntax Help 

http://www. exalead. com/search/C?definition=quervSvntaxReference 

Customizing Exalead Preferences 

Exalead currently offers these Search Preferences settings: 

1 . Interface Language : English, French, or German. 

2. Search language : any or any combination of most languages. 

3. Adult content Filtering : on or off. 

4. Display : Open results and shortcuts in new window? 

5. Number of search results : up to 100 for web and up to 60 for image. 

6. Number of shortcuts per row : 4 up to 12. 

7. Display view on results page : text only; text and thumbnail; text thumbnail 
and extra 



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The Exalead Results Page 

Once you have entered your search term(s) and clicked the Exalead search button, 
Exalead will present you with a complex results screen. Depending on the search 
you are running, you will see some or all of the following for a Web search : 



W*6 j Un 



^jhehcfm'&nojc^ 




§M$l t Jtefefla/Ere 



_WcU Sv 



££*!S8K: ! .: :: ''..^™^Jl^.'. :;;:,v ;,I,., ..., : .,. ', 



Ij 5j Pf5fe4^Ior»al d^*^a>rtoft«up^«^^- ! )^ii|g^y.fe i M^iffe(f ] b^ conifrtexiial E*j«i{iasn tr»dftfom$ : : 



indo-Racife JJDL^rv®! aj. Phenomena togy 

tnda. Pacific Journal of Phenomenology ..JheSupefnaiufal: ArKhropoldg-y , Pheftemeftolegy 
and'ihe Umiisrti&rtt of Scientific Ptefc&nalism Clicfi here io ti'ew «>>.. 

W.DftecKny; acnieteftrrt Pimm * pm&%ntftr * g^j^gjg pi&o<ew » Ffr«wmg»ttttHff 

THE-WOftLD-PHgNOMEMGLQj^ IMSTiTUTgWocld. jnggUgGfec iftf&aoesd 
Information on ptogr»ms ; piojects; r^bkaiibns. ... IJ-H? V/ORLO PHENOMENOLOGY 
INSTITUTE Wotld Institule.for Acteoce^hGnomenolbgieal R*s*sith and Learning ..; 

m Dfrwtoty .SfttlsfrgndCte s£&: *DonjiMrtm P t '. , ->£oi>r >y =:Pto»gmto«tear 







Begirding in 19S6 a? >a fcKim fbr.d>scM$$tng % wSitc'f>f EdmynH Hu-V3>*?1. iK* Seminar on. 
Phenomenology, and Hermeneutics, ...-Semmaiofl Phenomenology aM .... 

%Oiiecwriw: 




ftelaled terms ET 

* PMffi il Reetarch 
Multimedia 

#>&£& ®«£ SS§2 

♦ 'gos!»b U 

Directory _. 

File types 

. total yp W 

• WwU d oc) *'■ 



<3 



&!bS«« 



> A Matching Documents : the best results for the query with the page title listed 
first; Exalead clusters results, showing only the "best" page for each website. 

> B Webpaqe Description : a brief summary of the website. 

> C Page preview and thumbnail image : The biggest disappointment of the new 
Exalead is that it no longer offers the safe page preview option for webpages. 
Instead it has chosen to give a thumbnail image of the cached copy of the 
webpage; users can click on "Preview" to see the cached copy, complete with 
highlighted search terms and the date cached. Fortunately, Exalead does 
offer safe previewing of non-HTML file types, and this is especially 



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useful for Microsoft file types, such as Word documents and 
PowerPoint slides. 



lead 



Search St rategies - Exale ad F a ct She et 

FACT SHEET:~EXALEAD EXALEAD URL http://vwvw.exale.itl, com/ Key features ■ 

151 FACT SHEET: EXALEAD Similar pages Limit by domain/site No 

h;to //v-vrv.- 1L1C1 CO ukAwarch/oKalaadsuriiiri ptif 221- - >y 



« fciacxtoiesults, 



r«F 



fio to ttraj 

HffiMfa^Mf*^^**^ 5 terms frmnri- emtead fiietvpe:pdf pifcy-:ous ne*t 



(CfiJ 



jexalead hfe<ype:pdf 

Full page fy 



Search Strategies ■ Exalead Fact Sheet 

FACT SHEET: EXALEAD 

EXALEAD 

URL 

http 7/www. exalead com/ 

Key features 

wildcards for stemming words pattern matching ("regular expressions") phonetic search approximate spelling search NEAR proximity operator 

Full Boolean search thumbnails of pages displayed in results related terms and categories displayed on the results page user specified shortcuts (Smart 
Bookmarks) to other search engines on the home page 

Search options 

Default search type Case sensitive? Wildcard/Truncation All of your words No Yes. Asterisk (*) at the end of words, for example 

pollut* Also pattern matchingfregular expressions for internal wildcards, for example /psych *ist/ or /mpg(l|2|3)?/ 

Phrases and proximity Phrases " "For example "climate change". NEAR operator to search for terms within sixteen words of one another. Specify 

maximum number of words using NEAR/n, for example climate NEAR/5 change Plus sign (+) before stop words such as "the", "of. The plus sign can also be 
used to disable automatic stemming if set up by the user under preferences. Minus sign (-) before the word, for example 

Mandatory search terms 



Exclude pages containing a term Word in the URL 

branson -balloon inurl. for pages with the term in their URL, for example inuri.chocolate intitle: for pages that contain the adjacent word in the tide, for example 
intitJexhocolate link: for example link-rba.co.uk 



> D Directory link : opens the related categories folders from The Open 
Directory Project, which are also listed to the right. You can completely alter 
the results by selecting a different related category, e.g., in this example, 
continental philosophy instead of phenomenology. Clicking on "More choices" 
will greatly expand the related terms and related categories lists. 

> E Add to shortcuts : selecting this link will make the current site one your 
shortcuts that appears on the Exalead homepage. 

> F Related Terms : clicking on a related term runs a new search on that term 
and displays a new results page with new and different related terms, related 
categories, etc. Clicking on "More choices" will greatly expand the related 
terms and related categories lists. 



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G Multimedia : selecting this option causes Exalead to restrict the search to 
webpages that have links to audio, video RSS content. You can select one, 
two, or all three multimedia options. If you dick on RSS, any feeds available 
at any of the sites in your results' list will become visible. 



exoteqd 



Web i imag es 



Sign in | Preferences 



Watch NASA Video. at AOL© 

v;w.v.3o!yicteo.i:om - Millions of Free Videos. MovIb trailers, music, TV - free. 



NASA - Ares: NASA's New Rockets Get Names 



^We^SfliarcKKJ Advanced search 



. 



view: : = i o ■■,''- ) 




Site Help & Preferences + Home + NASA Home > Mission Seclions > Exploration > 

Spacecraft Print ... Credit: NASA + View Expanded Views of Ares-I, ... 

ww.nasti.gevMusoiori pages/explw^tion/opace.craft/af*}') naminrj.iitmt- ^ Jul 2006 - 5k - .".rjf ■ ;o 

§* Audio file: * RealPlayer Lgv- (Ares logo256K_Stream.ram) - 0.3 Kb 
H Video file: * Windows High CAreslogo76BK_Stream.wnnO 
(*u) RSS Feed: Aies, NASA's New Rockets 



Muhhmdia 

& Audio 
B Video 
fat) RSS 

Languages 

• English 
. Spanish 



remove 
remove 
remove 



^:fttor>:chpicoi ; :* i) 



21 



<*-' .7T™™ 



Matador Records I Guided By Voices 

The Matador records website for Guided by Voices, the label releasing ail material up to 1997 

and since 2002 for the band. Includes contest, recording, ... 

vwA'.ma[sdonecoids.cojTt'ciuidefi_by_vc'ice3/- 01 Fob 2008 • .--liti & si torKu te 

^ Dhectoiy: aji s ^nd Enteilaimnaril > Musit * ... » G > QuitieU fcy Voices 
<^ Audio file: ' My Kind of Soldier (gbv_my_kind_of_soldier.mp3) - 3,6 Mb 
O VWeo file: gfrv ref.mov - 0.2 Kb 
(S5) Unofficial RSS Feed: Matador Records 



> H Languages : limit results to a specific language. 

> I Document Type : clicking on a specific file type will only return matching 
documents in that specific file type, e.g., PDF, TXT, DOC, PPT, RTF, and 
XLS (remember: do not open the Microsoft file types on the Internet; use the 
page preview option in the thumbnail image to view these files ). 

> J Image Search : Clicking on image search will automatically run the web 
search against the image database. 



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Exalead Basic Search 

Exalead assumes as its default that multiple search terms are joined by the AND 
operator, so that a search on the keywords [windows explorer] will find all the 
webpages that contain both search terms. However, unlike Google, Exalead does 
not search first for phrases, then the terms anywhere on a webpage. 

Exalead will not return any results if there is no webpage containing all the 
search terms. Try this query to see what I mean: 

[rollerskate handshake buckyball] 

However, remember you can use the OPT (optional) operator to make a term 
desirable but not required. 

Unlike Google, Exalead does not limit the number of search terms to 32 
keywords. Exalead will try to match all the keywords you enter. 

Exalead is not case sensitive. 

Exalead automatically clusters search results. If you want to see more pages 
from a specific site, the only way I know to do so now is to run a site search. For 
example, to see the pages at Amazon UK search for [site:amazon. co.uk]. 

Exalead permits the use of the OR operator in simple search. The OR must be 
capitalized. 

Exalead recognizes double-quotes as enclosing a phrase. 

Exalead ignores certain stop words, i.e., when searched alone or with other stop 
words. If you include a stop word such as a, an, the, in, or be in a search, 
Exalead searches for it. If you need to search for stop words by themselves or 
with other stop words, you must either enclose them in double-quotes or put the 
plus sign (+) in front of them. Compare [to be or not] to ["to be or not to be"] and 
compare [fire and ice] to ["fire and ice"]. 

Using the minus sign (-) in front of a keyword ensures that Exalead excludes 
that term from the search. For example, the results for the search 
[phenomenology -philosophy] are very different from the results for 
[phenomenology]. 



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Exalead Advanced Search 

Exalead has a unique and very appealing way of presenting advanced search 
features. Clicking on the "Advanced search" link on the main page brings up a 
window that displays and explains the advanced search options. In every case, 
these options work in the simple search screen by using the correct syntax. 



©xolead 



Advanced search 



j*-Web Search") 



^tivanif'dseatTh 



What? 

. exact phrase <? (j. "to te or m\ lo be" 

• Iwfr'dcten term? erj c:>.v-mad 

• partis starting wilti &$ m&bsag' 

• qhQ Ogtk s pelliiui e.g. s-yj/xsm^e^xaSieac! 

• aiL' ptQiimalesp&ilin c j eg. op^iiblikeex^oiicj 
. adjacent waids egiSiockNEAPstcfe.'-ige) 

, logical expression <?& ( (izti 0% speed) AND NO? figft) 

. teijula; expression e g /e <>' 



Where? 



. | Choose a country jj ->.q country USA 

. | Choose o language _^J & ..;. iar^ape en 

* on a given site eg $tie wikipert&.ora 

. in files at a given form al eji fifet/pe:paf 

* ipJ^A.tiM.PL'l;!.?^^^. && .'r>8f£(afic)ziwe06!le} 

* in 11)6 ddaress oi '{lis paq& eg >m:i) nwuc 

. on panes that coniain a diver? hnjv ?$ rink ■NtpjPnwti'exsfo&i com 

When? 

. module after a nrve-n ciaie e=e. 3.fef.:^''!C'?&93 

. rficdtfied ppfjre a given date eg. More Ih'i 2/1999 



Two features Exalead offers that have almost vanished from search elsewhere are 
proximity searches and truncation/wildcards. 

Exalead's proximity search uses NEAR. The default setting is for terms that are 
within sixteen terms of each other, but users can change the proximity by adding 
a number, e.g., [empire NEAR/5 building]. With the NEAR operator, order is almost 
irrelevant as this query demonstrates. A query using the name of an 18th Century 
French foreign minister, Charles Jean-Baptiste Fleuriau, comte de Morville, shows 
how the NEAR operator works: the query [comte de Morville NEAR Fleuriau NEAR 
Charles NEAR Jean-Baptiste] finds any indexed page containing all these terms 
within sixteen words of each other, regardless of the order in which they appear 
either in the query or in the text. 



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©dead 



We(> \ Images 



S|aP..i.!l ; I PlJIIerences 




Icomte de Morvilie NEAR Rsuriau.NEAR Oi&rles NEAR J ffiMS&BlMPt jFj) Advanced search 

Did you mean: comet de Morvilie NEAR Fleuriau NEAR Chartos NEAR 

MORVILLE (Charles-JearvBaptiste de Fleuriau d'Annenonville. comte ... 
gW^ginij^p^s of Foreign Affairs' Gallery - Archives diplomaliques - Ministere des Affaires 



r ^-S 



I Jto W* 



tr ang e res. .. . MORVILLE (Charles-Jean-Baptlste de Fleuriau 

www dtplomaiis.go'jw.ir/grchives -gb/dossiers/l 4Qrnintstfes.gb/iO'Jss'l5/t> 3 html ■ 15 Sep 2KJ4 ■ 2* - Add 



1 Charles Jean Baptiste Fleuriau de Morvilie - Wikipedia 

Charles Jean BnpiEsie Fleutian de Morvilie Un article de ... Fleuriau dArmenonville, 

comte de Moiville est un homme d'Ertal francais ne a Paris le 30 oclobre .>. 

U wkippdifl.ivo/vviki/ClitHlfts_J6.in_Bn|M!6te„FleuH»u_de_Morvill« - 72 Jul 2006- Mk- *r.KH'J 



'--TiQ:,.: »(^si -,.--•• 



Related terms 

. Jean-BarU'rsia 
, Minister to France 
. Louis Michel 
. Pietffe Henn 
. Tom d'Auvergnfe 
Languages 
■ English 
. French 



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Minister of Foreign Affairs (France): Facts and details from ... 

Encyclopedia subject: 'Minister of Foreign Affairs (France)'... February 1680 28 July 1696 
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Also, the presence or absence of parentheses does not appear to affect the NEAR 
search. Proximity operators can be extremely useful in finding pages with 
search terms that may not be in a precise order while excluding a lot of 
irrelevant hits. 

Exalead supports both limited and true wildcard searching. 

Exalead supposedly offers both automatic truncation (word stemming) and the 
wildcard, which are welcome features discarded by other search engines. As of 
now, Exalead is the only major search engine to offer truncation or a wildcard. On a 
search with two or more words, stemming is supposed to be automatic. However, I 
find that the automatic truncation feature is so capricious as to be useless: 
sometimes it works, usually it doesn't. In a search for [child play toy], Exalead does 
not find children, plays/played/playing, or toys. 

However, when I search on [child*], Exalead will return pages with children 
highlighted as a search result. The wildcard also can be used inside a search term, 
e.g., [kazak*stan]. However, this search will also find kazakh and kazak as well as 
kazakstan and kazakhstan. The wildcard option is listed in the Advanced search 
window as words starting with, but keep in mind the asterisk can be used inside 
words as well. 

Exalead has a number of other interesting features. For example, in the advanced 
search window, users can choose among these search method options: exact 



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search, forbidden terms, phonetic search, and approximate spelling. Exact 
search is what you would expect, i.e., phrase searching inside double-quotes. 
"Forbidden terms" is a different way of saying NOT or using the minus sign. 

The phonetic search sounds great, but I am often frustrated by it because so many 
websites misspell so many words, Exalead is going to find those misspelled words 
first (try: [geneology] to see what I mean). However, the phonetic search 
successfully figured out that [criptografy] meant [cryptography]. The phonetic search 
has genuine utility. 



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Related terms 

* Public key cryptography 
. Strong cfvptograahv 

, Quantum cryptography 

. Aflplied Qryplogrgphv 

» Elliptic curves in cryptography 
MulTimadla 

eft Audio M Video @ RSS 
Languages 

■ English 

* Ggj " ian 
Directory 

*S? Computers 

^ Science and Emdronme nt 

File types 

* Acrobat (pdf) 
. Text f.t acl) 

. Y^ord (.doc) 



Pw^wi 



The approximate spelling option can be similarly frustrating. A search on 
[programme] will find a few sites containing program, programmer or programs, but 
usually the results are for the actual term searched, in this case [programme]. 
However, it worked very well with [colour], finding a good mix of color and colour and 
the approximate search on [geneology] found genealogy. 

What I like much, much better is Exalead's regular expression patterns option, 
which amounts to a true wildcard search. Here's how it works: 

Use a forward slash (/) at the beginning and end of the term; use a period (.) to 
indicate one missing term; if you are not sure how many letters are missing, use 
the wildcard (*) after the period. For example, the query [/crypt.*c/] will find 
cryptographic and cryptologic: 



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tead 



Web ! Images 



Sign in | Preferences 



|/crypt-c/ 



Resulls 1-100 of about 1,269,173 for -crypt. c ; 



( Web Search ] Ad^r.ced seaich 



C Produ cts ; ■'■ ; ^'" 1 ' ^ :> t (> 

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West Memorials • Headstones &. Markers 

•AViw.woeimS'.TipMais-CQm - Crypt - we offer affordable cemetery markers, headstones, monurnenls and cemelery memorials. Free 



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further research in ciypiology and related fields, ... Crypto 2007. August 19-23, 2007, Sanla 

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^ Direct ones: 

- Science and Environment > Malh > ... > Communication Theory > Ciyjtoaraphv 
* Snance arn &nt > Msth > Qj.gajnjzajH)iis 

- Computers > Hacking » Crypiog rapiiT 

CryptoLogic Inc - software development company specializing in ... 
QyptoLogic is an Internet software development company with leading proprietary 
technologies that enable secure, high-speed financial transactions over ... 
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^Oiiecioiies: 

. Computers > Software > Business and Eccnomy > E Commerce (Toronto) 
. Business and Economy * Computer? arid lnl&rn&i > Software (roionie) 



Refine your search 



Related tenns 

. Cryptographic algorithms 

* Crypto g raphic s oftwaifc 

* Cryptograp hic ke ys 

* Cryptographic proiocols 
. Cryploqraphic systems 

Multimedia 

eft Audio H Video @ RSS 
Languages 

* klifllish 
. German 

Directory 

^ Computers 

"® RF Cj 
^ Science snd Environment 
File types 
- Acrobat t.pdf) 
. Te»t f.txO 
. Word ( doc] 



Here are the basic rules for pattern matching (wildcard) searches: 

The first character is always a slash ( / ). This tells Exalead a 
special pattern will follow. 

Within the pattern, the period ( . ) is a special character that 
can represent any character. 

The asterisk ( * ) stands for character repetition, i.e., any 
number of characters. 

The pipe ( | ) stands for OR, and parentheses are used to group 
characters. 

A question mark (?) is placed at the end of a character group 
to make that group optional. 

The last character is always a slash ( / ). This tells Exalead this 

is the end of the query. 



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In this example— [/mpg(1|2|3)?/]— Exalead will search for any page containing the 
query term mpg and 1 or 2 or 3. It will also find pages containing only mpg because 
the ? makes the 1, 2, and 3 optional. Without the ? Exalead will only find pages 
containing mpgl, mpg2, or mpg3. 

Exalead will handle complex boolean queries in the simple search screen or from 
the Advanced search window. The boolean operators Exalead supports are AND, 
OR, NOT or AMD NOT (in caps). A typical boolean query would be: 

[(baseball OR football) NOT cardinals] 

In addition, there are two other operators that can be used in a boolean query: 
NEAR and OPT. NEAR finds search terms within 16 words of each other and OPT 
makes a query term preferable but does not require it. For example: 

[(football NEAR cardinals) OPT "st louis"] 

This is nice to know because most search engines use AND as their default, and will 
not return results unless all terms are found. Check the difference between the 
results for these two searches in Exalead: [buckyball skateboard OPT flyswatter] 
and [buckyball skateboard flyswatter]. 

Exalead will search in all or one of most languages. Use either the syntax language; 
followed by the language digraph or the pulldown menu in. the Advanced search 
window. Also, Exalead offers a country search option either from the Advanced 
search window or using the syntax country: followed by the country digraph. 

Exalead does not recognize diacritical marks at this time. This means that a 
search on [facade] finds both fagade and facade. However, Exalead will handle 
some non-Latin character sets. Exalead officially supports Unicode (UTF), 
Windows encodings, and miscellaneous encodings (Arabic, Chinese, Korean, 
Japanese, and Russian). 

Exalead offers limited field searching, i.e., special search terms to restrict 
searches and make them more effective. These special operators can be used in 
both simple search and in the Advanced search window. 

> language: restricts results to -pages mV^ The language 

syntax uses the obsolete two-letter ISO language code s (639-1). Must be 
used with additional keywords. 

Advanced Search > Where? > Choose a language 

Example of how to use the language: command : 

[language:de welt] finds all the pages indexed by Exalead that are written in 



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German and contain the keyword "welt," which has a very different meaning 
in German than in English. 

> country: restricts results to pages in a specific country. The country syntax 
uses the two-letter ISO country codes . Must be used with additional 
keywords. 

Advanced Search > Where? > Choose a country 

Example of how to use the country: command : 

[country:de wissenschaft] finds all the pages indexed by Exalead that are 
purportedly in Germany and contain the term "wissenschaft." It will not limit 
the search to the German TLD "de." 

> site: restricts results to a specific website or domain, excluding specific top- 
level domains. You must search on a second-level domain for site to work. 
May be used with or without keywords. 

Advanced Search > Where? > on a given site 

Examples of how to use the site: command : 

[site:amazon.com] finds www.amazon.com, cards.amazon.com, 
www.amazon.com/dvd/. However, it will not find www.amazon.com.br. 

[site.ir] does not find the pages from the Iranian (.ir) top-level domain. 
However, [site:gov.ir] does find all the pages from the Iranian government 
domain indexed by Exalead. 

[site:federalreserve.gov "statistical data"] finds all the pages at the Federal 
Reserve website indexed by Exalead containing the phrase statistical data. 

> filetype: restricts results to PDF, MS Word, and other filetypes. May be used 
with or without keywords. Exalead conv erts the se other types of files to 
HTML, making them safe to view. Select [fhem&w] to see the HTML version. 

Advanced Search > Where? > in files of a given format 

To search by specific type of file, use the syntax filetype: plus one of these 
abbreviations: 



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html or htm 


standard webpage 


pdf 


Adobe Acrobat 


xls 


MS Excel Spreadsheet 


ppt 


MS PowerPoint 


doc 


MS Word 


wpd 


Corel WordPerfect versions 6 & 7 


rtf 


Rich Text Format 


swf 


MacroMedia Flash text & hypertext link 


txt 


text 



Examples of how to use the filetype: command: 

[filetype:xls] finds all pages indexed by Exalead that are in Excel spreadsheet 
format. 

[filetype:pdf "white paper"] finds all pages indexed by Exalead that are in PDF 
format and contain the phrase "white paper" anywhere in the text, title, or url. 

> intitle: restricts results to pages containing a specific word or phrase 
anywhere in the webpage's title, which usually appears in the browser's title 
bar and is the HTML <title> tag. May be used with or without additional 
keywords. 

Advanced Search > Where? > in the title of the page 

Examples of how to use the intitle: command: 

[intitle:amazon] finds all pages that include the word amazon in their title 

["rain forest" intitle.amazon] finds all pages that include the word amazon in 
their title and mention the phrase "rain forest" anywhere in the document (title 
or text or anywhere in the document) 

> inurl: restricts results to pages containing a specific word or phrase anywhere 
in the webpage's url, that is, the webpage address. May be used with or 
without additional keywords. 

Advanced Search > Where? > in the address of the page 



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Examples of how to use the inurl: command: 

[inurtamazon] finds all pages that include the word amazon anywhere in their 
url. 

["cosmic ray" inurl /spacecraft] finds all pages that include the exact phrase 
"cosmic ray" anywhere in the document (title or text or anywhere in the 
document) and include spacecra ft anywhere in the site's url. 

> link: restricts the results to documents that have links to a specific 
website. Will work without the full url (absent the http://) but the preferred 
syntax is [link:http.7/www.domain.com]. Also, the link: command does not 
work beyond the top level of a site, so the query [link:www.noaa.gov/wx.html] 
treats the "wx.html" as a keyword. May be used with or without keywords. 

Advanced Search > Where? > on pages that contain a given link 

Example of how to use the link: command : 

[link:http://www.noaa.gov] finds all pages linking to the NOAA homepage. 

[link:http://www.noaa.gov drought] finds all pages linking to the NOAA site 
that contain the keyword drought. 

Exalead Search Services and Tools 

Exalead does not offer any special services or tools such as news, maps, reference 
tools, except for a browser toolbar that works with both Internet Explorer and Firefox. 
At present, the two types of specialized Exalead search are the multimedia (audio, 
video, and RSS) refinement option and image search. 

Image Search : Exalead offers some nice options with its image search. You can look 
for images of specific sizes (small, medium, large), computer wallpaper by 
resolution, image color, layout, or filetype, Exalead's advanced search options work 
in image search as well. 



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lead 



Web ! Images 



Si gn tn | Pi6ferg.Kt.fi3 



( I mage S earch j Advanced se-aich 



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Results 1-24 of about 19.307 for cissiiii 



Background: 




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Cassini picture 
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C.issltil launch 

20fJx145-6.9Kb-jpeg 
editiflr. f.rm f.cm 




Cassini Resources at ECSL 
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Cissiiii 

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ISSUE ON CASSINI 
631x480-57.4Kb-jpeg 
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200 x 146-8,1 Kb-ipeg 




Giovanni Domrnico Cossini 
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The Bottom Line 

Exalead is not in the Google and Yahoo class yet, but because it offers unique and 
important features dealing with truncation, wildcards, proximity searching, etc., it is 
one of the top-tier search services. In addition, Exalead offers the option to 
preview non-html files (e.g., Microsoft file types) safely, which is extremely important 
given the security dangers that plague Internet users. Exalead is a valuable addition 
to the world of Internet search. 



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Ask 



During 2006 Teoma and Ask Jeeves ceased to exist as separate search sites and 
merged under the Ask.com umbrella. I had never been impressed with Ask Jeeves, 
which was one of the few sites that continued to try to respond to users questions, 
though not very successfully. Teoma was always an "also ran" in the world of 
search. However, when Barry Diller, former Chairman and CEO of Paramount 
Pictures and Fox, Inc.'s, and his lAC/lnteractive Corp. acquired Ask Jeeves this 
year, things changed dramatically. The name was shortened to Ask, the annoying 
butler icon was gone, along with the ubiquitous ads and usually unfulfilled promise of 
answers to natural language queries. Ask incorporated Teoma's search algorithm, 
ExpertRank, and the Teoma site went away. Now, Ask.com has become a major 
player. 

One of the most striking differences is obvious as soon as you run a search. Instead 
of a list of sponsored links, which Google, Live Search, and Yahoo all display, Ask 
shows "zoom related search" links, designed to help users either narrow or expand a 
search. Of course, Ask still serves up ads with its search results, but the search 
company is putting the primary focus on free search results and not on sponsored 
results. 

Customizing Ask's Settings 

Ask offers six general Settings: 

1. Locations : you may enter a specific location, including a street address or 
a city, state, and zip code for the US. This is an optional feature and you 
can sign up for an account if you want to enter multiple locations. This 
information is used to provide tailored search results relevant to your 
location. 

2. Displaying results : Ask lets you see as few as 10 and up to 100 results per 
page. There is also an option to open results in a new window. 

3. Content filtering : Unlike most search engines, Ask automatically filters 
adult content; the two options are to alert the user when content is filtered 
and provide a link to it or to minimize adult content and not link to it. 

4. Interface language : if you are more comfortable working in another 
language, Ask can display in dozens. 

5. Make Ask your Default Search Engine : In this case, you are telling your 

browser to use Ask as the default search engine from the browser address 
bar. 



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6. Default Ask Site : You can chose one location from a list including the US, 
France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, and UK, or no default site. 
Your results will vary depending on the default site. 

The other setting option is similar to Yahoo's feature that lets users edit the search 
tools. Here are the options Ask offers; you can select only the ones you want to 
appear on your Ask main search page. 



Semch Tools id 

ft Web 

l^j images 

GL News 

CJL Maps & Directions 

fe Local 

/y Weather 

H Encyclopedia 

ft. Ask for Kids 

}3 Dictionary 

Q Blogs & Feeds 

Edit Next » 



Search Tools Id 

P Advanced Search 

Q Bloglines 

% y Currency Conversion 

g Desktop 

| Mobile Consent 

^ Movies 

,5 MyStutT 

^ Shopping 

]/f\ . Stocks 

H Thesaurus 

Edit « Back Nest » 



Search Tools IrJ 

% Toolbar 

<ii Unit Conversion 
i£) White Pages 



Edit 



€ Back 



162 



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The Ask Results Page 

Once you've entered your search terms and selected the Ask Search button, Ask will 
present you with a list of results (hits). For each result returned you may see: 



^^Wll^^ com 


W a b - fmaqes Mews - Bloqs & F»?eds - Shopninq - More » >■* 
[cardmaj Seaich | Advanced Vjf 


h»'':.M!' 




| W«b Search 




Scrying" res^s 1 ■ i 00 CM. 


sS^wrj | 




Encyclopedia: Cardinal (birdl - ^ - > >/ ir ~ , , fi^ 

The CudiiMls or CardfnalMae are a family of passerine birds living vr\ North and South 
America The^e are tobust. seed-eating bitd&, with strong bills. They ars typically 
associated w«h open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages, the family is 

named few the red .. More . . . 

Olher Matches | Arizona Cardinals, an American football team j<] Go | 



Cardinal Health 

Caitiittal HeaJth is ih 
health ca?e mdustiy 



B 



rig provide? of products, servicer and technologies supporting lh& 



Norjhera _C ardlnal f*\ 

Figu ,n "* \duft Female Northern Cmdliial . Ftgure 4 -fcrfv-k Bill ol pm le Northern CaiHinol 

«?V> f\ -u .«:-T! :f 'r/.vcv-.oo r: p---:.::>: 'rv-n-d '<h-"t - <. <■ ,.: i ■ ■. i- PJ" 

JI M . . „Jte. Bird,-, Ohio SteteJBircT . Kentucky 3^re3jrd >: WssjL... 

Cairiinal. Text by John Jsmes Audubon from Birds of Amettca . . THE CARDINAL GROSBEAK 
| Northern C -ii <lin.it | .. 

^5o ■ > ".'"., j -i-.. :- -1/ ,■,;■ ,.. I ji - ■ s - ■ ";• - 



ftinlmn com - Northern Cardinal Bird of me Week. May 14-21, 1999 

. binding com Northern Ciinliit.il Bird of llie Week. Nov 14-2! . 1999 . Similar species. Tim 
Northern C .it Hlii.il is unmislakeable 



male 



tnairow /out Search 

C.'mliit.'il Biid^ 

Northern Cactlinol 

Red Cinliii.il Bird 

Cmilinnl Nest 

Caidhial Bitds .And How 
They live 

Caiholic Canlln.il pj* 

C.mlinal Health ' 

Moto 

EHparid You? Search 

Blue Jay 

Dogwood 

Bald £agle 

Black Boa* 

Flowering Dogwood 
Mere* 



> A Smart Answers : Ask's best guess about what you want, Smart Answers 
provides quick access to encyclopedias (Wikipedia, Houghton Mifflin, or 
Columbia), weather, dictionary results, translations, conversions, etc. Note 
that "other matches" will try to disambiguate a search term with multiple 
meanings such as [cardinal]. This is an extremely useful way to find 
information about commonplace topics, such as [Rwanda]: 



^^^^^ cor 



Weh ■ linages ■ News • BIoqs & Feads ■ Shopping ■ More » 
jrwanda 



Search | Advanced Search 



Rwanda www cia.gov \ 

Capit.nl: Kigali; Population: 6.440,620 

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic RepuMc ot the Congo 

Chiel of Stnte: President! Paul Kagame, Head ot Government: Prime Minister Bernard Makuza 

Languages: Kinyarwarida (olficial) univer sal Bantu vernacular, French (official). English (official), Kiswahii (SwarvH) used in 

commercial eerier s More » 

Encyclopedia I BBC Pioiile I Hisioiy 1 Hag 1 Maps 

US Government Tnvpl Info I Touiisl Attractions | Current Weather | Lora) Time 



Narrow Your Search 
Rwanda Genocide 
Facts about Rwanda 
Rw.nni.1 People 
RwaticLi Map 



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> B Webpaqe Title & Description : the title and a brief summary of the website. 

> C Binoculars Site Preview . Ask's Binoculars Site Preview are periodic screen 
captures of the browser navigating a page. To view the site preview, users 
should only move the mouse over the binoculars because clicking on the 
binoculars takes you to the site. The mouseover is of a static image, so it is 
safe to view, but I find it too small to be very useful beyond revealing the 
general nature of a site. 

> D Cached : a link to the version of the site stored by Ask with the date and 
time the page was indexed. 

> E Save : Ask offers this service for web and image searches. When users click 
on a "save" link on either a web or image search, for web searches Ask will 
save the title of the result, the url, the description, the binoculars icon, and the 
query used to find that result. For image searches, Ask will save the name 
and location of the picture, as well as the query used to find the image. Also, 
everything saved is fully searchable so all saved content is easy to find again 
later. However, for the save feature to work properly, users need to allow 
search history to be enabled (the default). If you do not want Ask to save your 
search history, go to My Stuff \ Settings and uncheck ''Record all my searches 
into my 'Search History" 

> F Zoom Related Search : This is a popular feature retained from Teoma that 
helps users either narrow or broaden a search "with possible alternative 
search terms which appear on the right hand side of the Ask results page. 

• Narrow Your Search: helps you to drill down into topics that are 
specifically related to your search 



• 



Expand Your Search: allows you to explore topics that are conceptually 
related to your search 



• Related Names: presents a list of names that are conceptually tied to 
topic options within the 'Narrow Your Search' and 'Expand Your Search' 



lists." 59 



G More Search Types : Selecting any of these other search options causes 
Ask to search automatically for images, news stories, blog entries, etc., with 
your search term(s). 



59 Ask.com Site Features, "Zoom Related Search," 

< http://help.ask.com/en/docs/about/site features.shtml#relatedsearch > (14 November 2006). 



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Ask Basic Search http://www.ask.com/ 

Ask assumes as its default that multiple search terms are joined by the AND 
. operator, so that a search on the keywords [windows explorer] will find all the 
webpages that contain both search terms. 

Ask will not return any results if there is no webpage containing all the search 
terms. Try this query to see what I mean: 

[kong spektioneer synecdoche] 

Ask does not appear to limit the number of search terms. 

Ask is not case sensitive. There does not appear to be anything you can do about 
this. 

Ask does not offer word stemming or truncation, i.e., searching for variations of 
search terms. Ask searches for exactly the term as you enter it, e.g., a search for 
[window] will not search for [windows]. 

Ask automatically clusters search results. Multiple hits from the same site are 
indented and there is usually an option to see more results from a specific site. 

Ask permits the use of the OR operator in simple search. The OR needs to be 
capitalized. 

Beyond the use of the OR operator in its simple search, Ask does not support 
boolean search. 

Searchers can delimit phrases using double-quotes. For example, if I search on: 

[the last king of france] 

without double-quotes, Ask will ignore the "the" and the "of in its search. I noticed 
that the results from this search are more relevant than the ones I received from 
Google for the same query. If I enclose the same query in double-quotes, Ask will 
search on exactly the phrase ["the last king of france"], and the first hit links to a site 
that lists all the Kings of France, where Louis XVIII can be readily identified. 
Enclosing searches in double-quotes is much more effective for finding precise 
results than relying on automatic phrase searching. 

Ask appears to ignore stop words outside double quotes only when other search 
terms are used. These two searches will return identical results: 

[the last king of france] [last king france] 



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However, if I search for [the], Ask returns over 2 billion hits. If I add another search 
term, e.g., [the france], that query is identical to searching for [france], so the stop 
word is ignored. Nonetheless, it appears that if you search only for stop words, Ask 
will find pages containing them all, e.g., [i a an the]. 

Ask does not seem to like the plus sign (+) because it returns an error message 
when I try to use it. By default Ask searches for all keywords except stop words. 
However, there are many times when searchers need to exclude certain terms that 
are commonly associated with a keyword but irrelevant to their search. That's where 
the minus sign (-) comes in. Using the minus sign in front of a keyword ensures that 
Ask excludes that term from the search. For example, the results for the search 
["pearl harbor" -movie] are very different from the results for ["pearl harbor"]. 

Ask treats most punctuation marks the same way, as links in a search string. For 
example, Ask handles a search for [c-span], [c.span], ["c span"], and [c?span] 
basically the same way. However, a search for [cspan] with no space or mark is 
treated differently. 

Ask Advanced Search 

Ask has a number of "query modifiers" to restrict searches and make them more 
effective in many cases. These query modifiers can be used in simple search using 
the following syntax or on the advanced web search page using the appropriate 
menu options. Interestingly, Ask using the "must exclude" minus sign differently from 
other search engines: the minus sign goes after the command syntax , for example, 
[inurhnasa site: -gov] 

The query modifiers Ask supports are: 

> site; restrict^ results^ ^ This syntax requires a 

keyword. 

Advanced Web Search > Domain or Site 

Examples of how to use the site: command : 

[shuttle site:www. nasa.gov] finds pages about the space shuttle at the NASA 
website. 

["bulletin officiel" site:fr] finds pages in the French top-level domain about official 
bulletins. 

["bulletin officiel" site:-fr] finds pages containing the phrase "bulletin officiel" that 
are not in the French top-level domain. Note that the minus sign goes after the 
site: syntax . 



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> title: or intitle: restricts the results to documents containing the keyword in the 
title. 

Advanced Web Search > Location of words or phrases > In page title 

Examples of how to use the title: command : 

[title:amazon] finds all pages that include the word amazon in their title 

[intitle:amazon jungle rainforest] finds all pages that include the words amazon, 
jungle, and rainforest in their title. Using intitle: makes this search function the 
same as Google's allintitle: query. Note: use a hyphen to search for phrases 
using the intitle: syntax because the double-quotes do not work. 

[-books title.amazon] finds all pages that contain amazon in the title and do not 
contain the term books anywhere on the page. Note that you must put the 
excluded term before the intitle: syntax . 

[title:galileo site:-nasa.gov] finds all pages that contain the term galileo in the title 
but are not at any nasa.gov website. 

> inurl: restricts the results to documents containing the keyword in the url. 
Advanced Web Search > Occurrences 

Examples of how to use the inurl: command : 

[inurlmasa] finds all pages that include nasa anywhere in the url (address) 

[inurl :nasa site:-gov] finds all pages that include nasa anywhere in the url of sites 
that are not in the .gov top-level domain. Note that the minus sign goes after the 
site: syntax . 

[inurhshuttle inurl:-nasa] finds all pages that include shuttle in the url but exclude 
nasa from the url. Note that the minus sign goes after the site: syntax . 

[inurhnasa shuttle sts-90] finds all pages that include both nasa and shuttle in the 
url of a site. Used this way, Ask's inurl: command functions the same as Google's 
allinurl: command, that is, all terms must be in the url. 

[-shuttle inurhnasa] finds all pages with nasa in the url but do not include the term 
shuttle anywhere on the page. Note that you must put the excluded term before 
the intitle: syntax . 



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Ask's Services and Specialty Searches 

Ask offers a number of special features designed to help users find specific kinds of 
information faster and more easily. 

Blog Search: Ask is partnered with Bloglines, the most popular (and my favorite) 
RSS feed reader, to create blog and RSS feed search. The blog search options are: 

> sort by date, popularity, or relevance (which combines date and popularity). 

> sort by posts, feeds, or news. 

> binoculars preview last five posts from a feed. 

> options to subscribe and/or post to a feed using several different applications. 



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> RSS Answers will display the three most recent entries at a blog. Obviously, 
only a limited number of blogs work in RSS Answers, but it is a quick way to 
see what is new at your favorite blog site. Here is an example of an RSS 
Answers for John Battelle's Searchblog: 



News ■ Blags &-. Feeds ■ Shopping ■ Moie 3. 



Advanced Seaich 




John Batteile'S Searchblog Find most recent posts from batteliemedia.com/ 

I know, It's Too PoliticaJ - But it's really worth watching. The program's 

designers say existing anticensorship program r+uw B hours acj^: 

Confidential Source* ■ I remain deeply concerned about the erosion of press freedoms 

in this country. A Times case regardi 'M/.^/.jJOi;, Qry.W: )G AM P£T 

Mote Europe: Settlement in Belgium - Google has settled with Sofam and Scam, two news 

organizations in Belguim that had been disputing U/^/XBiJ OH 45 A?. *-.M PST 



Definitions: Ask will present a dictionary or encyclopedia definition of a term if you 
phrase the query as [define keyword], [definition of keyword], [the meaning of 
keyword], or [dictionary], which brings up the Dictionary Search option: 




Web * Images ■ News ■ Blogs & Feeds ■ Shopping ■ More > 



Web Search \ ||h$$ 



j| Dictionary Search 

Find the definition on ask.com: [ 



Search multiple dictionaries on onelook.com: 
Find more instances on barilehy.com: \ 
Browse by topic on alirefer.com: |*select lopic 



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Local Search: search for services or businesses by US zip code or city. 

Maps: to map a US or Canadian location, search on the street address, city and 
state or the word map and a location. Some international maps are now available. 
See the section on maps for details . 

News: links to news stories appear when a search term matches current news 
stories. Sort news by date or relevance. A separate Ask News page is available at 
http://news.ask.com/ 

Travel Shortcuts; To find arrival and departure information, flight delays, airport 
status, and weather conditions at a US or Canadian airport, enter the airport's three- 
letter code and the word airport. For example, to information about Baltimore- 
Washington International, enter [bwi airport]. 

White Page Search: search for US phone numbers and addresses for people, 
businesses, government offices, doctors, and schools in the U.S. 



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Web Answers: This option is the remnant of Ask Jeeves, that is, Ask's attempt to 
provide direct answers to questions. Users may write a natural language question or, 
in this example, if an answer exists to a commonly asked question, such as the 
meaning of 'ontology,' the Web Answers will appear under the definition. 






Web Search 



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relationships that can exist for an agent or a community of agents) 

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Conversions: The Ask conversion tool will automatically convert world currency, 
temperature, weight, length, area, and cooking/volume. Users can use the query 
[convert amount x to amount y], e.g., [convert 200 iraqi dinars to pound sterling] or 
try a natural language query such as [how many kilometers are in a nautical mile]. 
The conversion tool is very easy to use and impressive. 



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Web Search 



Web ■ Images • News • Blogs & Feeds ■ Shopping - More > 
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Image Search: the Ask image search uses "authoritativeness" to rank its results and 
also accesses a proprietary image index. It is one of the best image search tools 
available. The image search appears as one of the default search tools on the right- 
hand side of the main search page. There is no advanced image search and no 
special image search options. However, when you search for an image, zoom 
related search terms to expand or narrow the search appear. If you select the "save" 
option, this link will save the image to your personal "stuff," which can later be 
accessed via http://mystuff.ask.com/ . If you select "info" about an image, you will 
then see detailed information about the image, including copyright information, and 
its source homepage will appear in a frame in the bottom portion of the screen. 



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Ask Image Search "Info" Page 



http://pictures.ask.com/ 



Number Search: Ask offers many types of number searches. The numbers Ask will 
search for are: 

> UPS tracking: enter the UPS tracking number [1Z9999X99999999], or 
enter [ups tracking] to bring up the UPS tracking query option. 



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> USPS tracking: enter USPS plus the tracking number with or without 
spaces [usps 9999999999999999999999], or enter [usps tracking] to bring 
up the USPS tracking query option. 

> FEDEX tracking: enter FEDEX plus the tracking number [fedex 
9999999999999999], or enter [fedex tracking] to bring up the FEDEX 
tracking query option. 

> DHL and Airborne Express tracking: enter DHL plus the tracking number 
[DHL 9999999999], or enter [DHL tracking] to bring up the DHL tracking 
query option. 

> ZIP codes: enter a US ZIP code, either five or nine digits 

> ISBN: enter any International Standard Book Number 

> VIN Information: to find information about a vehicle's history, search on its 
17-character Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) 



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More Help: Internet Guides and Tutorials 



For anyone who wants additional help in learning how to use the Internet more 
effectively, many excellent resources are available for free via the Internet. Also, 
there are more and more sites appearing to help new Internet users get started with 
searching the web. Some help you choose the right search engine, others how to 
formulate a query, and others are step-by-step tutorials. 

The Internet Detective Tutorial is a free online tutorial that is part of the Intute: Virtual 
Training Suite, a set of "free Internet tutorials to help you learn how to get the best 
from the Web for your education and research... [created by] a national team of 
subject specialists based in universities and colleges across the UK." 60 Not familiar 
with Intute? It is the newly evolved face of the Resource Discovery Network, a 
carefully selected and evaluated set of academic research resources. The Internet 
Detective tutorial focuses on how to evaluate Internet sources for quality and 
authoritativeness, how to avoid wasting time on questionable websites and 
searches, and how to avoid violating copyright laws and plagiarism. The tutorial 
includes a set of practical exercises to try your Internet research skills. Although the 
tutorial is aimed at university research, I highly recommend it for all readers. The 
tutorial requires about an hour to complete, but it is designed so you can do it in 
more than one sitting. 

The Internet Detective Tutorial http://www.vts.intute.ac.uk/detective/index.html 

All the Intute tutorials are available at: 

Intute: Virtual Training Suite http://www.vts.intute.ac.uk/ 

The following are tutorials, guides, and search-oriented sites available on the 
Internet: 

BrightPlanet's Guide to Effective Searching of the Internet 

http://www.briqhtplanet.com/deepcontent/tutorials/search/index.asp 

Finding Information on the Internet: A Tutorial 

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachinqLib/Guides/lnternet/Findlnfo.html 

Internet Tutorials from University of Albany Libraries http://www.internettutorials.net/ 

Internet Scout Report 

http://scout.wisc.edu/Proiects/PastProiects/toolkit/searchinq/index.html 



60 Intute: Virtual Training Suite, < http://www.vts.intute.ac.uk/ > (12 September 2006). 



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Pandia's Goalgetter http://www.pandia.com/qoalqetter/index.html 

Phil Bradley's Searching the Internet http://www.philb.com/searchindex.htm 

Search Engine Watch Tutorials (old but still useful) 

http://www.searchenqinewatch.com/resources/article.php/2156611 

Web Search Guide http://www.websearchquide.ca/tutorials/tocfram.htm 



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Specialized Search Tools & Techniques 



This section, which first appeared in the 2006 edition, was born of the rapid growth 
of both unconventional search techniques such as Google hacking and the wildfire 
spreading of such tools as online maps. This year, I have added a new section on 
Wikipedia and expanded the maps and mapping section. 



"Google Hacking" 



This topic has received a great deal of attention in the world of Internet search in the 
past few years. While this activity is generically referred to as "Google hacking," 61 
this is a double misnomer. First, to limit this practice to "Google" is a mistake 
because many of these kinds of searches can be run using any search engine, 
though they are clearly going to be most effective with a large, powerful search tool 
that offers many search options, such as Google. Second, this is not hacking in the 
sense that most people use the term, i.e., gaining access to a computer or data on a 
computer illegally or without authorization. Nothing I am going to describe to you is 
illegal, nor does it in any way involve accessing unauthorized data. "Google (or 
search engine) hacking" involves using publicly available search engines to 
access publicly available information that almost certainly was not intended 
for public distribution. In short, it's using clever but legal techniques to find 
information that doesn't belong on the public Internet. 

To understand how this information has found its way into search engine databases, 
we need a quick overview of how search engines work. Very simply, search engines 
deploy "spiders" (aka crawlers or bots), which is actually software that "crawls" 
websites looking for new sites, updating old ones, following links, and dumping all 
that data into search engine databases where it is stored, sorted, and eventually 
accessed by users. There is nothing illegal, immoral, or even fattening about search 



61 Let's talk about the term hacking for a minute. A hacker is someone who is proficient at using or 
programming a computer; in short, a computer expert. While there is no universal agreement on a 
preferred term for someone engaged in illegal/illicit computer or network activity, I will call these 
"black hat" hackers "malicious hackers" to distinguish them from "white hat" or neutral "hackers," 
meaning proficient or expert computer users. 



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engine spiders. Indeed, without them, we would have little or no idea what is "out 
there" and available to us. The problem for webmasters is that it is their 
responsibility to keep the search engine spiders out of any parts of their websites 
they do not want to be accessed and indexed by a search engine. The spider is not 
smart; it simply knows that if a "door" is open, it can — and will — go in and crawl 
around. Webmasters must tell spiders "do not enter" (primarily) by the use of the 
Robots Exclusion Protocol. 

Robots Exclusion 62 comes in two basic flavors: either a metatag that can be inserted 
into the HTML of a web page (usually used by an individual) or a Robots Exclusion 
Protocol (robots.txt) file, a specially formatted file inserted by the website 
administrator to tell the spider which parts of the website may and may not be 
indexed by the spider. If a robots exclusion is missing or improperly configured, the 
spider will index pages that the website owner may not have wished to have been 
accessed. 

The whole problem of keeping information on the Internet private dramatically 
worsened almost overnight a couple of years ago when Google quietly started 
indexing whole new types of data. Originally, most of what got spidered and indexed 
was HTML webpages and documents, with some plain text thrown in for good 
measure. However, the ever-innovative Google decided this wasn't good enough 
and started to index PDF, PostScript, and— most importantly— a whole range of 
Microsoft file types: Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access. Problem was, lots of 
folks had assumed these file types were "immune" to spidering not because it 
couldn't be done but because no one had yet done it. As a result, many companies, 
organizations, and even governments had quite a lot of egg on their faces when 
sensitive documents began turning up in the Google database. 

That was then, this is now. You might think people would have learned, but judging 
by the amount of "sensitive" information still available, many have not. Even though 
search engines now routinely index many non-HTML file types, many individuals and 
organizations still do not protect these files from the long reach of search engine 
spiders. Furthermore, there are many ways for sensitive information to end up in 
search engine databases. An improperly configured server, security holes, and 
unpatched software can give search engine spiders unintended access. Quite 
frankly, most of the problems boil down to one thing: human error, either through 
ignorance or neglect. 

What kinds of sensitive information can routinely be found using search engines? 
The types of data most commonly discovered by Google hackers usually falls into 
one of these categories: 



62 For additional information, see: < http://www.robotstxt.org/wc/exclusion.html > (14 November 2006). 



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> personal and/or financial information 

> userids, computer or account logins, passwords 

> private, confidential, or proprietary company data 

> sensitive government information 

> vulnerabilities in websites and servers that could facilitate breaking into the 
site 

Now, you may be thinking to yourself, "I use Google all the time and I've never 
encountered this type of information." That's not surprising. It's not usually the kind 
of thing you would stumble across inadvertently. Normally, one would have to be 
actively looking for this type of information. Of course, many of the documents 
Google hackers find using these techniques are not sensitive and indeed are 
intended for the public Internet. Only a tiny fraction of the over eight billion pages in 
the Google index were not meant to be made available to the public. And, it so 
happens, these techniques are excellent unconventional ways of finding useful 
information that might not be discovered using routine search engine queries. Here 
are some of the typical techniques used in Google hacking: 

> search by file type 63 , site type, and keyword: many organizations store 
financial, inventory, personnel, etc., data in Excel spreadsheet format and 
often mark the information "Confidential," so a Google hacker looking for 
sensitive information about a company in South Africa might use a query such 
as: 

[filetype:xls site:za confidential] 

a similar but more specific search could involve use of a keyword such as 
budget to search for Excel spreadsheets at Indian websites; for example: 
[filetype:xls site:in budget] 

> one of the most popular Google hacking technique is to employ stock words 
and phrases such as proprietary, confidential, not for distribution, do not 
distribute, along with a search for specific file types, especially Excel 
spreadsheets, Word documents, and PowerPoint briefings. 

> search for files containing login, userid, and password information; note, 
even at international sites, these terms usually appear in English. This type of 
information is typically stored in spreadsheet format, so a typical search might 
be: 

[filetype:xls site:ru login] 



63 



It is critical that you handle all Microsoft file types on the Internet with extreme care. Never open a 
Microsoft file type on the Internet. Instead, use one of the techniques described here . 



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> misconfigured web servers that list the content of directories not intended 
to be on the web often offer a rich load of information to Google hackers; a 
typical command to exploit this error is: 

[intitle:"index of site:kr password] 

^ numrange search : this is one of the least known and (formerly) one of the 
scariest searches available through Google. Numrange uses two number 
separated by two periods (dots) and no spaces. While "legitimate" numrange 
users probably will want to indicate what the numbers mean, e.g., weight, 
money, pixels, etc. Google does not require any special words or symbols to 
run a successful numrange search; hence its power. Numrange can be used 
with keywords and other Google search options, such as: 

[site:www .jordanislamicbank.com 61 7. .780] 

How is numrange typically used in Google hacking? It used to be extremely effective 
in finding credit card numbers and social security numbers. Because of the publicity 
about criminals using Google to look for private data, this particular search no longer 
works for credit card and Social Security numbers, which is not a bad thing. 

The disabled "hack" was: 

[numrange:4567000000000000.. 4567999999999999 visa] or 
[numrange:222000000. . 250999999 ssn] 
Now if you try these searches, you will see this message: 



Google 



Not Found 



The requested URL 

/sorry/? con tinue=http: //www. google. com/search%JEnum%3D100*26hl%3Den*261rt3D^26newwindowl3Dl%26saCc%3DoECl26q^3Dnumrange^25 

was not found on this server. 



Lest you think I am spilling the beans here, I assure you I am not revealing anything 
that is not already widely known and used on the Internet both by legitimate and illicit 
Google hackers. I am fully indebted to Johnny (johnnyihackstuff) Long for many of 
the "Google hacking" techniques 64 I have learned. Please use the information he 
provides judiciously because many of the Google hacking techniques he discusses 
are really designed for cracking, i.e., breaking into websites and servers. That is not 



64 Johnny Long, Google Hacking for Penetration Testers, Syngress: Rockland, MA, 2004. 



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something I encourage or advocate. I do encourage you to "hack" your own website 
to see what kinds of information is being revealed inadvertently via Google and other 
search engines. 

Also, a lot of the best information Johnny offers is for his site members only, and I do 
not want to suggest you register there. Nonetheless, Johnny's briefing slides from 
the 2004 Black Hat and Defcon12 conferences are available at the official Black Hat 
Briefings website and elsewhere (so much for registration). I have also found his 
excellent white paper "The Google Hacker's Guide" at other sites that do not require 
registration; there is another very good briefing on the dangers of Google by 
Sebastian Wolfgarten. 

There was a fair amount of sniping following Long's talks at Black Hat and Defcon, 
mostly of the "big deal" variety, i.e., it is not "real" hacking and therefore not worthy 
of presenting at Defcon. However, this is a very shortsighted point of view when one 
considers the kinds of information that is so very easily available via Google, et al. 
How would you like to see your Social Security Number, credit card number, and 
that very handy little three digit number on the back of your credit card used for 
"verification," bank routing information, mother's maiden name, etc., in the next 
Google hacking briefing? Yes, all this kind of information is readily available (I 
know.. .I've uncovered quite a bit of it myself). And this doesn't even take into 
consideration all the other website weaknesses, such as multiple vulnerabilities with 
IIS 6.0 Web-based administration , that can be exposed using Google. 

Johnny Long's Googledorks Page http://iohnny.ihackstuff.com/qhdb.php 

Johnny Long's "The Google Hacker's Guide" 

http://www.securitymanaqement.com/librarv/Google HackerQ7Q4.pdf 

Johnny Long, "You Got That With Google?" Black Hat Briefings and Defcon12, July 
2004. 

http://www.blackhat.eom/html/bh-media-archives/bh-archives-2004.html#USA-2004 

Johnny Long, "Google Hacking Mini-Guide," lnformit.com, 7 May 2004 

http://www.informit.com/articles/printerfriendly. asp?p= 170880 

Sebastian Wolfgarten, "Watch Out Google" 

http://www.wolfqarten.com/downloads/Watch out qooqle.pdf 

Joe Barr, "Google Hacks are for Real," Newsforge.com, 6 August 2004 

http://www.newsforqe.com/article. pl?sid=04/08/05/1236234 

Taken all together, the information Johnny Long has found using Google (he sticks 
with this one search engine), combined with the techniques he details at his website, 
provide an excellent tutorial on using Google to find stuff that really should not be on 
the public Internet or easily accessible via a search query. Furthermore, the greatest 
value of his efforts may not be in finding useful information but in demonstrating the 
vulnerabilities of any given website and the necessity of taking strong measures to 



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ensure the information that gets into Google (as well as other search engine 
databases and the Internet Archive) is only that which is intended. 

Given the large amount of "sensitive" or private data readily available via Internet 
search engines, people naturally wonder why companies and individuals do not 
actively try to remove this information. Sometimes they do, but much still remains 
accessible. Why? Getting private information "back" is harder than preventing 
its disclosure in the first place. There are steps you can take to remove your data, 
but as hacker Adrian Lamo says, "removing links after the fact isn't a very elegant 
solution." Nor is it likely to be terribly effective. There are a number of reasons for 
this, but what it boils down to is: it's very hard to put the genie back in the bottle. 

First of all, you have to find out if your data is "out there" in order to ask search 
engines to remove it and, clearly, many people and organizations are not playing 
defense, that is, they are not routinely checking to see what is indexed from their 
websites. Let's say you find something on Google that shouldn't be on the public 
Internet. The first thing you have to do is to protect the sensitive pages on your site 
or remove them entirely. However, even when you have removed those pages from 
your website, this doesn't mean they can't be accessed. Once documents are 
indexed in a search engine database, a publicly available copy of those documents 
(usually referred to as the cache copy) may remain behind for days, weeks, even 
months. 

The next step is to ask Google to remove your sensitive pages from its database. 
However, even when Google removes your data, there are literally hundreds of other 
search engines around the world, and who knows what they have indexed from your 
site. It will not be an easy task finding out. And I'll hazard a guess that not all of them 
will be quite so accommodating as Google in removing pages. 

To make matters worse, if something really "juicy" shows up in a search engine, 
chances are someone will find it and copy it to another website. Once this happens, 
you can forget about removing that information from the Internet. To further 
complicate matters, even if no individual comes across your sensitive data, the 
Internet Archive 65 spider is almost certainly going to find that webpage and index it in 
the Archive, and there it will remain until and unless you find it first and ask the 
Archive to remove it. As you can see, the genie is running amuck! Prevention is 
much easier (though certainly not easy) than curing this particular disease, so it's 
vital to pay close attention to anything you put on a website, especially something 
you do not want the whole world to see. 



65 The Internet Archive is a non-profit organization that was founded to "build an 'Internet library,' with 
the purpose of offering permanent access for researchers, historians, and scholars to historical 
collections that exist in digital format. Based in San Francisco, the Internet Archive has been 
harvesting the World Wide Web since 1996, to create one of the largest data collections in the world. 
The Internet Archive's web archive contains over 100 terabytes of data, and the collection is growing 
at a rate of 12 terabytes per month." <htt p://www.archive.org/ > (14 November 2006). 



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Because of the vast amount of information available using public search engines, it's 
relatively easy to find lots of interesting, amusing, shocking examples of sensitive 
information. While this is all fine and good for entertaining yourself and impressing 
your friends, what we are really after is useful, meaningful, and actionable 
information. Put succinctly: 

It 's Easier to Find Anything Than It Is to Find Something 

So how do you find "something" useful? While it isn't easy to do so, I can make 
some suggestions that might help. The most valuable assets you have are your 
subject matter knowledge and your creativity. Add these to a few search engine 
strategies, and you can probably find many relevant and genuinely useful pieces of 
information. The strategies I recommend for finding "something" rather than just 
"anything" are: 

Limit the search by site 

This can be as broad as a county [siteifr] or as specific as an individual server on a 
company website [site:office. microsoft.com]. 

Try to be as specific as possible 

You will have a lot more success searching for information within the Chinese 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs [site:fmprc.cn.gov] than looking at all the sites indexed for 
China [site:cn] or even for the government of China [site:gov.cn] 

Add keywords 

Here's where your subject matter knowledge and creativity really help. You are the 
best source of information about what words are most likely to yield the best quality 
and quantity of useful information. As a general rule, more uncommon words work 
best (consider using unusual proper names). 

Limit the search by file type 

Most of the best information found by Google hackers is not on webpages (HTML) 
but in other types of files. Try all or most of the file types one at a time (these are not 
the only searchable file types; check the particular search engine's documentation 
(Help page) for others): 

filetype:pdf — good for large documents of all types; widely used in academia, 
government, and business; many PowerPoint briefings are also made available 
in PDF at the same website 

filteype:doc— good for internal working documents, reports, etc. 

filetype:xls— good for personnel data, computer records, financial information 



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filetype:ppt — good for briefings, which often contain company or government 
plans for the future 



fe&O 



^j<j | ^ httpif/ww^^aonrc.ngVmcetiPQs/l^/ptQiai'gnime/doc^^c^'s-pt'gi-qoui.' * %& 






/ 



.-'ir:"- 



ICT in Afghanistan 



PowerPoint briefings 
may contain useful 
and/or unique 
information 



Muhammad Asiam 
cif ccTLD Manager 



Presentation by: Gaurab Raj Upadhaya 

at APOPS Forum, 16 APNiC Open Policy Meeting 

August. 21, 2003. Seoul. Korea 



AFGN1C 



1U 



±1 



cm* » M 11 j69,x 8.26m D 



And, often, PowerPoint files are also 
available in PDF(safer/easierto read) 



Use Google hacking techniques to search inside websites requiring registration 

You will frequently encounter a website, perhaps a database, that requires 
registration to view its contents. On occasion, you can use Google to get at that data 
without registering. For example, let's say you find a database of international 
companies that requires free registration. Without registering, you may be able to 
use Google to list all the companies and even get a look at the individual entries. Try 
this series of queries or something similar: 

[site:www.companyname.com inurkdatabase] or 

[site:www. companyname.com inurkdirectory] or 

[site:www.companyname.com inurhindex] 

Then, look for keywords, such as companies, and move to the next level query: 

[site:www. cornpanyname.com inurl:companies] 



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You may be able to browse through the list of companies and get names, 
addresses, phone numbers, etc. 

Search in the native language 



I cannot emphasize strongly enough how important it is to use keyword search terms 
that are in the native language of the entity you are researching. The Internet is 
becoming much less dependent upon English, and sites written in languages that do 
not use the Latin alphabet are growing by leaps and bounds. For example, a search 
term written in the native language and encoding is far more likely to yield 
interesting, useful results than the same word transliterated into English. Most good 
quality search engines now correctly render non-Latin search terms regardless of 
how the term is transliterated in English. A search on the Arabic ±*±* returns very 
different results than searching on [muhammad], [mohamet], [mohammed], etc. 



Google 



Web Images Video Ne^s Maps Deskto p moie » 
1^ Search | X^ "* 



Web 

Sheikh Muh ammad Jebril I ck>^ **** r^ 1 - [ u*L':£rt::J:$.£}k?. I 

... by sheikh Muhammad Jebril's spectacular voice, **— j^H *V" f ' Uli| j ^j^ 1 jj^ "-^j ^ 
W»Vv'.jebfll.CjrT</- G(< - :._3C'j£.;J - _4JI?.:<J.«'.!!.i 

4Jmj5 jil ^it^^ll - Jj_^ Iaa^ .ic-ijJ^I - [ TnniUi'e: lllii. Q<:;]t'' | 

vw^/.t^biil com/ai/inde*.!itm - 33k ■ .> ;*_>-?;• ^■ | ' : y;^.^'?f!¥ > 

Mohammad Esfjhanj Official Web Site - 
Iranian singer. Profile, discography, and pictures. 
avv,' rnonArrtmaiJ-esfaftan! com/ - 10k ■ '■'. h-J-.h'i • Z-trp.lU] .^ilfeS 



Results 1 ■ 100 of about 25.800,000 for 0.06) 



seconds) 



photographing, landscape, Portrait. ... All works of art copyright © MOHAMEQ MANNAI. All 
rights reserved Copyright © 2000-2006 MOHAMED MANNAI. 
'av,v mmannai com.' - 7k ■ C. ">^ l -eti ■ Sm^iLi p ^-es 

MUHAMMAD ALI - The Greatest Of All Time 

This is the Official website of Muhammad All. the greatest of all time. 

v/-w ah. com:' 22k ■ ( ochC-J - j',ti.|;.j j-v:?; 

Welcome to His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashi-j Al Maktoum's ... 

Official srte oflhe Ruler of Dubai, who is also the UAE Vice President and Prime Minister. 
Contains news, hrs poetry and other information in Arabic and ... 
"7-V-.V itieiklniolismmsd co ae-'- 2k ■ iA-'\l'i - 1. ;m ,l >i ai : ; rt v 



^L 



McSL: ■ ( h 



^".v. sht'il'rirriGr.iirfirieo co ae/a'abic/inde/.asp - 2k 



Ji ,j*ji _^ iik ... 



Al-Hammadi com - A Website for All 

Al-Hammadi.com is a website with information on Qatar, Islam. Arabic music, and more, 

Come on in and enjoy what we have to offer 

\v<vv: al-hdnmiadi com/- 12k - '_yj±-i ■ ^I'lIl'.! 1 ... 



Remember that Diacritics Also Affect Searches 



Most search engine algorithms are now set up to "read" accented search terms 
differently from those without accents. It's easy to test this by searching first for a 
term without any diacritical marks and then the same word with the marks, e.g., 
resume vs. resume. 



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Types 

Some common types of diacritical marks: 



♦ acute accent ( f ) 

♦ ring 1 above ( ° ) used for angstrom (A), aka krouzek 

♦ breve ( v ) 

♦ car on or hacek ( v ) 

♦ cedilla C . ) 

♦ circumflex ( A ) 

♦ umlaut 1 or diaeresis ( " ) 

♦ double acute accent (") 

♦ grave accent ( ' ) 

♦ macron ( ) 

♦ ogonek ( L ) 

♦ spiritus asper 

♦ spiritus lenis 

V Strictly taken not diacritics but parts of the character. 

66 

Look for Misspellings (Intentional or Accidental) 

I am constantly amazed by the frequency of misspelled words, urls, file names, etc., 
I encounter on the Internet. By far, most appear to be simple mistakes, often made 
by non-English speakers trying to cope with our confusing language. These 
mistakes tend to propagate as users copy and paste them again and again, which is 
what I believe happened here: 



Fact Index, < http://www.fact-index.eom/d/di/diacrilic.html > 



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Googletg 



UNCLASSIFIED //FOn OFFIC I AL U0C ONLY 



linages Groups News Frooqie more » 



Igish $e:v^.chinad a ily.com.cn Gh| TJ^TJ"'^ 



Web Results 1 - 10 of 10 from www.chinadaily.com.cn for enhjish (0.30 seconds) 

jobs 

Chinadaily.com.cn Recruitment #1] a $ (EISA 43 K. P7]S£i£itSP- 

H&4f|fi?!li]i(1£) (ftsffi). £* WAWKH^Sfili ... 

www 1 chinadailyxomxn/enlyish/doc/'2004-03/'l6/corilsril_3']53'l4.htm - 23k - Cached - Similar pa gas 

jobs 

Chinadaily.com.cn Recruitment tpH 9}l*fl5|aA}gfS. RflaA&itSP- 

vW'/-i¥.c,hinadaily.coiri.cn/enljjisl»/doc/2004-03/16/coriteril___3!531B.htm -23k - C&e_hed ; - S][(]j|ar pdjjes; 

jobs 

Chinadaily.com.cn Recruitment tfH B^E9|Si54gf5. ?fi&SH3iB*£a ( 

2HT*gr;lk#> (2*) (ft mm). £* : 30 ... 

\wav. china da i I y. com.cn/ettlyish/doc/200-il-03/16/conl 9nt_315317.htm - 23k - Cached - Similar pag<?g 

jobs 

Chinadaily.com.cn Recruitment «t» iH a IRPflSfiJgl?. <21 

ISS^KXflU Tia»Stt£»«». €211»£'J^5£JR... 

www.chinadailv.com.cn/enifjish/ doc/2Q04-Q4/06/content__321050.htm - 9k - Cached- Similar page? 

jobs 

Chinadaily.com.cn Recruitment <PSI aiRF?]3£lgft. 35if ¥5UiB*8&( 

2-3£) (ft]* rfJ). XflrJWftJfl : ft s fc« ... 

www.chinadaily.com.cn/enUjfsh/ doc/2004-03/16/content_3'153l2.htrn - 30k ■ Cschsd - Snr=ii^r jjacies 

Finally, the enormity of the task of finding meaningful and useful information on the 
Internet is both daunting and comforting: daunting because we know we can only 
scratch the surface of all the data and comforting because there is an almost 
limitless pool of possibilities. I find it useful to keep the challenge in perspective by 
recalling that a study published in 2000 showed "the sixty known, largest deep Web 
sites contain data of about 750 terabytes (HTML-included basis) or roughly forty 
times the size of the known surface Web" 67 In short, there is just so much data and 
information available via the Internet that no institution, no government, no 
computer, and certainly no individual can possibly grasp more than a small portion of 
all there is. 



67 Michael K. Bergman, "The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value," BrightPianet .com, July 2001 
< http://www.briqhtplanet.com/technoloqy/deepweb.asp > (14 November 2006), Introduction. 



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Custom Search Engines 



This topic is new this year and expands upon the entries on Rollyo and Gigablast's 
Custom Topic Search from last year's edition. During 2006 there was an explosion in 
the number of custom search engines, including entries from Google, Yahoo, and 
Live Search, so you know the powerhouses think this is worth a try. Whether this 
trend catches on remains to be seen. 

The phrase "custom search engine" is very misleading. None of these sites permits 
users to create a new search engine. What each site does in its own way is to let 
users customize an existing search engine to search specific sites in specific ways 
and return results in a personalized fashion. Thus, a better name for these services 
would be customizable searching, but that moniker is clearly unappealing. Just 
remember that you are not creating a new search engine any more than customizing 
a car is building a new automobile from the tires up. 

Most of the custom search sites operate on a simple principle: they automate a long 
"site" search, e.g., the search is equivalent to [keyword(s) AND (site 1 OR site 2 OR 
site 3. ..OR site n)], where n stands for the maximum number of sites you are allowed 
to search. 

In short, the proliferation of customizable search means that companies, educational 
institutions, government agencies, and individuals can easily put the power of the big 
search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and Live Search with its search Macros to 
work creating tailored and specialized search services in a way that has never 
before been possible. Customizable search may be "the next big thing," and I 
believe it is one of the most positive examples of that vague but ubiquitous concept 
called Web 2.0. 

Gigablast's Custom Topic Search http://www.qigablast.com/cts.html 

Gigablast's Custom Topic Search was one of the first "create your own search 
engines" to appear, although Gigablast's creator Matt Wells never claimed it was 
anything other than a way to customize Gigablast. The beauty of the Gigablast CTS 
is that it reguires no software installation but is very, very simple HTML code, so 
simple anyone can edit and understand it. No registration is required. 

Many of Gigablast's features were primarily designed for webmasters instead of 
users, but this one is potentially valuable to both: "Build Your Own Topic Search 
Engine." Gigablast "allows you to create a list of up to 200 web sites (or subsites) 
and a search box that searches just those sites." Custom Topic Search even lets 
you decide if you want Gigablast to cluster the results for you. The concept behind 



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topic search is that you, and not some anonymous marketer, choose the sites you 
want to search. This "tool" (for want of a better word) is amazingly easy to use and 
powerful. As someone whose eyes glaze over at the mere sight of code, let me put 
this in "user" language. If you are familiar with Google's site: syntax, imagine being 
able to have a "canned" query that runs against up to 200 websites of your own 
choosing and lets you run it whenever you like and use whatever keyword(s) you 
want at any time. The query on Google would look something like this: 

[keyword site:cnn.com OR site:dmoz.org OR site:amazon.com OR 
site:usatoday.com OR sitexia.gov (etc.)] 

The problem with Google is that multiple site/domain searches are cumbersome at 
best, and they quickly run up against Google's 32-word limit. Enter Matt Wells and 
Gigablast. As the creator and sole proprietor of his own search engine, Matt has the 
luxury of being able to add new options easily. I think CTS is his best innovation yet. 
Even if you are as HTML-averse as I am, this code is so easy to edit that it's a piece 
of cake. To make things even easier, I have done the basics for you. First, however, 
I highly recommend you read through the Gigablast pages below on the concepts 
behind CTS. 

Build Your Own Topic Search Engine of Custom Topic Search 

http://www.qiqablast.com/byose.html 

http://www.qiqablast.com/cts.html 

Now you're ready to take a look at, edit, and try the CTS. Copy and paste this HTML 
code into an application such as Notepad. 

<head> 

<title>Gigablast Custom Search</title> 

</head> 

<body> 

Search News Websites 
<form method-'post" action="http://www.gigablast.com/search"> 
<input type- 'text" name="q" size="60"> 
<input type-'submit" value-'search" border="0"> 
<input type="hidden" name="sc" value=T'> 

<input type-'hidden" name- 'sites" value-'cnn.com news.yahoo.com 
news.google.com usatoday.com foxnews.com"> 
</form> 
</body> 

This is a bare bones version of the CTS code. Now you can play with the code and 
make it into your own custom topic search page. I should mention that I set the "site 
clustering" option to ON <input type-'hidden" name-'sc" value- "I "> but you can 
reset it to OFF by changing 1 to 0. Once you save as an HTML file, all you have to 



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do to use it is to open the file in your browser, insert keyword(s), and go. 
Obviously, you will want to add more sites to search (I only put in a few) and change 
the topic to something of interest to you (I chose the rather bland News topic for 
demonstration purposes). Also, you can enter sub-sites or more specific sites, such 
as cnn.com/WORLD or dir.yahoo.com. 

One thing to keep in mind that is you are searching Gigablast's database of 
pages from these websites, not the sites themselves. The "work" that goes into 
creating a CTS is mostly up front because once you create your list of sites, it is not 
a complicated matter to add to or subtract from it. I can easily imagine creating a set 
of these search forms on a variety of topics using existing bookmarks. 

Rollvo http://rollyo.com/ 

Rollyo stands for "Roll your own" search engine, meaning that you select the 
sources you want to search. Rollyo is powered by Yahoo, so results will come from 
Yahoo only. Rollyo lets users search up to 25 sites (not a huge number) and also try 
out and use other people's "Searchrolls." In order to save, share, and use your 
Searchrolls on other computers, you must register with an email address and a user- 
created name and password. 

Rollyo has some unusual features. For example, Rollyo permits users to upload their 
bookmarks to create Searchrolls, edit someone else's Searchroll to make it your 
own, keep your Searchrolls private or share them. Rollyo searches entire sites or 
you can limit your search to a subdomain; however, you cannot limit your search to 
directories within a site, e.g., in this case, everything after the slash is ignored: 
security, news, com/library. 

Rollyo has a nice little bookmarklet called Rollbar that "gives you access to all of 
your Searchrolls wherever you are. 

• Search any site you visit, from the same spot on your browser, without 
having to dig around for every site's search page. 

• Add sites to your Searchrolls on the fly. 

• Create a new Searchroll from anywhere." 
< http://rollyo.com/bookmarklet.html > 

One of the most attractive features of Rollyo is the ability to share Searchrolls. Here 
is an example of a Searchroll named "Muslim World Views." The sources searched 
are on the left side: 



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ROLLYO 



Wi 




JT'ry il oul 



MUSLIM WORLD VIEIVS 

Q Add to my Rollyo 

Brought to you by: 
viblog 



SITES SEARCHED: 

irna.com 

enojish.aljazeer. . 
asharqalawfa. . 

iviamrepubli , 
isl'jrrigc-neiQt . 
<ll-baWGb0.i",o, . 

arabicne^i.c . 
cpilive.net 
nst.com. my 
englrsh.daralhay. 



in: I Muslim World Views jj Sea?ch 



Latest Custom Blog Results: 

Housemen's working conditions: Making it more bearable for junior doctors 
i;<v- ?t: >■•..' rir.-iii ■ r.-d^ is. I'^t 9--i vw s - r '--:r 

Latest Custom News Results: 

Housemen's working conditions; Making it more bearable for junior doctors 

K*- :t:i-.ti Tlr.vsj ■ Z-i-i 11. Iri-? ■ -d ;00 pm :"t 

Baghdad university bomhrng kills 70 

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Baghdad university bombing kills 70 

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Si CHECK IT OUT! 

Get your RollQar ■ Add a Searchbox 



DO S1UFF 



More luitom News Results... 



Custom Web Results: M.-.-idirci ■st'put V.UO'! 



Ing l ;o ,/u 



Al Jazeera English ■■ Archive 

Got a problem with burglars? Try leaving an apple, a carrot or a piece of pizza out for them. ,. 

scene [of a crime] and try it for DNA," 2arsky told New ... 

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A. I Jazeera English - File Mot Found 

Provides a history of the region, as well as news and analysis of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. 

i-.rr.p //engiiih -*lj->:eer4 n^Tifr/* ceref/Jse^EXAA-c'' 



» Add to my Pcllyo 

► Edit this Searchroll 
V Link to Searchroll 
» Add to Firefox 1 " 

► Share with a friend 



DJ 



w 



Your Personal DJ 
for (Tunes 

Free Download! 



Rollyo has added blog and news searches (again, from Yahoo) to the results. Rollyo 
makes it very easy to create, save, and edit custom searches. 

Google Custom Search Engine http://www.qooqle.com/coop/cse/overview 

Google got into the custom search game rather late. In October 2006 Google 
announced its own version of a custom search engine. In the announcement, 
Google said, 

"When we say we're letting people build a custom search engine, we mean the 
whole thing: choosing which pages they want to include in their index, how the 
content should be prioritized, whether others can contribute to the index, and 
what the search results page will look like. ..Here's how a Custom Search Engine 
works: organizations or individuals simply go to www.google.com/coop/cse and 
select the websites or pages they'd like to include in their search index. Users 
can choose to restrict their search results to include only those pages and sites, 
or they can give those pages and sites higher priority and ranking within the 
larger Google index when people search their site. Users can then customize the 
look, feel and functionality of their search engine." 68 



68 Google Press Release, "The Power of Google Search is Now Customizable," 23 October 2006, 
< http://www.google.com/press/annc/custom search.html > (17 January 2007). 



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After a telephone conference with Google's Marissa Mayer and the Google product 
managers, search and Google expert John Battelle shared his comments, which I 
think are excellent insights: 

"While similar to Rollyo's innovative custom roll, the Google CSE adds the benefit 
of allowing users to roll an unlimited number of sites together and display the 
results on their own site, with personalized presentation. Someone on the call 
described this as the fragmentation of search. The ability to build verticals will 
allow experts to build specialized engines. But while the engines will be 
individual, the collaborative element of tagging the domains encourages 
communities of knowledge to create together. So while each will stand apart from 
the amazing all-in-one answer box, the Custom Search will also allow a 
thickening or deepening of intelligent tags in Co-op, which feeds the one box that 
unites them all." < http://battellemedia.com/archives/003006.php > 

Not surprisingly, you must have a Google account to use this service. Also, 
Google Custom Search includes AdSense sponsored links alongside search results, 
but government sites, non-profits, and educational institutions are exempt from the 
advertising requirement. To see the Google Custom Search in action, take a look at 
Real Climate. org's internal search: < http://www.realclimate.org/ > Even better, check 
out Customsearchguide, a directory of Google Custom Search Engines that others 
have created but you can use. Here is an example of general science and 
technology custom searches. 



CustomSearchGuide 

com 



Control Center 

Home • Register ■ Login - Suggest 



General Science And Technology Search Forms 
You Aie Heie: Home > Technology > General Science And Technology Search Forms 

Health ■ Media ■ Re<et«nct • Shopping • Society • Sports • Technology ■ Trj»el 



Senidi Form 



Technology Search n/a 

Science and Engineering Search n/a 
Science Wtkis n/a 



Editor Visitoi 
R.itlnij R.iliiHj 



Description 



Searches science and technology resources. 
Find info on science and engineering. 
Searches science-oriented wiki sites 



Welvm-isteis A Bloyyeis: Link heie 8. encourage people to use and vote for your favorite CSEs 



<a hcef= ! 

"heep: f /vw*. customseacchgu ide.com/cat-egocies/technology/general-acieiice-f: 
Science And Technology 3earch Forros</«> j 



home • link to us • about • legal ■ privacy ■ press 
Copyright ©20D6, Moving Traffic. Inc. All Rights Reserved. 



Customsearchguide 



http://www.customsearchguide.com/ 



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Yahoo Search Builder http://builder.search.yahoo.com/ 

Yahoo's custom search option requires registration and is very similar to others 
create your own search sites. Rollyo predates the Yahoo Search Builder and also 
searches the Yahoo database, giving you a good idea of what you can do with this 
tool. 

Live Search Macros http://search.live.com/macros/default.aspx 

I discuss creating and finding search macros in the section devoted to Microsoft's 
Live Search. 

Alexa Web Search Platform http://websearch.alexa.com/welcome.html 

What has been for many the holy grail of search is now a big step closer to reality. 
With little fanfare, Amazon's Alexa subsidiary announced in December 2005 that it 
was opening up its search tools and index to the world in a new project named the 
Alexa Web Search Platform (AWSP) — and for a very modest price. 

According to its website, "The Alexa Web Search Platform provides public access to 
the vast web crawl collected by Alexa Internet. Users can search and process 
billions of documents and even create their own search engines using Alexa's 
search and publication tools. Alexa provides compute and storage resources that 
allow users to quickly process and store large amounts of web data. Users can view 
the results of their processes interactively, transfer the results to their home 
machine, or publish them as a new web service." 

What exactly is Alexa offering to the user? In essence, Alexa gives the user, whether 
an individual or organization, access to the same kind of powerful technology used 
by Google, Yahoo, and Live Search. "Alexa spiders 4 billion to 5 billion pages a 
month and archives 1 terabyte of data a day. The new platform will allow developers 
to build their own search engines." The goal? To democratize web search by taking 
it out of the hands of giants like Google and putting it into the hands of literally 
anyone and everyone. The implications are enormous. And it appears it is a hit. In 
fact, within a very short time of its initial opening, Alexa had to cut off new 
applications temporarily because it was overloaded with customers wanting to sign 
up for the new service, but the site soon reopened registration. 

The Alexa Web Search Platform (AWSP) offers the user the capability to: 



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> define (search) : AWSP has a much more robust set of search options, syntax, 
and APIs than other search engines and also permits the use of stored 
(canned) queries; the AWSP "data store" contains text, html, music, video, 
images, and more types of files. 

> process : users can search the entire Aiexa data store and "are able to 
process both the raw content and the metadata extracted by Alexa's internal 
processes." 

> publish : the output of the search can be anything from one result to an 
entirely new vertical search engine, for example a new video search engine 
or a new search engine for automotive parts. Quite literally, "by making use of 
these utilities, a user might introduce a great new search service to the world 
with nothing more than a home computer." 69 

The costs are modest and are based on consumption (you pay for what you use and 
not for a subscription or service contract): 

$1 per cpu hour ($0.50 for reserved but unused hours) 

$1 per GB/year of user storage 

$1 per 50 GB processed 

$1 per GB uploaded/downloaded 

$1 for every 4,000 user-published web service requests 

In case you're curious, Alexa has a long history. Now owned by Amazon, Alexa was 
created by Bruce Gilliat and Brewster Kahle (of Internet Archive fame), and until now 
has been both famous and infamous as the technology behind the controversial web 
traffic and website statistics "What's Related" toolbar feature in both Netscape and 
Internet Explorer. The new AWSP is actually integrated into Amazon's web services 
platform, something no one has done before. 70 

Simply stated, Alexa/Amazon are "renting" their huge database ("data store") to any 
and all takers for a remarkably reasonable price and, what is more, offering detailed 

69 Alexa Web Search Platform User Guide, Introduction: What Can I Do with the Platform? 
< hUp://paqes.alexa.com/awsp/docs/WebHelp/AWSP User Guide.htm > (17 January 2007). 

70 There is one example of something similar, which came to my and some others' minds. If you are 
familiar with IBM's WebFountain and its proprietary implementations for specific customers, you may 
see some similarities. WebFountain also spidered the web and then let IBM's customers run queries 
against that data set in more sophisticated ways than simple querying (something akin to 
datamining). However, the problem with WebFountain and its progeny was that IBM had to write the 
programs, and thereby hangs a tale of woe. For more, I recommend Jeff Dalton's blog entry on this 
topic (I think he nails it). Jeff Dalton, "Alexa Web Search Platform: IBM WebFountain 2.0," Jeffs 
Search Cafe, < http://searchcafe.blogspot.com/2005/12/alexa-web-search-platform-ibm.htrnl > 



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user support on how to maximize the effectiveness of this data to get the most out of 
it. The customer is empowered to write his own program to run against the 
Alexa/Amazon data, download the results (metadata), and even create his own 
private search engine on their platform. Perhaps I am wrong, but this could be a 
huge development, perhaps even a major change in the way we use the web. 

Amazon Web Services Platform 

http://www.amazon.eom/gp/browse.html/1 04-1 30841 6-9976726?node=3435361& 

Alexa Web Search Platform (beta) http://websearch.alexa.com/welcome.html 

Alexa Web Search Platform Users Guide 

http://pages.alexa.com/awsp/docs/WebHelp/AWSP User Guide.htm 

More Custom Search Sites 



There are other sites offering customized search that you may want to experiment 
with to find one that best suits your needs. Search expert Phil Bradley reviews some 
of these custom search sites in a two-part article on Searchenginewatch.com: 

"Search Your Own Way," Part I, 

http://searchenqinewatch.com/showPage.html?paqe=3623434 and Part 2, 
http://searchenqinewatch.com/showPaqe. html?paqe=3623482 



Eurekster's Swicki 
PSS 



http://swicki.eurekster.com/ 
http://www.pssdir.com/ 



Fagan Finder 



The Fagan Finder site has been a boon to searchers for some time not so much 
because of its basic interface, which is a good but unexceptional megasearch tool, 
but because of the many other "useful tools" site creator Michael Fagan has made 
available. 

Fagan Finder File Format Search 

Instead of having to visit a number of different search engines to search for files in a 
variety of formats, users can now go to the Fagan Finder "search by File Format" 
page, which is still in beta testing but appears to be running just fine. By selecting a 
specific file format, e.g., Microsoft PowerPoint, Fagan Finder automatically shows 



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which of the search engines is capable of searching for that particular type of file. 
Not every search engine on the list searches for every file type. 

Also, keep in mind that the Fagan Finder file type search for XML is less precise 
than going directly to Google or Yahoo and searching by filetype: in Google and by 
originurlextension: in Yahoo. If you use one of these search engines, you can 
specify that you only want to search for, say, those files that are .rss by entering the 
query [filetype:rss] or [originurtextension:rss]. These queries will return only those 
documents in RSS format, not those in XML or RDF. So I recommend using the 
Fagan Finder search by file type for files types other than XML, RSS, or RDF.. 



FaqanlFJndcf NSr^rch hv \ ■ !!« > ^rnria? (L?Llr 



IjflG B" 7 Text L ife '■iTNLPreQJKy. 



File Foitunt: 

& f!|AciQt>e Portable Document Format 

<~ ijiS)Adobe PostScript 

C ^Microsoft Excel 

<~ |F| Microsoft PowerPoint 

(~ (^Microsoft Word 

<** Q Microsoft Works 

rg| Microsoft Write 

C ©Rich Text Format 

C K Corel WordPerfect 



information 



T[g|LotU5 1-2-3 

<~ f$ Lotus WordPro 

C fy> Star Office 

C g] MacWrrte 

<~ [§ Macromedia Flash 

<" U Text 

C caXML 

C G3 AutoCAD 



Senich Engine 

P" Google inio 
c Yahool 
^ Gigarjiast 
c Teoma 
<~ Exaiead 
C sclrus 
C sensls 



About this Tool 

This tool uses enables easy access to searching for various non-HTML (standard web page) file formats. Certain documents are commonly used for different 
purposes; for example many academic papers are in Adobe Portable Document Format Because this toot makes use of other tools, it is limited by their functionality. 
Searching in Googje for XML files, for example, uses the file extensions xml. rdf and rss; which means that not all XML files are included, and some non-XML files 
may be included. 

File Viewing 

Different Be formats require different software to view those files. Adobe Portable Document Format, for instance, requires Adobe Reader . 

Scirus and Sensis 

Scirus is a search engine for scientific information; it includes Adobe Portable Document Format files in addition to standard web pages. It is powered by Fast 
Search & Transfer , the former owner of the AllthftV/eb search engine. Sensis is a search engine which has both "world" and "Australia" options. Restricting by file 
format is not perfect yet. as some results returned may not be of the requested type. 



Fagan Finder Search by File Type 



http://www.faqanfinder.com/filetype/ 



URLinfo 



http://www.faqanfinder.com/urlinfo/ 



The indefatigable Michael Fagan also introduced a beta version of a new tool, 
URLinfo, in mid-2004. URLinfo fills a void created when AlltheWeb effectively shut 
down and took with it the useful "url investigator." While Yahoo now offers Site 
Explorer and Google a lame version [info:domain.com], Fagan's URLinfo provides 
many more options for exploring a site. As with everything he does, Fagan has gone 
all out with URLinfo, almost to the point of providing too many options! However, he 
has done a smart thing in keeping the main URLinfo page simple, "hiding" the nearly 
85 investigative tools in his toolkit behind a variety of tabs. I think URLinfo is 
important and valuable enough to spend time looking at most of the options in some 
detail. 



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Here is a snapshot of the URLinfo main page. 



Fagah Finder>5eBrch bv^File Format (beta) 



s: Search ^wrneOnriniiryiifin, Bw Tea L'wts LnwiXiertcv 



File For mm: 

<* ©Adobe Portable Oocument Format 

<" SAdobe PostScript 

C §] Microsoft Excel 

r (^Microsoft PowerPoint 

r g) Microsoft Word 

f Microsoft Works 

" 3 Microsoft Write 

<~ Q Rich Text Format 

r R Corel WordPerfect 



rH Lotus 1-2-3 

<~fc? Lotus WordPro 

<~ ^> Star Office 

C ££] MacWrite 

r g Macromedia Flash 

r '£] Text 

C S23 XML 

f Eg AutoCAD 



Seaich Eiifjiite 
<• Google info 
<~ Yahoo I 
C Gigablast 
C Teoma 
<" Exalead 
C Scirus 
C Sensis 



About this Tool 

This tool uses enables easy access to searching for various non-HTML (standard web page) file formats. Certain documents are commonly used for different 
purposes; for example many academic papers are in Adobe Portable Document Format. Because this tool makes use of other tools, it is limited by their functionality. 
Searching in Google for XML files, for example, uses the file extensions xml. rdf, and rss; which means that not all XML files are included, and some non-XML files 
may be included. 

File Viewing 

Different file formats require different software to view those files. Adobe Portable Document Format, for instance, requires Adobe kthder . 

Scirus and Sensis 

Scirus is a search engine for scientific information-, it incfudes Adobe Portable Document Format files in addition to siandard web pages. It is powered by Fast 
Search A Transfer , the former owner of the AllthfWeb search engine Sensis is a search engine which has both "world" and "Australia" options. Restricting by Ele 
format is not perfect yet. as some results returned may not be of the requested type. 

Note the eleven tabs at the top, behind each of which is a range of investigatory 
options. For help using URLinfo simply click on the dark blue [info] link on the far 
right. The first step in using URLinfo is to enter a url (address) in the search box at 
the top of the page. Keep in mind that if you enter a url in the search box and 
simply hit return, you will be taken to that webpage, not to information about 
it. 

Entering a url can prove to be more problematic than you might think because not 
every URLinfo tool can handle the same format. For example, in the General tab, the 
one most users are likely to use most frequently, you will get very different results 
depending on the type of url entered. For basic .com, .org, .net, .info, .biz, and .us 
domains, Domain Tools is great. However, for any other top-level domain, you must 
use Global Whois, and it will not search on anything but first-level domain names. 
This means that neither Domain Tools nor Global Whois can look up 
[www.duma.gov.ru]. Global Whois, however, will find first-level domains such as 
[www.feb-web.ru]. This does not mean you cannot find information about 
[www.duma.gov.ru]. 

Take a look at the results from the first tab, Alexa. 

As you can see, you get lots of data about the Russian Duma website. Note that 
there are many additional useful links from the Alexa page, including one to the 
Internet Archive's Wayback machine. 



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©Alexa 



Web Search f^^^^^^i Web Directory 

jdumo, gov.ru Get Traffic Details J Top 500 - mc-v*« & stunts 



Category: Top > World > Russian > Cip&Hbr n pervtoHbi > Eepona > Poccns > rocvAflpcTeo > ?SKOH*AftTenfcH*H ena?Tb > rccy^spcTFeHHaa flvMft 




rocyAapcTBeHHafiflyMo '^ ■■'.^ % 

ct>eflepanbHOro CoSpoHMfl "^ fcfe l/ 

Pocchmckom <t>eflepa... 

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3aK0H0flaTe^bCTBO PCD HmfccipManHfl npecc-cjiy>K5bi. 



EXPLORE THIS SITE 
$ Overview 

$ Traffic Details 
$■ Relateti Links 
<> Sues Unking in 



Sponsored Links 
Raid TU« Bonk! 

Money you never knew you 
were missing! 

f-'iee Conyoo Netp.iss 

Free Access to the Web's Top 
Subscription sites 1 

Vorjt AC Here 



Traffic Rank for gov ru: 14. 249 



Share your thoughts 

Write a icviewon 
Amazon torn.. 

£-rnail a friend about this 
she 



Quick PicK 
Piesideiit.tueinfin. 



FF 



People who visit this poge aiso visit: 

. Akdi ru/gd >..v,v fj*J- nAr; - Site info ■=; 

. Prcttemo nj ~ -r^'.it' 1 -,v , '.'ii K -. n- - Site info 12; 

. MmiSt .Vv-v.'.;rrrt.n;-Siti?infO:=i 

• Government (jov nJ .-^■■"-.yowi r j?*"? ;\v mj - Site info ■=; 

• ■ >. . vw.' '.-io f ,i cr - Sito info -s 

• Lithuania •.? <r./i.»(uj - Sit? infois: 

. Cabinet of Ministers of Ukjaine .v.-.-.v.i-nn.y-j.jw- Site info 

. GuvBrinji Rom v/\- .- ?*-:\r . Site info -.s<. 

. Pnvpmmont on" sV *■-«!. 1, . v:ni.. ;:* r> »' * _ Si)p infn = : 



The Alexa database contains site statistics, contact information, similar pages, and 
more. 



What is Alexa? Many things, but most interesting and useful 
is Alexa's Site Information: 

"Alexa has built an unparalleled database of information about 
sites that includes statistics, related links and more. All of this 
information can be found on Alexa's Site Overview pages, 
Traffic Detail pages and Related Links pages. To access these 
pages, simply type the URL of any site into the Alexa Search 
box." 

Alexa Site Information, http://www.alexa.com/site/company 



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K yjftn finder 's LTRLinfo |hflp7/www.durna.qov.ru view pegs clear HD 

General | |Lmks| | Similar | |Cachc| | Search) |Eloga/Fcedsl [Translate] [Trackl [Fostj [Develop] |Mi8c| 



About UKLuiio 



Alaa Whois Source Global Whois SurfVYaK Stumble Upon 7Sgjfch metaEUREKA Furl Del.mo.us Gftea Semantic data extractor Fyt-erSearch llniol 



Travel Back in Time! 



Use the Wayback 

Machine to see how 

rocyAapciB^HHaa /lyna 

CeflBpa/ibHOrD Cof5paHnq 

l/OC'CWCKCM <S>9fxBpa .. 

looked in the past. 



Track Your Website 
Stotistics! 

The NEW HitsLink tracks even 

more live data on your 

visitors, with advanced 

keyword analysis 







HlTBl_IMK 



Tdke A Fretr Trial 



Site Slav* for gov.ru: 

♦ TrafficRankforgov.ru: 58.371 (*852) 

♦ Speed: Very Fast (95% of sites are slower), Avg Load Time: .4 Seconds (whet'? this?) 

♦ Other sites that link to this site: 172 

♦ Online Since: 10-Jul-l997 



Contact Info lor gov.rLi: 



See Traffic Dels!!. 



RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT INTERNET NETWORK (RGIN) 



+ 7 D9S 2062B63, Fax; +7 09S 2067355 
webadmin@duma.gov.ru 



User Reviews for gov.ru 

Be the first person to v-nte a review of this site on Amazon.com! 



Look for similar sites by category: 

World / Pussiar, / CTpaHb! 11 pememb 

rocyflapcTBeHHajs flyna 

World / Russian / CTpaHb! n perMOHw / EEpona / Poccnq / rocyaapcTBG 



♦ World / Pussiar, / CTpaHb! 11 pernoHW / Eepona / Poccnq /' rocyAapcTBG / ?aKCHOA^Te.nDHaa e^acTo /' 
rocvAapcTseHHa* Ay*ia 



Let's look at a different url for the SurfWax results. What you are seeing are 
"SurfWax SiteSnaps™, [which] count the number of links, images, words, and forms 
on a page, shows the meta description tag, and extracts 'key points' and 
'FocusWords.'" This is a very useful way to analyze a website without actually 
visiting it, though the amount of information is considerably less for some sites than 
others, cf. t www.fateh.net. 



Pa gan Finder 's URLinfo jhttpy/www.nla.gov.flu view pegs dear §3 

|Gerjfal | IZwksl \$x^\ |clche] |Search| |BicgaTeeds| |Trans)a:e| [Track] |Pogt] |Develop| |M«c| 



>: AbvMr UPJJnfo 



Alexa Whois Source Global Whois SuifWaK Sum^kUjKin 7Seaidi rnctaEUREKA rurt Dd.icio.us Gibao Semantic (fete cxtxactcr F^ba^mrch fiiifol 



SurfWax SiteSnaps 7 " cp^.m pending [ H*i£ ] 
National Library of Australia 

Links. 32 ♦ Image s~20 ♦ Words. 303 * Forms 
Aulhot Summary 

Our collections and services underpin Australian cultural life and intellectual pursuits. We are the preeminent source for the documentary record of Australia and its place in 
the world. This site provides access to our catalogue and links lo other information resources, details of our collections and services, upcoming events at the Library; the NLA 
Shop and information on our initiatives in the field of information management. 
Site's FocusWords 

^ austulijn Ltbiints Ojtw.-a< A. Libunj 

<V oh 0410 6=7 684 *K - LibU'-'s 

^ collection* t-t A'jrinltj'i natiMvil ^K million iltmi 

<V ^mt-iM-i <jtJloa-.^f XA'jUulijri libuiitr <V HmioA'JTtnlu 

^ Si^iti i.?*ti.ons *V 

<V E^hl bltimtPifplJiff *V 

^ vUlDES IIIPCyES PATAEfrC-ES ( \. 

<V HOME C-IT^LOC-UE t-S-K <K 

^N intf irnjiion jrmrn» ^. 

<*. !*»]!« <k- 

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frjL*^«_M..r."i**s 

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UNCLASSIFIED //rOR OmOIAL UOC ONLY 



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The next tab is a link to Stumble Upon, a collaborative bookmarking service. If 
people who belong to the service have recommended a site, Stumble Upon will 
show who they are, any comments, the category it is in, and the page size. The tab 
for 7Search brings up some interesting results, including the website's traffic ranking 
(how many people visit it), number of links to the site, link popularity, language, area 
of service, contact information, Open Directory category, and "TrustGauge." 
TrustGauge is a commercial program that measures how "trustworthy" a site is in 
terms of such things as the amount and quality of contact information, secure billing, 
third party validations (e.g., Truste seal), and what people think of the site. 



Faaan Farter 's LTRLinfo [h«p:/Aww.tateh.nei view page deer (13 

Gcfiwal l |LJnkil 1 Similar! fCache] |Search| |Blogs/Feeds| |Trans3are| |Track| |Pogt| |Develop| |Misc| 



About TJPXiof.:- 



Atcxa Whois Source Global Whois SurfWai Stumble Upcn 7 Searcb mriaEX J REKA Furl D&icip.ijs Gibco gm^fitj^J^aqtjracior FybgSearch [tnfoj 



Seal of Approval from VandaterfSiUt.cow 

C.oir,r,-,L;MCo!.e vh-fc lrr.tg:i*.y of your pnltnt, buv>ri4i'i t bu;ld fct-jrt vttfc y^ur - Sit^ 
I'ltitarf . * n *1 irnpravt vour c>ver?!l image r? ^c-r-fMrrwri tin truft you! 



TrustGauge Domain Info for "tateh.net' 



Fateh 

Patestmian movement founded by Yaas&r Arafat. 



Contact Info i in alio n: 



Sits lufDiinaliDn: 
Laitguage: 
Ai*j <yl Service 



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The remainder of the General tab links are: 



metaEUREKA 



metaEUREKA shows information about the page (last modified date, page size), 
meta information (description, keywords, author), web server information, and the 
number of backlinks 

Furl 

Furl is a collaborative bookmarking system. This tool allows you to see the 
comments others have written about a webpage. 

Del.icio.us 

Del.icio.us is a collaborative bookmarking system. This tool allows you to see the 
comments others have written about a webpage. 



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Gibeo 

Gibeo allows anyone to annotate any part of a web page, and others can 
comment on the annotation. Gibeo requires registration. 

Semantic data extractor 

The Semantic data extractor finds information about a page (metadata, page 
outline) by looking at its HTML code. 

The next tab is for Links . This is pretty straightforward. The first two links are to 
Yahoo, the first for the link: command (links to a specific page) and the second for 
the Yahoo Site Explorer or alternately linkdomain: command (links to a website). The 
next is the Live Search (MSN) link: search, and then the Google link: command, 
which no longer shows all links as it once did. Gigablast does not show all links to a 
page, either. 

The links from blogs is a very useful service because it lets you check to see if a 
website is mentioned in a number of weblogs very quickly (I expect Technorati to 
give the best results). 

Blogpulse 

Intelliseek's Blog search (was not working when I tried it) 

Bloglines 

Backlinks from blogs known to Bloglines, an online RSS/Atom aggregator. 

Blogdex is defunct. 

Technorati 

Backlinks from blogs known to the Technorati blog indexer. Each result is shown 

with an extract containing the link. 

Feedster 

Backlinks from blogs known to the Feedster RSS/Atom search engine. 

BloqDiqqer 

Backlinks from blogs known to the BlogDigger RSS/Atom search engine. 

Waypath 

Backlinks from blogs, known to the Waypath blog indexer, each is listed with the 
date that the link was first seen and an extract from the page Unlike some other 
backlinks tools, Waypath lists the permalinks rather than blog home pages. 

Daypop 

Backlinks from blogs and news websites known to the Daypop search engine. 

BlogRollinq 

BlogRolling is a service for bloggers to include blogrolls (lists of blogs) on their 

own blogs. This shows what users include the given site on their blogroll. 



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Popdex 

Backlinks from blogs (as well as the date of linkage) known to the Popdex blog 

indexer. 

The Similar tab is not entirely self-explanatory. Alexa, UCmore, Furl, and Google all 
try to show related or similar websites, though not in the same way. Alexa shows 
'people who visit this page also visit...'; UCmore clusters related pages by topic; 
Furl is a collaborative bookmarking tool, so it only shows pages bookmarked by the 
same person (of dubious use); and Google's related pages is, in Fagan's and my 
opinion, of poor quality. Google News will show related news articles, but only if the 
original article has been indexed by Google News. The Waypath tool looks for blog 
entries about a website, and Waypath is showing no links to http://www.google.com 
and two hits on http://www.microsoft.com. There is obviously a problem with this 
specific search. 

The Cache tab is much more useful at this time. Fagan has done us all the great 
service of bringing the search tools that cache webpages together so they can be 
searched from one convenient interface. Also, URLinfo makes it possible to see 
Google's cached pages without images, style sheets, or forms with Google 
(plain). Openfind is an Asian search engine and does not yet have an English 
version. I was unable to figure out how their caching works because of the language 
barrier. For news and blogs Daypop caches each page it crawls. "Its cache is often 
the most up-to-date copy of the page, and it shows the exact time that the copy was 
made." 

Here's the low-down on the other general cache tools at Fagan Finder: 

Internet Archive 

The Internet Archive has been crawling the web and caching pages since 1996. 
The Wayback Machine allows you to view the copies made during any of those 
crawls, and also to compare any two versions of the same page. 

Google 

When Google crawls the web, it stores a copy of each web page. This is the 
most recent copy. This can also be used as a means of viewing some non-HTML 
files converted to HTML. 

Google (plain) 

Google's stripped cache , with images, styles (style sheets), and forms removed. 

Giqablast 

Gigablast does not provide direct access to its cache. You must follow the link 
labeled [archived copy]. Gigablast's cache shows the date on which the copy 
was made. 



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Openfind 

Openfind is an Asian search engine; their English version is under construction. 

Spurl 

Spurl is a collaborative online bookmarking tool. Whenever someone using Spurl 
bookmarks a page, a cached copy is stored. So Spurl may contain many different 
copies of the same page on different dates and times, which can be accessed 
from a selection box at the top of any Spurl cached page. 

IncyWincy 

This is the cached version of a web page from when it was last crawled by 
IncyWincy. That date is shown at the top of the page. 

Scrub The Web 

Cached version of the page from the Scrub The web search engine. 

Av-Up 

Cached version of the page from the Ay-Up search engine. 

Objects Search 

Cached version of the page from the Objects Search engine. Objects Search has 
a small index, so don't expected every page to be cached. After using this tool, 
follow the link below the page you want labeled 'cached.' 

SearchSpider 

This is the cached version of a web page from when it was last crawled by 
SearchSpider. Most pages appear to have been last cached during July 2003. 

The Search section is pretty much self-explanatory, except that MSN searches Live 
and Teoma searches Ask. Fagan explains the Bloqs/Feeds tab very well for those 
who are interested in searching weblogs and RSS or Atom news feeds. The 
Translate tab simply sends your request to Fagan Finder's superb Translation 
Wizard discussed in the online dictionary and translators' section. The Track and 
Post tabs are in general not going to be useful for most of you in your work 
environment. The Develop tab offers an excellent selection of web authoring 
resources such as validation, editing, spelling, cacheability, and keyword analysis 
tools. One tool users may not recognize and which could prove quite useful is 
Traffic from Alexa . Here's Fagan's description: 

'Shows a (logarithmic) graph of a website's (not a web page) popularity over 
time, as determined by Alexa. Alexa gathers this data from users of their toolbar. 
The six-month graph is shown by default. You can also use this tool to compare 
the popularity of a second website. Also shown are popular subdomains, reach 
per million users, average page views per user, etc.' 

I find the graphic representation is so much clearer than the results from a tool such 
as Google PageRank (which is not a Google product, by the way). Traffic also lets 

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users compare two sites and shows you "Where do people go" on the site. It's a gold 
mine of data about the sites in Alexa's top 100,000; unfortunately, most of the sites I 
wanted to research were not in that top group, so no statistics were available when a 
site fell below the 100,000 threshold. 

In case the Google PageRank tool confuses you, it normally requires users to 
download and install the Google Toolbar. However, you can access the Google 
PageRank option from URLinfo without the Google Toolbar. The results look rather 
mysterious, but the PageRank is there. In the following example, AOL's home page 
has a page rank of 8 (where 10 is the highest... and Google gets a 10 ranking, by the 
way): 

http://www.aol.com 

PR Toolbar: 9 

PR Actual: 9 

Finally, under Misc you'll find the tools that didn*t quite fit anywhere else. One word 
of caution about BugMeNot: this is a service for sharing login information for 
websites that require user registration and, as such, its ethics is questionable. I do 
not recommend using it. It may also violate organizational Internet usage rules. 

I think URLinfo will prove to be a very useful if not indispensable tool for researchers, 
but I also think the key to using it effectively is not using every bell and whistle. 

Fagan Finder's URLinfo beta http://www.faqanfinder.com/urlinfo/ 



Wikipedia 



Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/ 

The 2007 edition is the first to include a separate section on and discussion of 
Wikipedia and the entire "wiki" phenomenon. The extraordinary growth and success 
of Wikipedia demand recognition and comment. Although the numbers change 
constantly, in mid-2006, Wikipedia sites were the twelfth most visited Internet sites 
among US properties, up over 300 percent from the previous yearJ^ On March 1, 
2006, Wikipedia reached one million articles, and "the site receives as many as 



71 Safa Rashtchy, et al., "Silk Road: Solid Search Results Could Boost the Sector," PiperJaffray 
Industry Note, 10 July 2006, available at John Battelle's Searchblog, 

< http://battellemedia.com/archives/Rashtchy%2Q-%20Silk%20Road%200710.pdf > [PDF] (14 
November 2006). 



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fourteen thousand hits per second." 72 Just what is the Wikipedia itself and the wiki 
concept in general that have led to a level of success that is nothing short of 
astounding? For an excellent overview, I turn to my colleague Diane White's article 
from an internal publication many of you read, The Worthwhile Web. In the May 
2006 edition, Diane wrote: 

"In true Ouroborosian fashion, the Wikipedia defines itself as a 'multilingual Web- 
based free-content encyclopedia... written collaboratively by volunteers, allowing 
most articles to be changed by anyone with access to a web browser and an Internet 
connection.' It exists as a wiki, which again Wikipedia self-defines as 'a type of 
website that allows anyone visiting the site to add, remove or otherwise edit all 
content very quickly and easily, often without the need for registration.' Truly 
collaboration to the extreme, wikis are the latest trend in open-ended community 
involvement and public debate. But it also conjures fears of authority and validity run 
amok, and general mischief and vandalism. Wikis are popping up everywhere; but 
just what are they, and how did they become so ubiquitous? More to the point, can 
they be trusted, or are they just the work of a few people with big egos and lots of 
time?... The term wiki is a shortened form of the Hawaiian language term wiki wiki, 
which is commonly used as an adjective to denote something quick or fast. It is also 
sometimes interpreted as the backronym for What I Know Is. The invention of the 
wiki is credited to Ward Cunningham, author of the book, The Wiki Way (Addison- 
Wesley Longman, March 2001, ISBN 0-201 -71 499-X). The first wiki, WikiWikiWeb, 
was created in 1994 and installed on the web by Cunningham in 1995. 73 

"Once begun, almost anyone can edit a wiki, often without actually registering to do 
so. Wikis can be on any subject, on every subject, and in multiple languages. The 
most famous wiki, Wikipedia, was begun in 2001, initially as part of a broader, peer- 
reviewed project and later as a stand-alone, 'neutral point of view' product. Guided 
from the beginning by Larry Sanger and Jimmy Wales, today it is available in over 
100 languages, with over 1 million articles in the English edition alone... 

"Questions of Validity and Reliability 

"But can Wikis be trusted? From almost the beginning, people have questioned the 
wiki's seemingly radical departure from traditional methods of scholarship; that is, 
the use of a community of interested parties instead of the work of appointed 
experts. In the December 2005 issue of Nature, there began a major debate over 
which site was more 'right,' Wikipedia or the fee-based ($85/year) Britannica Online; 
with the conclusion being that 'Wikipedia comes close to Britannica in terms of the 



72 



Stacy Sniff, "Can Wikipedia Conquer Expertise?" The New Yorker, 24 July 2006, 
< http://www.newyorker.com/fact/cQntent/articles/Q60731fa fact > (14 November 2006). 

73 "Wikipedia," Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, < http.7/en.wikipedia.orq/wiki/Wikipedia > (23 
August 2006). 



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accuracy of its science entries.' 74 From there it has escalated, with refutations and 
calls for retraction from Encylopaedia Britannica and heated responses from Nature. 
Wikipedia itself has steered clear of this particular fray; however, it does attempt to 
respond to criticism and has a page on its site for common criticisms. It also 
addresses issues such as copyright, vandalism, and authorship. 

"So what's the bottom line? The same as it's always been. When performing 
thorough research, be it Internet-based or otherwise, the onus is always on the 
researcher to check sources, validity, and authority. The speed and relative ease at 
which changes can be made to a wiki, while good for consensus correction and 
corroboration, are not so good for measured and thoughtful debate. A number of 
articles in Wikipedia are sourced, but many are not, and just because it's on the 
Internet, does not mean it is true. In addition, merely because it's free does not 
mean Wikipedia is more suspect and Britannica is more reliable. There is an 
argument to be made for being so passionate about a topic that you feel the need to 
share that passion with the world. But one man's passion is also another's conceit. 
There is a counter to every argument, a rebuttal to every claim. 

"Like it or not, wikis and wiki behaviors have entered the mainstream, just like blogs 
and MySpace and the iPod. Love it or hate it, if you are involved in open source 
research you need to know about wikis." 75 

The Wikipedia Itself: The Good, the Bad, and the Dubious 

As Diane White clearly indicates, there are many, many wikis now available on the 
Internet, and their numbers continue to increase at present. I want to focus on 
Wikipedia itself because it remains the center of the wiki universe and thus far 
shows no signs of decline. Many Wikipedia critics mourn the decline of traditional 
encyclopedias because they are thinking of an encyclopedia such as Britannica in its 
current form, that is, "the most authoritative source of... information and ideas," the 
"definitive source of knowledge." 76 According to Tom Panelas, Britannica's Director 
of Corporate Communications, "We can't cover as many things as they [Wikipedia] 
do but we wouldn't even try to. What they do is very different from what we do. We 
don't have an article on extreme ironing, and we shouldn't." 77 



74 Jim Giles, "Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head," Nature, 14 December 2005 (last updated 
28 March 2006), < http://www.nature.com/news/2005/051212/full/438900a.html > (14 November 
2006). 

75 Diane White, "Wikis and the Wikipedia," The Worthwhile Web, May 2006, 
<http://www.fggm.osis.govAA/orthwhile/archive/20060501.html>. 

76 Paula Berinstein, "Wikipedia and Britannica: The Kids Are All Right (And So's the Old Man)," 
Information Today, March 2006, < http://www.infotoday.com/searcher/mar06/berinstein.shtml > (11 
September 2006). 

77 Berinstein. 



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However, Britannica today (and by extension any other encyclopedia) is very 
different from Britannicas of the past. In thinking about this controversy, I was 
reminded of a passage in The Fatal Shore, Robert Hughes' masterpiece about the 
founding of modern Australia. Hughes writes about one transported convict, Thomas 
Palmer, who finished his sentence and went into business with his close friend John 
Boston. 78 Neither man had much business experience, "but they possessed a 
singular advantage: the only encyclopedia in the colony. With it, they taught 
themselves to make beer. Then they learned how to make soap. Next they looked 
up 'ship' and, after some trial and error, contrived to build a somewhat cranky but 
adequate small vessel for trading stores to Norfolk Island." [emphasis added] 79 Their 
lone encyclopedia probably made it possible for these men not merely to survive but 
to thrive in this perilous new world. 

The modern encyclopedia is very different from the encyclopedias of earlier 
centuries, which bear rather more resemblance to the Wikipedia than to the current 
Britannica in that the older encyclopedias were not only "sources of knowledge" but 
also "practical" how-to guides and almanacs. In other ways, however, encyclopedias 
are and always were quite different from the Wikipedia. They have always relied 
upon paid experts whose work is reviewed and edited. And they have always been 
for-profit enterprises. 

Wikipedia relies almost entirely upon individual users to create, edit, maintain, and 
often argue about its entries. It is free and carries no advertising; it is a nonprofit and 
has a tiny staff. 



> For practical purposes, Wikipedia has no physical limits: it could conceivably 
continue to expand indefinitely, something no print encyclopedia could ever 
do. 

> Its content is "open," that is, almost any topic can be included] traditional 
encyclopedias generally do not include "how-to" instructions ("How to draw a 
diagram with Microsoft Word"), new or transient popular culture ("24: The TV 
Series"), or breaking stories ("JonBenet Ramsey"). 

> Wikipedia's heavy emphasis on current events and popular culture bespeak a 
prejudice of the present at the expense of the important: it favors the 
fashionable over the important. 



78 ln what must be one of the most profound examples of friendship since Damon and Pythias, Boston 
actually traveled voluntarily with his wife to New South Wales to "keep Palmer company." Anyone 
who has read about a sea voyage from England to Australia at that time knows the trip in and of itself 
was a major sacrifice. Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore (New York: Vintage Books, 1988), 180. 

79 Hughes, 180. 



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> Wikipedias are available in 229 languages. These are not always just 
translations of the English language Wikipedia but often contain their own 
content. 

> Wikipedia's eight-word self-description — "neutral and unbiased compilation of 
previously written, verifiable facts" — usually keeps out articles about "my 
funniest dreams and what they mean" (no original "research" allowed), but 
firefights over controversial topics and outright vandalism occur on a regular 
basis. 

> In 2006 comedian Steven Colbert's amusing rant against "wikiality" and 
"truthiness," i.e., that reality and truth are what the most people say they are, 
and his charge to his viewers to change a Wikipedia article on African 
elephants caused the entire site to go down temporarily. His point is well 
taken: if enough Wikipedians agree that the earth is flat, then the Wikipedia 
will reflect that "wikiality." While that is an absurd example, people vehemently 
(and often violently) disagree over the most basic topics (try to think of 
anything that isn't controversial). 

> Wikipedia "does not favor the Ph.D. over the well-read fifteen year old." 80 
While the democratization of knowledge and information has a certain appeal, 
the fact that Wikipedia pages dealing with policies, rules, administration, 
coordination, and other metadata now comprise thirty percent of Wikipedia 
indicates that the free-for-all nature of Wikipedia is giving ground to the harsh 
reality of the need for "crowd control." There is a fine line between democracy 
and mob rule. 

> There is no "weighting" of the relative significance of any topic: compare the 
Wikipedia entries on the Beatles v. Boethius. Judged by sheer quantity, 
articles on popular culture far exceed those of traditional scholarly topics. 
Given its potentially limitless size, this may not be a drawback, but if 
everything from "The Simpsons" to "The Nicomachean Ethics" is on an equal 
footing, then aren't we back to the Colbert criticism that all objective 
standards are obliterated? 

> Diane White correctly identified Wikipedia's "ouroborosian" nature: it is fiercely 
self-referential in that all the works cited in this creature of the Internet are 
also on the Internet. 

> Some critics maintain that emergent enterprises such as Wikipedia reflect an 
"online collectivism" that lead to a kind of group think and produce poor 
quality results that both appeal to and are a product of the lowest common 



80 Shift, "Can Wikipedia Conquer Expertise?" 



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denominator. For more on this topic, read Jaron Lanier's now famous think 
piece "Digital Maoism" and the many responses to it on Edge.org. 81 

> Finally, Wikipedia has no editorial quality review. Traditional encyclopedias do 
not guarantee zero mistakes; what they do promise are "strong scholarship, 
sound judgment, and disciplined editorial review." 82 

All this being said, nothing is going to stop people from using Wikipedia as a 
reference, in many cases, their primary source for information. Some search 
engines — for example, Ask — now proudly display Wikipedia responses at the top of 
the results list. Most will return Wikipedia links near the top. The best advice I can 
give you vis-a-vis Wikipedia and related community generated resources is as 
follows: 

> Use multiple sources : Do not as a rule rely on Wikipedia as your sole 
reference or source of information. Any Wikipedia entry that is not well 
sourced should raise a red flag. 

> Trust but Verify : Look for verification of Wikipedia information from sources 
such as traditional references that have been through editorial review: 
encyclopedias, dictionaries, scholarly (peer-reviewed) publications, university 
websites, books, etc. 

> Follow those links : The best thing about Wikipedia in my opinion are the 
external links from entries; with the virtual demise of web directories, 
Wikipedia fills that void by supplying excellent links to what are often the best 
websites on a topic. 

> Be skeptical : The more controversial the topic, the more skepticism you need 
to apply to the Wikipedia entry. For example, the article "Asteroid" is quite well 
done, but there isn't quite the controversy about that topic that there is about, 
say, Hezbollah, an article that was locked because of vandalism. 

Wikipedia has an internal search option, but as any Wikipedia user knows, it is not 
the best way to search Wikipedia. First, unlike virtually every search engine on the 
web, its default is OR not AND, meaning it searches for ANY of the terms you enter. 
To search Wikipedia content you are better off using a separate search engine, 
either one of the major search engines or a specialty search tool designed to search 
Wikipedia. 



81 Jaron Lanier, "Digital Maoism," Edge.org, June 2006, 

< http://www.edqe.org/3rd culture/lanier06/lanier06 index.html > (14 November 2006). 

82 

"Britannica Rips Nature Magazine on Accuracy Study," Encyclopedia Britannica Corporate 
Website, 24 March 2006, < http://corporate.britannica.com/press/releases/nature.html > (14 November 
2006). 



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How to Check Links from Wikipedia 

Wikipedia has a special page that lets users easily check to see which Wikipedia 
pages have links to a specific webpage. It even includes a wildcard function. Here's 
how it works. You can search for a specific link or a very general one. Here are 
examples of both, starting with a general search using a wildcard [*. nasa.gov]: 




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Search Web Links at Wikipedia 

http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php?title=Special%3ALinksearch 

There are literally hundreds of results for this query. However, you can limit your 
search to a specific page [leonid.arc.nasa.gov/meteor.html], which in this case 
returns one result: 



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special page 

You can support Wikipedia and the Wikimedia Foundation 

\ Search web links 

WlKlPlilMA ' From Wikipedia, me free encyclopedia 

The I'viie BuydhpidU 

navigation A wildcard may be used, at the start of the name only, for example "*. wikipedia.org". 




a Main Page 

B Community Portal 



j Ie0nid.arc.n3sa.gov/mete0r.html Search 



a Featured content , j Showing below up to 1 results starting with #1. 

a Current events i \ View (previous 50) (next 50) (20 | 50 | 100 | 250 | 500), 



« Recent changes 
a Random article 



1. httpr/Jleonid. ai-c.nasa.gov/meteor.hlnilfi 1 linked from Leonids 



a Help -. \ View (previous 5D) (next 50) (20 | 50 | 100 | 250 | 500). 

This is a very useful tool if you need to find out what pages in Wikipedia link to a 
specific site. Be sure to follow these basic rules for using this feature: 

1 . a full domain name, e.g., [www.nasa.gov] (this will only find links to this 
specific domain) OR 

2. a partial domain name with a wildcard, e.g., [*. nasa.gov] (this will find links to 
any site at nasa.gov, such as ase.arc.nasa.gov) OR 

3. a full domain name plus directory and/or webpage, e.g., 
[leonid.arc.nasa.gov/meteor.html] (this will find links only to this specific 
webpage) 

Some Wikipedias other than the English language version have a similar page. For 
example, the German language Wikipedia link search page is: 
< http://de.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Spezial:Linksearch >. 

If you use the English Wikipedia link below and substitute the appropriate language 
digraph for the "en," you can find these non-English language link search pages. 
See this page < http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/List of Wikipedias > for all the 
Wikipedias and the appropriate digraph. 

Search English Wikipedia Web Links 

http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php?title=Special%3ALinksearch 

Wiki Search Engines 

FUTEF (Beta) http://futef.com/ 

FUTEF, which uses is own proprietary search engine, provides both a list of 
relevant articles but also a list of related categories that can be used to further 
refine a search. FUTEF handles non-Latin searches, something not every 
Wikipedia search engine can do. Try a search on Ipupvn and you will see that 
FUTEF finds this term in the English language Wikipedia. 



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Qwika http://www.qwika.com/ 

Qwika indexes English , German , French , Japanese , Italian , Dutch , Portuguese , 
Spanish , Greek , Korean , Chinese and Russian wikis; the original content is 
combined with machine translated content to/from English. However, when 
searching for a non-Latin term Qwika will only find that term in the international 
Wikipedia not the English language Wikipedia even if it is, e.g., Ipupvr|. 

LuMriX http://wiki.lumrix.net/ 

LuMirX uses AJAX technology and searches English, German, Japanese, 
French, Polish, Italian, Swedish, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Danish, Spanish, 
Finnish, Norwegian, Hungarian, Turkish, and Chinese Wikipedias. However, 
when searching for a non-Latin term LuMriX will only find that term in the 
international Wikipedia not the English language Wikipedia even if it is there, e.g., 
£e§me. 

Clusty's Wikipedia Search (English only) http://wiki.clusty.com/ 

One of the best Wikipedia search engines, Clusty not only searches the 
Wikipedia, it clusters the results into easy to understand categories that make it 
possible to zero in on the appropriate subtopic. Its main drawback is that the 
search is limited to the English-language Wikipedia. 




Cluster | 



ftejftrencos 



CImaIsji by: I Topics 7] Top 200 results of al (east 568 retrieved for Ihe query pluurcli [ Del ails-) 

All Results (200) i. Plutarch © ^ 

Pai.iHel Uvea (36) Hestriiis Plulaiclms (C2 46- c a. post 127) was a Giaek historian , biographe r, and essayist . Born in 

i~| melius (2) Kr^ Ihe small town of Chaeionea , in ihe Greek region known as Boeolia . probably during Ihe reign of ihe 

— — SraK Ji R° man Emperor Claudius . Plularch travelled widely in the Mediterranean world, including twice to 

■ Alexander (25) is3r*:^r< Rome . He had a number of influential Roman friends, including Soscius Senecio and FunrJanus , both 

Lei [loiaiifl [«) ■'''■"."■' : -~ important Senalois , to whom some of his later writings were dedicated. He lived most of his life at 

'~~ L Chaeronea. and was initiated into Ihe mysteries of the Greek god Apollo . However his duties as the 

PluMich ci.itei (3) senior of the Iwo priests of Apollo at the Otacle of Delphi (where he was responsible for interpreting the auguries of 

Cieei i (1 1) ,he Py th ' a or priestess/oracle) apparently occupied little of his time ■ he led a most active social and civic life and 

*" produced an incredible body of writings, much of which is still extant 

Sdoiijii (1 2) <?n.-*ikinerjia org;*iKi/Plirtarrri 

NmiuPoHipHinsgo) 2. Plutarch of Eretria B ->, 

. Meie. Expl.ilns (5) Plutarch (in Greek FUouTcipxof,, lived 4th century BC) was a tyrant of Eolria in Euboea . Whether he was the 

p H-ii ens (61 immediate successor of Thernison . and also whether he was in any way connected with him by blood, are points 

*- • '' which we have no means of ascertaining. Trusling perhaps to the influence of his friend Meidias , he applied to the 

more | all clusters Athenians m 354 BC for aid against his rrval, Callras ofChakis , who had allied himself with Philip of Macedon , The 

application was granted in spite of Ihe resistance of Dernoslhenes . and the command of the expedilion was entrusted 
to Phocion , who defeated Cattias al Tamynas in 350 BC . But the conduct of Plutarch in the. battle had placsd the 
Athenians in greal jeopardy, and Ihough it may have been nothing more ihan rashness, Phocion would seem to have 
regarded h as treachery . for he thenceforth treated Plutarch as an enemy and expelled him from Erelria 
en -vikt^edia Gif>VitaP:utai:h_(if_Eio'ns 

3. Plutarch (crater) n &. 

Plutarch is a lunar impact crater that lies near ihe north-northeastern limb of the Moon , just to the south of the 
irregular Seneca crater To the southeasl is the flooded Cannon crater . The proximity of this crater to the limb causes 
it to appear foreshortened when viewed from the Earth , but it is actually a circular formation, 
ftn ^ : K;pe(:;s ci^WiH'PiiifarcriJciater) 

4, Parallel Lives a x 

Plut.nch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to 
illuminate their common moral virtues or . . lived. As he explains in the first paragraph of his Ufe of Alexander , 
PluMtch was not concerned with writing histories, as such, but in exploring the influence . . the historic figures, there 
are also links to several on-line versions of Plutarch's Lives , see also 'Other links" section below Dry den is 
famous for .. 



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Wikiseek http://wikiseek.com/ 

Launched in early 2007, Wikiseek was created with the assistance of Wikipedia, 
although it is not a part of Wikipedia. "The contents of Wikiseek are restricted to 
Wikipedia pages and only those sites which are referenced within Wikipedia, 
making it an authoritative source of information less subject to spam and SEO 
schemes. Wikiseek utilizes Searchme's category refinement technology, 
providing suggested search refinements based on user tagging and 
categorization within Wikipedia, making results more relevant than conventional 
search engines." < http://www.wikiseek.com/ > Wikiseek uses AJAX technology to 
create changing "tag clouds" of possible terms as you type. 

This is a good way to find articles within English language Wikipedia and to 
search sites referenced in Wikipedia, but it is by no means a substitute for a 
general search engine. Results from Wikipedia are identified by the W icon. The 
tag cloud that appears at the top of each successful search is designed to show 
related categories to help users either narrow or broaden a search. Keep in mind 
these are user-generated tags, so many of them, e.g., "Japanese terms," do not 
correspond to Wikipedia categories. 

Wi k s seek i ™v ■ - 

A b?uer Vw-Y to search Wikipedia *seandhrhe T * I 



Disasters r^m.s History of Southeast Asia 

^j^-i-y^^L^r. Tsunami ■-•%■■« 



.ilha^rd 



All Results 1 - 10 of about 3,369 for tsunami (0.01 seconds) 



\V Tsunami Sponsored Links 

For other meanings of tsunami.see tsunami (disambiguation) , ,.A tsunami (pronounced or ) is a 
series of waves created when a body of water, such as an ocean is rapidly displaced on a massive 



Surplus Military Tents 



Over 2,500 Tents In Stock US Mil. Surplus 

scale ' a Relief Goods 

e.n.W ipecra.org/vYito/rsunains - i : -«f!-< '• ^ wv-w.eir^v'tenls.FXim 

W Tsunami warning system Fun Acrivity Patches 

This gives time for a possible tsunami forecast to be made and warnings to be issued to threatened Tsunami Relief Patch In Stock and ready 

areas, if warranted. ..A tsunami warning system is a system to detect tsunamis and issue warnings to to shlp - 

, ... . www.artvanrageernDlf?m.con~ 

prevent loss of life and property. 

en.wik-pedio.orgAvik^Tiunam^warning^rv... - >?J t ;-.?.;■=-■.& Tsunami Relief 

Medical Reiief for Tsunami Victims BBB 

Tsunami Pictures - Tsunamis .corn - Tsunami Pictures wise Giving Alliance 

Tsunami E-mail and Website Scams ..Tsunami Charities Information ...Tsunami News www.map.org 

...H0ME&.. .Missing People ...Prayer and Reflection Room .Njew*" In Plrrijre^ 

■vw*. tsunamis. comAstinami-pictures.html The last unidentified victims of the boxing 
TsLtiidrni Bomb :: 



day Tsunami laid to rest 
www ,thefirstpost/:G -uk 



Tsunami Victims 



He wins the award for our longest-working employee, clocking in at almost exactly 3 years! We are 

very sad to see the 5th member of Tsunami Bomb go, and hope he'll be happy in the real world. 

ww-* t5oaamibomo.com ArtJcle !n BusinessWeek Read it online. 

Free Trial I 
Tsun ami Bomb Lyrics www.r-eepMedi3.com 

Tsunami Bomb - Home> T> Tsunami Bomb Lyrics ..Tsunami Bomb Lyrics ...News ...Contact us Visit Western Union Today 

...Request ...We Like ...Search for: Help recent disas"ter"victrms. Find out how 

wv.'tY.lvTu^search.com^am^t&Gjajjjj.ftrm! to send money online. 

\uww.WestpmiJnion.corn 
yS^_I.sjJJi.ani]...:.The_Tsui^ 

Tsunami is a set of ocean waves caused by any large, abrupt disturbance of the sea-surface. ...The ie j .,oniinq vor ?ar 

. . , . , , Find out what Nostradamus says about 

Tsunami Story ...Click tD see an animation or a tsunami generated by an earthquake. ___ vears 2007 - 2012 

www.tsunami.noaa.gov/rcsunamj.s^ory.html NostraddmuiOtifinctom 

The drawbacks to Wikiseek are that it only searches the English language 
version of Wikipedia and it cannot parse non-Latin languages. It touts itself as 
an "authoritative source of information less subject to spam and SEO schemes," 



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but a search for [viagra] will quickly prove it is no better (in fact worse) than the 
major search engines in filtering spam. There are no preferences to change the 
number of results, for example, or to limit the search only to Wikipedia or only to 
links, but since Wikiseek is still in Beta, these features may appear later. 
Wikiseek also offers a Firefox plug-in to add Wikiseek to the Wikipedia search 
form on all Wikipedia pages. 



WikiWax 



http://www.wikiwax.com/ 

WikiWax also uses "Look Ahead" AJAX technology to show very extensive lists 
of dynamically generated related terms. However, WikiWax cannot parse non- 
Latin search terms, e.g., Ipupvr|. 

WikiWax™ 

your quick index to Wikipedia 



piuto ; 


pluto 






Pluto (god) 


: i 


Pluto (manga) 


; ? 


Pluto (mythology) 


I 


Pluto (planet) 


;..; ; . 


Pluto Bulsara, Farrokh 


'■-..:■,. 


Pluto debate. The 


\ ., 


Pluto Express 


i ( 


Pluto Junior" 


i ■> 


Pluto Kuiper Express 


1 . 


Pluto Nash, The Adventures of 


:|, 


PLUTO reactor 


;.:<•■! 


Pluto Saves the Ship 


;;■ , 


Pluto Shervington 




Pluto Water 




Pluto, Aspects of 




Pluto, Astronomy 




Pluto, Breakfast on 


; "* 


pluto, Destination 


\\ 


Pluto, Geology of 


Pluto, Jupiter, Neptune and 




PLUTO, Operation 


!•■ 


Pluto, Planet 




Pluto, Private 




Pluto, Project 




Pluto, Religion 




Pluto, Sailor 




Pluto, Zoltan 




Pluto's Kiss 


-'XZ 


Plntn'<: mnnn<; 


: — 



Using Search Engines to Search Wikipedia 

Yahoo now includes Quick Links for any Wikipedia results. For example, a Yahoo 
search for [internet] will return Wikipedia as result number eight and will include 
"Quick Links" to specific Wikipedia articles on this topic: 



b. Internet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

The Internet i s the worldwide, publicly accessible network o f interconnected computer networks that transmit data by 

Ting using the standard Internet Protocol ... 
"Quick Links: Creation of the Internet - Today's I nternet - Interne t protocols 
prTsiHiwdifl^ifnAviki/liitpiiifti - 57k - Cacfi*d - More from Ir 



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You can further restrict the search to Wikipedia by clicking on "More from this site," 
which is an excellent way to search Wikipedia using Yahoo: 

Web ! images \ Video i Audio \ Directory; ! Local : News I Shopping \ More * 

TSKEIOO^ SEARCH lintemeT""" " "...111" ".'. ' .... .7 '!'.! ..." 



Anawcio Mv VVel) Search Sfrr vice? | Advanced Search P'elcience? 

Search Results i - 10 01 about 232,000 tor imsurM - 05 sec. fab am this t>«g*i 

V Also rjY internet explorer free internet , internet radio , internet tv More... 
(*X Vour search was rsstricled to "en.wikipedin.oig". Forbore matches, try searching all sources instead. 



InterrTet-TTlKrn^iJlid. rng free encyclopedia 

The Internet (also known simply as the Net) can be briefly understood as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the 

worldwide, publicly accessible network of... 

Quick Links: Creation of the Internet - Today's Intern et ■ Internet piotocni; 

■i\\ v-i|.itjedN.'")!fi/>v'k'']iiieiin>t - '};>■ - t';i-:!>^i £r.j? 

2. Internet Explorer - Wikipedia 

Encylopedia article about Internet Explorer, Microsoft's web browser. Covers its hislory, features, component 

architecture, common criticisms, and market share. 

Category: }-'•) '.:;;% £/..(!.£,; 

ari.wkipprji; s - ;V/k - C^iv"! ■ ^<V''* 

3. Internet troll - Wikipedia. the free enc yclopedia 

In Internet terminology, a troll is someone who comes into an established community such as an online discussion 
forum, and posts inflammatory, rude, repetitive or ... 
Quick Links; El y-nolou^ - Vicious circles ■ Troll cultu re 
en.v-ikipedid.ory/Vtfki/lntemeijroil ■ 3?k - Cschoij ■ S^w 

4. History of the Internet - Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia 

The histoiy of the Internet dates back to the early development of communication networks. The idea of a computer 
network intended lo allow geneial communication among ... 

Quick Links Before tieliiiemet - A Jack _of j»t?i_ nejwprkirtc; - Tinee rc-r an ARPA 

on.v-ikioedia.ory^iki/Jlislory_of_*hc;_lnieniet- 16: - CS(.j;;*ii- -^Y? 



You can also use the site: syntax to search just the Wikipedia (or Wikipedias, if you 
like) in: 

> Yahoo http://search.yahoo.com/ 

> Google http://www.gooqle.com/ 

> Ask http://www.ask.com/ 

> Windows Live Search http://www.live.com/7searchonly-true 

> A9 http://a9.com/ 

> Gigablast http://www.qiqablast.com/ 

> Exalead http://www.exalead.com/search 

> Clusty (site: and host: are interchangeable, but Clusty has a special Wikipedia 
search option) http://clusty.com/ 

This is an especially useful option for non-Latin searches, such as [site:wikipedia.org 
Qe§me], which returns results not only from the English and Turkish Wikipedias but 
from the German and Serbian Wikipedias as well: 



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Web ! Images i Vidgp | Audio I Pnedmy I Local j News j Shoppin g I Mnro * 
"^^filOOi SEARCH |site:wikipedJaorg Qegme ; Rsbarch [ 



Search Results 



Answers Search Services I Advanced Se; 
1 - 100 of about 31 1 from wiklpedia.org for Ce$me - 1 £3 sec 



1. Cesrne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

fesme is a town on the west coast of Turkey and one of the districts of Izmir Province. It is a prominent center of 
international tourism in Turkey and is famous for ... 
Quick Links: S?q als o - Ex ternal link s 
£*n.wikI[>e<li;i,<»iy/wiki/Qe?rri8 - W~ - C^jf;r=3>J - Mf.).llliLlL''U.bli...-^ 

2 - Hi'^a, C arrie - W ikip edia, the fre e encyclope dia 

llica is a small village near ^esrne (pronounced Tcheshme). which is a distnct of Izmir Province in O r e§me Peninsula in 
the extreme western tip of Turkey. 

Quick Links: Aegean legion of Turkey geography stubs ■ Districts of Izmir - jrmii 
en,wiki|>e(!^^j>i(ywiki/ll%Ci%Blc3,_%C3%87e%C5%9Fme - \3^ - Cadibd - '-.'lore fiuin this site 

3. Cesroe - Wikipedia - Tr^siai* rhi;-- $;,& 



fe$me [J ist ein Ferienort etwa 100 Kilometer westlich von izmir. Der Name "fejme ", zu Deutsch "Brunnen". leitet 

sich von der groften Zahl dieser ab. 

Quick Links: Ort in der Turkei 

ds,wiWpe(li<i^i(j/wi<t7%C3-V(,fJ7c'%C5%9Fm8 - sk ■ y.v- hptf - -loi= ^ r?i (!■>;::■; -ik 

4. Cezaviili Gazi Hasa n Pasha - Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia 

Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha (1713-1730), (Hasan Pasha of Algiers) was an Ottoman grand vizier and a navy and army 

commander of the late 1Bth century, 

Quick Links; References 

ef!.wilci|ieili.i.i>iq/wiki/Cezayirti_Gazi_Has3n_Pasha - i6k - Cached - Mote- T'rom thia ^ite 

5. Cesme- Vikipedi 

... anlam aynm sayfasi. Qesme kavraminin farkli kullanimlanni ... Retrieved from "http://tr.wikipedia.orfi 
/wiki/%C3%87e%C5%9Fme" Sayfa kategorisi: Anlam aynm ... 
ti.wiktpedio.of y^viki/'Cefm-i - iQk - Cached ■ ivk=;e from this ±'\\£ 

6. Mehmet Culum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Mehmet Culum is a contemporary Turkish novelist who was born in a western town of Turkey called f esme in 1948. He 
studied political sciences at the University of Ankara. 
Quick Links: European writer stubs - Turkish people stubs 
Bri.wiki^e'lirt.oiij/vviki/tVlehiiiijt^CuluiT) - 131- - C*ch«rj - Mere Jw(;Jh};> j;:tF. 

7. Marinas in T urkey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

www nnrthftrtrnm 



Search Tip: 

To search all Wikipedias: 
[site:wikipedia.org] 

To search language-specific Wikipedias: 

site:DIGRAPH.wikipedia.org, e.g., 
[site:de.wikipedia.org nordafrika] 



":-IG:^:'^" '■* " 



r ■:> •-■y i! $ tfL . ..-; ....- vr ■ t r i --- 7~^T«.w..-,. : :„ ;; . , .:.r",;^ia 




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Maps and Mapping 



Maps and mapping technology continued to expand and improve during 2006, in 
large part because of competition with Google Maps. Virtually all the online maps get 
their data from one of two companies: Navteq or Tele Atlas. It is what each map site 
does with that data — how it implements its user interface and what features it 
offers — that makes it distinctive. Google Maps and Google's downloadable property 
Google Earth, helped inspire a cottage industry of what are termed "mashups," a 
music industry term transformed into computer slang meaning to "mix at least two 
different services from disparate, and even competing, websites." The best known 
mashups involve overlaying data such as crime statistics onto Google, Yahoo, Live 
Search's Virtual Earth, and other maps. 

Some of these innovations are detailed in Untangling the Web\ others, while no 
doubt useful in their own right, do not address specific research needs of this 
audience and are best left for other venues. 

Google Maps & Google Earth 

During 2005, Google and Microsoft both introduced a new dimension to their map 
sites with satellite maps. Google uses the Keyhole technology it purchased in 2004 
and Microsoft uses its own TerraServer data to generate its satellite maps at its 
Virtual Earth page. Google went one step further, combining its satellite imagery with 
its traditional maps to offer a "hybrid" view, which overlays a map onto the satellite 
image of the U.S., Canada, most of Europe, and Japan. Google is facing stiff 
competition not only from its US competitors but also from exceptionally fine 
European mapping companies. See below for a comparison between Google and 
Mappy in the European map market. 

Google Maps allows users to toggle among map, satellite, or hybrid (labeled) views. 
Google Maps uses the now ubiquitous address bubbles that can be closed and the 
ability to get directions between locations. Google Maps is one of the best sites for 
navigating around the map smoothly using with the mouse. In mid-2006 Google 
Maps added the zoom in/out feature using the mouse scroll wheel. 

Google Maps also has a preview window, a small window inside the larger map 
window that shows a small image of the larger map. The intent is to let users see a 
larger view of an area 



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Go ode 



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Web Ims.qgs Group:- News Frooqle Maps mote » 

|perth australia Search Maps | 

"[Search the mapf~ TInTbu^ine5ses " Gel directions 



H£lfi 



Ptinl ® Eirioii <&£ Link lo this page 
Map H Satellite [] Hyftiid 




Google Maps Hybrid View with Preview Window 



http://maps.gooqle.com/ 



During 2006 Google also "updated the satellite data used for Google Maps so it now 
has the many updates recently made to the Google Earth database. This means the 
new high resolution data for all of Germany, many places in Europe. ..and many 
other places are now available to Google Maps users. 

Google Earth represents a revolution in mapping technology. Google Earth is a 
geographic search and "fly" tool that combines the detailed three-dimensional 
satellite imagery from Google's Keyhole property with Google's local search and 
direction finding available at Google maps. Google Earth lets users: 

> Fly from space to your neighborhood. Type in an address and zoom right in. 

> Search for schools, parks, restaurants, and hotels. Get driving directions. 

> Tilt and rotate the view to see 3D terrain and buildings. 



83 



Frank Taylor, "Google Maps Gets Huge Satellite Update from Google Earth," Google Earth Blog, 
24 April 2006, <http://www.gearthblog.com/blog/archives/2006/04/google_maps_and.html> (30 
October 2006). 



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> Save and share your searches and favorites. Even add your own 
annotations. 84 

The Google Earth data is not limited to the US. "The whole world is covered with 
medium resolution imagery and terrain data. This resolution allows you to see major 
geographic features and man-made development such as towns, but not detail of 
individual buildings. Additional high-resolution imagery which reveals detail for 
individual buildings is available for most of the major cities in the US, Western 
Europe, Canada, and the UK. 3D buildings are represented in 38 US cities (the 
major urban areas). Detailed road maps are available for the US, Canada, the UK, 
and Western Europe. And Google Local search is available for the US, Canada, and 
the UK." 85 And all this is free for personal use and does not require registration. 

All the news about Google Earth is not good, however. 

> it's a download, which means many organizational policies will prohibit its use 
on the job. 

> it will not run on Apples. 

> it is only designed to work on Windows XP or 2000 (other MS operating 
systems are not supported). 

> it's designed to run on broadband Internet connections, so I do not 
recommend running it on a slow connection. 

> it requires a 3D graphics card: 3D-capable video card with 16MB VRAM, but 
many common graphics cards are not supported. 

> while the basic software is free, there are two upgrades, a yearly subscription 
for Google Earth Plus with higher resolutions, GPS support, etc., and a more 
expensive business and professional version called Google Earth Pro (a 7- 
day free trial is available if you're curious). 

However, if you are able to use Google Earth, it is amazing. I recommend using the 
extensive Google Earth help files available at Keyhole. One of the hottest trends on 
the web at the moment is map hacks or mash-ups. The Google Earth Hacks website 
brings you lots of free downloads designed to be used in conjunction with Google 
Earth. 



Google Earth 
Google Earth Help 



http://earth.gooqle.com/ 
http://www.kevhole.com/GooqleEarthHelp/GoogieE arth.htm 



Google Earth, < http://earth.qooqle.com/ > (30 October 2006). 

Google Earth FAQ, < http://earth.qooqle.com/faq.html > (30 October 2006). 



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Google Earth Hacks http://www.qooqleearthhacks.com/ 

Google now has street-level mapping capabilities for Andorra, Australia, Austria, 
Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, 
Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia (Moscow only), San 
Marino, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (Istanbul only), the United 
Kingdom, and the United States. Although no separate websites exist for most of 
these country map sites, I expect they will eventually. 

At present, Google has map websites for these countries: 

> UK & Ireland — http://maps.qooqle.co.uk/ 

> Canada — http://maps.qooqle.ca/ 

> Australia (includes New Zealand) — http://maps.qooqle.com.au/ 

> China — http://bendi.qooqle.com/ 

> Germany — http://map s.qooqle.de/ 

> Spain — http://maps.qooqle.es/ 

> France — http://maps.qooqle.fr/ 

> Italy — http://maps.qooqle.it/ 

> The Netherlands — http://maps.qooqle.nl/ 

> Japan — http://local.qooqle.co.ip/ 

Google began offering local search and maps specifically for Japan during 2005. 
Both sites are in Japanese. However, Google maps Japan, which offers both street- 
level and satellite images for some of Japan, recognizes input in romaji (Latinized 
spellings of Japanese words). Here is a search on [Tokyo] showing the results in 
Google maps satellite images. 



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Gougle 



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Google Maps Japan http://maps.google.co.ip/ 

Google Maps and Google Earth, also helped inspire a cottage industry of what are 
termed "mashups," a music industry term transformed into computer slang meaning 
to "mix at least two different services from disparate, and even competing, websites." 
The best known mashups involve overlaying data such as subway routes, and crime 
statistics onto Google, Yahoo, Live Local, or other maps. This is a Google Maps 
Mashup showing cellular towers in Boston using the Hybrid view, i.e., street and 
satellite maps combined. 



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Cell Phone Tower 
Search 



j>cm\-\cnH Toners 




117,562 
antennas last 
updated on 
Sept 19, 2005 



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Mobiledia.com 



http://www.cellreception.com/ 



Microsoft's Live Local Powered by Virtual Earth 

Microsoft fought back with some amazing technology of its own called Virtual Earth. 
With the appearance of Windows Live and Live Local, Virtual Earth became the 
power behind these searches and the former Virtual Earth site now takes users to 
Live Local. 

Compare Google Maps' highest resolution hybrid view of the Natural History 
Museum in Washington, D.C., with the highest resolution image of Windows Live 
Local aerial view, with labels. You can see that Google Maps (using satellite imagery 
from Google Earth) now has the edge in better resolution and also offers a larger, 
easier to view image. Also, I find Google Maps not only much faster to load but 
easier to search and navigate. 



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Google Maps Hybrid 



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F«ed* >» ' Academit- 



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See famcui h aunted EJaces- fr-om jH 
over trie world 



Popular searches 

■ Restaurants 

■ Dry ctea ners 

■ Movies 

■ Anfiliv»nr,f>< 




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Windows Live Local powered by Virtual Earth http://local.live.com/ 

However, Windows Live Local has one amazing feature that Google Maps does not. 
Windows Live Local offers "Bird's Eye View," which are images licensed from 
Pictometry International at a 45-degree angle instead of directly overhead. "To date, 
Pictometry information is available for geographic areas accounting for about 25 
percent of the U.S. population, including the greater metropolitan areas of 
Manhattan, Seattle, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Microsoft will continue to work 
with Pictometry to shoot more landscapes, with a focus on highly populated areas 
and tourist destinations such as Las Vegas, which already shows up in bird's-eye 
view." 86 More locations are being added. 



livesearch.podcasts 



Products 



Feeds 



Academic 



Video 



\ More*- 

Welcome Collections ▼ Driving directions Traffic Locate me Share ▼ Print ▼ 




Clicking the rotation arrows (N S E W) in the navigation panel, displays a 360° 
panoramic view that is genuinely breathtaking. If you right-click anywhere on the 
map you can add your own pushpins. Live Local also offers a "Scratch Pad" to make 
notes about a location. For users who want to learn more about using Bird's Eye 
View and Live Local maps in general, there are several blogs devoted to Windows 
Live Local that I find far more useful than Microsoft's Live help. 



Windows Live Spaces/Virtual Earth 



http://virtualearth.spaces.live.com/ 



86 Susan Kuchinskas, "Windows Live Local Offers a New View," lnternetNews.com, 8 December 
2005, < http://www.internetnews.com/ent-news/article.php/3569386 > (30 October 2006). 



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Virtual Earth Developers 
Bird's Eye Tourist 



http://bloqs.msdn.com/virtualearth/default.aspx 
http://www.birdseyetourist.com/ 



Early in 2006 the Virtual Earth Team introduced street views (something only A9 had 
previously tried to do in the US). Here's the announcement: 

The Virtual Earth team is pleased to launch a preview of a new feature we have 
been working on - interactive Street-side browsing. You can try it out at 
http://preview.local.live.com Street-side imagery allows you to drive around a city 
looking at the world around you as if you were in a car. But unlike the real world, 
you can stop your car anywhere you like and rotate your view around 
360degrees. Currently we have street-side imagery for San Francisco and 
Seattle online. 87 

I love this technology because there is nothing like being able to "walk" or "drive" 
through an unfamiliar location to get your bearings. However, with the demise of A9 
Maps, I am not sure this type of "you are there" technology is here to stay. The 
excellent European sites that offer similar options. France Telecom's Pages Jaunes 
and Spain's Callejero Fotographico offer similar "stroll" technologies. 



l^J Windows Live Local 



[{Business category or name...] [[Type street address. 



Virtual tarth Technology Picvrew 



I San Francisco, CA (City Center) T] ȣ> 



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Virtual Earth Technology Preview 



http://preview.local.live.com/ 



87 Sean Rowe, Program Manager, Virtual Earth, Live Search Weblog, 28 February 2006, 
< http://bloqs.msdn.com/livesearch/archive/2006/02/28/540724.aspx > (31 October 2006). 



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At the end of 2006 Microsoft announced Virtual Earth 3D, which offers truly 
stunning views of many US cities. The downside of this technology is that it requires 
Internet Explorer and certain other Microsoft-specific software in order to run. 

Microsoft Research, in partnership with the Government of India's Department of 
Science and Technology , is working on an interesting project powered by Microsoft 
Virtual Earth technology. According to the website, "The primary goal of this project 
is to explore novel and effective ways to collect and disseminate geospatial data and 
leverage multi-lingual technologies within maps. We currently have fairly limited 
data— 1 :1 M India-wide data as well as 1 :8000 Bangalore city data." 88 

Right now, the only street-level maps are for Bangalore; users cannot add pushpins 
(I tried unsuccessfully to view them but neither the annotation nor street search was 
working). However, the concept is a good one. Imagine having street-level and 
perhaps even aerial maps of an entire country in all that country's languages. Even 
now, you can view the maps in English, Hindi, Tamil, and Kannada, although 
Microsoft does caution there are inevitably errors in their rendering of the place 
names. There is no doubt this is an interesting experiment and I feel pretty confident 
MS didn't pick India randomly. 

Here's a shot of a portion of Bangalore rendered in Hindi: 



Virtual India 



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Welcome to the Virtual India Project! Microsoft Research-15, 2006, 
< http://research.microsoft.com/virtualindia/ > (30 October 2006). 



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Yahoo Maps 

In early 2006 Yahoo Maps introduced high-resolution satellite, aerial, and hybrid 
images of the US, medium resolution imagery of the rest of the world, and medium 
resolution global maps and overlays. Yahoo Maps imagery is provided by Aerials 
Express and icubed . Despite what you may read, Yahoo Maps is using both 
satellite imagery and aerial photography, i.e., photographs taken from airplanes. 
Here's what Yahoo had to say about this development: 

Here are the highlights: 

Comprehensive Nationwide Satellite Imagery Coverage 

Wall-to-wall coverage within the lower 48 states in the US. We are going 
for the best coverage nationwide, from the streets of New York to every 
inch of Redding, CA. 

Global Satellite Imagery 

The product features global images at 15 meters per pixel (zoom level 5, 
medium resolution), which basically lets you find and see every city, town, 
and major land feature in the world at medium resolution. 

Global Maps 

We're releasing maps and overlays at medium resolution for the whole 
world as well. This should help you view not only the suburbs of Bangkok, 
Thailand, but also help see the context of the imagery in hybrid mode. 

APIs 

The new imagery and global maps are available for API developers 
< http://developer.yahoo.com/maps/index.htm l> on the Yahoo! Developer 
Network, <http://developer.yahoo.com/> So whether you're new to the 
world of mashups or an experienced hacker, there is no better time to 
show off what you can do. 

Better Views 

In addition to getting all the data we can, we're processing the satellite 
imagery to make the visuals more aesthetically pleasing for users. We're 
blending away seam lines and normalizing the color pallet to create a 
continuous plane of imagery. 89 



89 Michael Lawless and Vince Maniago, "Mo' Beta Maps," Yahoo! Search Blog, 11 April 2006, 
< http://www.ysearchbloq.com/archives/000286.html > (30 October 2006). 



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Of course the first question is how do Yahoo's images stack up to Google's and 
Microsoft's? Here are three screenshots of downtown Washington, DC (Microsoft's 
Virtual Earth imagery slightly obfuscates the White House and surrounding areas, so 
I chose a clearer image of downtown DC). 




Yahoo Maps' hybrid image of the White House and surrounding areas using Yahoo 
Maps Local (Beta), http://maps.yahoo.com/beta/ 



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Google Maps' hybrid image of the White House (at this resolution, the hybrid 
identifications disappear; there is actually one closer degree of resolution, but it is 
fuzzy). 



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Microsoft's Virtual Earth "Bird's Eye View" of downtown Washington, DC. 

Yahoo offers three APIs— their own Simple API, AJAX, and MacroMedia Flash — for 
use with Yahoo mapping technology. The Simple API lets users create customized 
Yahoo maps using just a text editor. By offering several different options for creating 
mashups, Yahoo appeals to differing levels of expertise, from "no programming" to 
fairly sophisticated embedded scripts. Yahoo maps also offers "building block APIs" 
including geocoding, Yahoo Local, traffic information, and map images. 

Building Block Components 

Several Yahoo! APIs help you create a powerful and useful 
Yahoo! Maps rnashups. Use these together with the Yahoo! 
Maps APIs to enhance the user experience. 

Geocoding API - Pass in location data by address and receive 
geocoded (encoded with latitude-longitude) responses. 

Map Image API - Stitch map images together to build your own 
maps for usage in custom applications, including mobile and 
offline use. 

Traffic APIs - Build applications that take dynamic traffic report 
data to help you plan optimal routes and keep on top of your 
commute using either our REST API or Dynamic RSS Feed - 
Local Search APIs - Query against the Yahoo! Local service, 
which now returns longitude-latitude with every search result for 
easy plotting on a map. Also new is the inclusion of ratings from 
Yahoo! users for each establishment to give added context. 



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Yahoo offers a great deal of help to developers who want to use these APIs to 
create customized maps. Yahoo also permits third parties to host Yahoo map 
mashups on their own sites, which is something important for researchers to look 
for. 



USGS M>2.5 Earthquakes 

Real-time, worldwide earthquake list for the past 7 days 
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Yahoo is adding non-US local maps, using mapping technology provided by other 
sources, such as Map24 for European locations. Here is a sample of what you get 
for Germany. Notice the choice between static and dynamic maps, which allow 
users to move around the map using a mouse. At this time, I recommend skipping 
Yahoo Local in Europe and going directly to Map24 , which is much better. 



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uNCLASsiFiED //rorc ornc i AL uoc ohlv 



^V «■> ■— — .*m_ ft Suchen nach: 

^LHOOf, LOKALE SUCHE [^ 



Stadt, Ort oder Postleitzahl: 



jMunchen, Bayern 

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Munchen > Reise und Tourismus > Hotels 

Lok-5^ Er^ebriisse Ernebnisse 1 - to von 720 Ergebnissen hotel Munchen, Bayern 

Ihr Qunstiges Hotel in Munchen bei Hotels.com 

Qualitatshotels mit Tiefstpreisgarantie sicher online buchen. 
www.hotels.com 

Top Hotels in Munchen bei Expedia.de 

Gunstige Hotels in Munchen bequem & sicher online buchen. 

www.expedia.de 

Sortiti «n iM-;U: Top Ergebnisse | Entfernung | A-Z 

In Partnerschaftmit DasOrtllChe 

1, Savoy Hotel, Renner Hotels Savoy * 

(0 89)2 87 87-0 Arnalienstr. 25 

80333 Munchen 0,98 km 
Katie | Routenplangi 

Alle anzeiqen: Hotels 



f'O ber diese S eite) 
Gpcnsoren Links 



Druckversion 



2. Steigenberqer Hotels AG Verkaufsburo 
Munchen * 

(0 89) 23 88 83 - 3 Sendlinger Str. 46 

80331 Munchen 0,98 km 
Karte | Poutenplaner 

Alie anzeigen: Hotels 



3. Anna Hotel Hotels •& 

(0 89)5 99 94 -0 Schutzenstr. 1 



80335 Munchen 1,21 km 
Karte | Routenplaner 



Alle anzeigen, Holeis 

Yahoo Maps 
Yahoo Map APIs 



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Ask Maps 

The maps at Ask.com come from two familiar sources, Navteq and GlobeXplorer. 
However, what Ask has done with the source material makes them worth a special 
mention. As with other mapping sites, such as Google, Ask Maps allows users to 
choose between "aerial" and "physical" views with labels on or off (in Google, this 
means map, satellite, or hybrid (labeled) views). Ask Maps also uses address 
bubbles that can be closed and the ability to get directions between locations. As 
with Google Maps, Ask Maps offers the zoom in/out feature using the mouse scroll 
wheel. 



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Ask Maps adds the ability to: 

> Show or hide directions (this is especially useful when you have very long, 
complicated directions). 

> Choose between driving and walking directions; this is extremely useful when 
you are dealing with locations that have a lot of one-way streets, for example. 

> Maximize the map with a simple click of the mouse, something Google Maps 
cannot do that annoys me to no end. 

> The ability to add another location is much easier than with other mapping 
sites; right-click to add a push-pin location to the map. 




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In addition to the US and Canada, Ask Maps also offers coverage of parts of 
Europe. To see the current coverage, I recommend you check GlobeXplorer's 

website. 



Ask Maps 

GlobeXplorer's Worldwide Satellite Imagery 



http://maps.ask.com/maps 
http-7/www.qlobexplorer.CQm/our-content/diqital-globe.shtml 



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International Map Sites 

Map24 

I highly recommend Map24, which offers country and city maps for many interna- 
tional locations. Map24 is one of the most technically sophisticated free web-based 
map such as Google Maps or Virtual Earth. As with these sites, Map24 offers map, 
satellite, and hybrid views. The site is set to redirect you to your country's map 
page, so if you want to see all the available international maps, you need to select 
Language: Change to see all the available languages and countries associated with 
them. For example, Portuguese is only associated with Brazil at Map24 even though 
a less detailed map of Portugal is offered. 



map24 



a MyMap24: Login 
« Map: i'Mc | 

iriL?l'3Cl!V(? 

= Language. Change 



Map24 - International 

Map24 is available in several languages for 
different countries around the World Please 
choose your desired version 




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Espariol 


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The global Map24 team is growing Look for more 
countries and language versions in the near future. 



-Seamless zoom 

- Smooth actions 

- Extensive searches 



MapTP Fleet Syctem 



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DaimlerChrysler 
Services FleetBoard and 
MapTP make Transport 
companies drive 
economically 



MapTP Freight Charter 



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TimoCom TRUCK & 
CARGO integrates 
MapTP mapping 
technology for roughfy 
16.000 customers. 

> note- 



Information Week recommends Map24 

Map24 is a useful tool for road warriors It 
goes beyond simple point- to- point 
navigation 

= more 



New! Free Map24 AJAX API 

AJAX 



As of nowMap24 is 
offering developers a 
Map24 AJAX API. 



eCourier Firmly On the Map Thanks to 
Mapsolute 

eCouiier. the company 
er ■' , !' :; " that changed the way 
packages are delivered 
across London and the 
UK. celebrates a ... 



BusfnessMap24 Easy has arrived. Try 
our free 7 -Day trial! 

BusinessMap24 Easy is a powerful store 
locator for your personalized web 
presence . 



Map24 
Maporama 



http://www.map24.com/ 



Maporama is especially useful because it has a number of detailed city and country 
maps. At present, Maporama offers more than 63 countries/locations. Where else 
are you going to find a street map of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia? Not every country or city 
is this detailed, but Maporama is an indispensable map and directions tool. 



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http://world.maporama.com/ 



Mappy 

Despite not having the most felicitous of names, Mappy is nonetheless a wonderful 
map site. Mappy's parent company is Pages Jaunes Groupe . Mappy recently added 
aerial views of a number of European cities — 26 total as of now — in France, 
Spain, Belgium, Germany, and the Czech Republic (only Prague for now). The aerial 
photo maps require MacroMedia Flash. 

Here is Mappy's aerial view of Flora Park in Amsterdam at the closest resolution; 
pay special attention to the roof of the large building where the arrow is pointing: 



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m 






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Not to be upstaged, in early 2006 Google "updated the satellite data used for Google 
Maps so it now has the many updates recently made to the Google Earth database. 
This means the new high resolution data for all of Germany, many places in 
Europe. ..and many other places are now available to Google Maps users. Here is 
the Google Maps hybrid image of the same location at the closest resolution Google 
Maps offers: 




90 Frank Taylor, "Google Maps Gets Huge Satellite Update from Google Earth," Google Earth Blog, 
24 April 2006, < http://www.qearthbloq.com/bloq/archives/2006/04/qooqle maps and. html > (30 
October 2006). 



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As you can tell even from these snapshots, the Mappy image is not as clear as 
those provided by Google. Also, Google Maps continues to be the hands down 
winner in navigating around the map smoothly. 

Mappy is very good not only for travel directions but also for identifying local 
landmarks, hotels, cash machines, parking lots, etc. None of the other mapping sites 
can match Mappy in these areas yet, but it is clear the competition is fierce and map 
sites and services are oniy going to get better and better. 



Mappy's Aerial Photos 
Street-Level Map Views 



http://www.mappy.com/ (select Maps | Aerial Photos) 



Both France Telecoms Pages Jaunes and Spain's Callejero Fotographico (Pho- 
tographic Street Guides) offer street-level views of cities using "stroll" technologies. 
These sites require the Macromedia Flash plug-in to use the visual maps. Both sites 
are worth a visit because they are both impressive and potentially very useful if you 
ever need to see a specific place in one of a number of French or Spanish cities. 
This is a snapshot from Pages Jaunes of the Place du Carrousel in downtown Paris. 
Note especially the icon below the photograph that lets you get a full 360-degree 
view of the location: 



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UNCLASSIFIED //FOR OFF I C I AL UOC ONLY 



235 



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France Telecom's Pages Jaunes 
Spain's Callejero Fotographico 



http://photos.pagesiaunes.fr/ 
http://www.qdq.com/indexfotos.asp 



Are they perfect? Of course not, but these sites do I think point to a future in which a 
variety of technologies — the Internet, GPS, digital photography— will be used 
together in increasingly creative ways to open the world in ways we are only 
beginning to imagine. 

ViaMichelin 

ViaMichelin maps cover the US and Canada as well as virtually all European 
countries. In fact, for Europe, ViaMichelin is hard to beat, especially for driving 
directions. Look at this street-level map of Lisbon (remember, as excellent as Map24 
is, it doesn't cover Portugal). Users can even look for such things as speed cameras 
and roadwork. 



ViaMichelin 



AND REACH YOUR EMOTIONAL PEAK ! 



Dfhfin) directions | Hotels | Tom ism | Mowing | IDMyVlaMicliefoi | GPS Nawgnrtoii 



Maps 



Find a mop in tne 
Europe 


UK and all over 




| Portugal 








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PiO'Jr-fSi. s^rticn 
















jdjMyaddrwi 


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f'OSlco-ie, reckon. 


-CHy. 


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Hotels nearby 

^ Search all hotels 
<~ Search by date 



>V 



Departure date 



mi 



No ofpersons: |2 | 
More criteria 



Uceful addressee nearby 



I Print | Send bye-mail 



| use this map as your default map | Create a link to this map 







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ViOMicheitn 



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ViaMichelin (Europe, US, Canada) 

http://www.viamichelin.com/viamichelin/qbr/dvn/controller/Maps 



Best Mapping Sites 

Ask Maps 

France Telecom's Pages Jaunes 

Google Earth (must be downloaded) 



http://maps.ask.com/maps 

http://photos.paqesiaunes.fr/ 

http://earth.qoogle.com/ 



236 



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Google Maps http://maps.qooqle.com/ 

Map24 http://www.map24.com/ 

MapQuest http://www.mapquest.com/ 

Maporama http://www.maporama.com/share/ 

Multimap (excellent source of maps worldwide) http://www.multimap.com/ 

Spain's Callejero Fotographico http://www.qdq.com/indexfotos.asp 

Mappy (Europe) http://www.mappy.com/ 

ViaMichelin (Europe, US, Canada) 

http://www.viamichelin.com/viamichelin/qbr/dvn/controller/Maps 

Windows Live Local/Virtual Earth http://local.live.com/ 

Yahoo Maps http://maps.yahoo.com/ 

Best Map Metalndices 

About's Maps http://qeoqraphy.about.com/science/qeoqraphy/msub1.htm 

Martindale's "Virtual" Geoscience Center 

http://www.martindalecenter.com/GradGeoscience 5 GG.html 

Odden's The Fascinating World of Maps and Map-Making 

http://oddens.qeoq.uu.nl/index.html 

Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection at the University of Texas Austin 

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/Libs/PCL/Map collection/map sites/map sites.html 

ReisWijs Route Planner Metasite 

http://www.reiswiis.co.uk/routeplanner/routeplanner.html 



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%% 



Mystery Hits 



it 



I followed all these suggestions but I'm still getting hits that 
seem completely unrelated to my query. Why? There are a 
number of possible explanations: 

1) You've included "stop" words that may be read as 
wildcards. 

2) You're the victim of misleading keywords, e.g., "lutefisk" 
was included as a metatag keyword by the St. Paul Star 
Tribune because of its popularity in Minnesota to drive 
traffic to the website. 

3) You're the victim of "tiny words" (font so small as to be 
invisible) or "hidden text" (text and background are the 
same color) on a webpage, both of which are often treated 
as spam by search engines. 

4) The webpage may have changed between the time it was 
indexed and today. 

5) You're the victim of flawed search software. 



238 



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Uncovering the "Invisible" Internet 



One of the most frustrating things about Internet search tools is the fact that even 
the best index only a portion of the web, much less the entire Internet. The deep 
(aka hidden or invisible) web continues to elude most search services and users 
seeking to plumb its depths. We are still, for the most part, dependent upon specialty 
tools and sites to help us find and exploit deep web resources. The challenge is how 
to access that part of the web that remains invisible to search engines. It is important 
to understand that search engines are generally designed to index a certain subset 
of the Internet: web pages and, in some cases, certain types of files, e.g., video, 
audio, PDF 91 . Furthermore, most search engines limit their web page and 
document indexing. For example, Google used to index approximately the first 
100KB of HTML, and reportedly the first megabyte of PDF documents, but in 
October 2005, Google dramatically increased the size of its cache limit, although no 
one knows for sure what that limit is. Yahoo indexes at least the first 500KB of HTML 
and PDF documents. In any event, long documents usually are partially invisible to 
these and other search engines. You cannot rely upon a search engine spider to 
index long documents in their entirety. 



A9 Search 



At the end of September 2006, A9, the Amazon. corn-owned search property, made 
sweeping changes, some good and some bad. Contrary to what some search 
bloggers said, A9 is not "dead" (at least not yet). But some of A9's best features are 
gone. As I feared, not enough people used the wonderful "street view" map resource 
and now it is gone. As of September 29, 2006, A9 "discontinued A9 Maps and the 
A9 Yellow Pages (including BlockView™) ... [and] discontinued the A9 Instant 
Reward program, and the A9 Toolbar and personalized services such as history, 
bookmarks, and diary." Other changes include "a new continuous scrolling feature, 
so you no longer have to bother with next and previous buttons to move from one 
page of results to the next. You can now also drag-and-drop the columns to change 



Google was the first major search engine to routinely index the content of many file types, including 
pdf, ps, xls, doc, ppt, and others. See "Google's Frequently Asked Questions — File Types," 
< http://www.qoogle.com/help/faq filetypes.html > (14 November 2006). 



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their order on the page." 92 A9 had earlier switched from Google to Windows Live 
Search for its web and news searches. 

Another big change that is not perhaps obvious to the casual user is that A9 no 
longer offers (or requires) that users log in and have every single query ever made 
at A9 recorded and retrievable. I do not think that A9's eliminating the retention of 
personal search data is an accident given some infamous "leaks" of personal 
information by search services. In the past, I had recommended using the "generic" 
A9 interface if you did not want to log in to use A9; that requirement is now obviated. 

The A9 homepage looks quite different. Notice that there are a number of options for 
searching that include dropdown menus to check the sources you wish to search. 



A9 



search 



quick st«1 i 


fefeience 


i news | 


; images & 1*1 a s em <\np <>i 


8 w«btoytiv 


B reference hy ttroiNQf 9,cofn 


@! ncwo by Nwctom 


gj f i«fc» 


§J boofcs fcy . 


Bhq &e;»rcli 


8 IIVItmes^Qm 


gj TheMSUMftoxom 


r^tocne* 


H wikriHwtU 


_' Fimtory Item 


@J Web^VtfO PlM>tO» 


rrcwstiytt 


WfJirth*! by arrewerrijconi 


*co«f» 


■ _ i fAy Image $eorcli 


W) *#i|*cih* 


M*-iJOESTdoi«ci 




' Tr«v«jn««"* 


AIIAmazp 


AhoMUom 




_ i iStockphoto 


Wofr Bo** 


People 




. smucmug <«ll 



S*« what's new and changed on A9.com, 
Retrieve your Bookmark? and Diary entries, 



While this is nice, it is not much of an improvement over the old A9. Also note the 
"add a search group" option on the right side of the page. If you click on that link, you 
will see the other search categories you can add to your main A9 search page to 
tailor it to your own needs. 



92 "What's New at A9.com," A9, 29 September 2006, < http://a9.eom/-/companv/whatsNew.jsp > (5 
October 2006). 



240 



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UNCLASSIFIED Z/rOR ornc i AL UOC ONLY 



add to your search group list 



ZT3 



BeslSJuff. Ciassilieo*. Priceflo.tom, Electronics, 9a eBii Search, 
SF-crelPncps com. NewUsetifluyercom, ThmkOeek 

artu group 



Indeed Jobs, Job Seated Preferred Jobs, Jobs, LalPio. 
SrmpierCareers 



Jdti group 



ih-. 



Full, Wet) Search. Enlh, REQUEST dot Mel, RS3 &Atom Feeds. 
a9 columns 



j aa <$roup 



books by amazort. RetlUohtOreen, i£bn24, LsmSan 
Library, MiamiU Librar/C, M€f»>* 

add group 



Kaijeis^ThinkOeek. CPAN. Codase. iTPapeis.com. RFC 
Seartn. Web Search, javadocs, develop erwcirks 

ado #raup 

Pu bM eel, CP3C Recall, MefJLibrcity.org 
add group 



d 




There is a great deal of customization available at A9. By selecting "edit groups" you 
will be given the choice of nearly 500 sources either to add to the default search 
groups or, more likely, to create your own custom group and add sources to it. For 
example, you can easily create a Blog Search custom group to appear on the A9 

homepage or you can edit the basic groups, adding and subtracting sources. 

Another change at A9 that has not received the attention it deserves is the addition 
of "Web Booster" results. Web Booster is the Convera Excalibur web search 
service, which Clusty , Highbeam, and Govmine also use: "Web Booster makes 
standard search better by digging down into all the results pages you don't have 
time to read and pulling up information that you would otherwise miss. It is kind of 
like having a search helper who goes and gets information that might be of interest." 
In other word's Web Booster is a "deep web" resource, and it is a default search 
option on A9's quick start menu. A9 also retains what I think is one of its best 
features, i.e., results by column. Results from each of the search resources you 
choose to search appear in separate columns that are easily resizable. No other 
search service offers anything quite like this. 



UNCLASSIFIED //rOn ornc i AL U0C O N LY 



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A9 



In:1|j = piijfrleiKr;* 



,-Jyr>+rT|^ 



search 



search groups: 

quick stall 

web by thw.com 
S? book* by dtnozoti 
SB tefeteneeby 

an&wer&.<oni 
fij new* try Ihex am 

AH Aniizo^tom 
$? Wtb Boosts 
Blag $eu th 

«n>tc -i'micri... 

«Mietl«ti*imni1 
fffM^hCf- 

V|lli«lMlt.*Mli 

oti-i'i*-; 
BMrj^.w. li 

.vWiemrA* <£(».« di 



FlrrfiriwriTriiffi^ i'lrinrMTrrifiiTi 



yb rsstf: 



1 The (ran 



m*4 Tnro>>r: 

rtlfifctf Preside 

^~" j Ahmadi 






em 
inejad 

and the 

Coming 

Nuclear 

Crisis 

ay *!(=«» 

fe*jlrtv? 

2 The 
Nuclear 
Sphinx of 
Telmn: 
Mjhfnoud 
Alimodlnejsd 
and the 
State of Iron 

by 7\>',ii VfcrrtoH 
Frl:t«wv, .^07 j - 



IP" 

KLlMflttt! 



3 2006 Irar 

Nuclear Tl 

Tffl&lf C-Jovernme 

'i!S and Milliar 
331 Document 



/VnjSwervtrjrn 



Avaifab-ef'oni 
Ms-wets oin 

♦ Personalities 

♦ Encyclopedia 

♦ Wkipedia 

ijlh.-vi matching :c pics- 



of 






• Ajadan. Iran 

• List of mayor i 
Tehran 

• Kazem Vazirl 
Humane 

• Mohammad-All 
Ramtn 

• Mohammad 
Saeedl 

• Controversies 
surrounding 
Mahmoud 
Ahmadinejad 

• Bizhan 
Mamdar-Zangenah 

• Manouchehr 
Mottakl 

• Safdar Hosseini 



d 



■'>■■ f^ Windows Uve 

'Cl./tbresurtf 

1 Ir^tn Open* 
Nuclear Sites to 
Foreign Tourists 

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■-cuirry; (ii(>e«(irrt-:^.ii 
atojjftm r-et-tts on p9«o5M, 

2 Rke FIthes For 
Arab Allies Against 
Iran 

.■•Wvroy.1 AttmjMto«jj(l 

UTKfl ?iy Ell 3*?3 ^W te 

•eiiceni a/wend Wc 
R3jCI;« (.njg-^r . tfitf 
s vrw r '.cc*t s^ h; w(iW 

Ahm.xlHV*l-Hi iwrrtxl 

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nucleai consortium 
decision has still to 
be made 

I he £©€l'Ciflv. , r. ^od Intf 

Ahnwdtncl-wl nil rrj-i-^ ilr 
■s-iue ran ye* s! ihe U">Jed 



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Web Booster 
ahmadinejad 
7 result* 



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Ahn*Afiin<?)-Ml -* *1>.witjn 



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Expand Sertlcli: It jiiiJir 
[H^Jikijr 

4 Cofirroversy 
N«':li»^t Dispute v/ith 
(i.in: Meik*l Ptislies 
Kiubi.m iiii*lojMJlit Kelt? 
■ liifoiiioiioniil... 

IlllHU.lfkllAl fiiLi^i 



5 Bloc|fjpl>y 

$CG 1 iMwridtiiHirtl fiKfc 

6 Poll P.eiutis 



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A9's web and Web Booster results also include something called "Site Info." Simply 
moving the mouse over the "Site Info" box brings up this Alexa feature that shows 
various types of information Alexa has collected about the site. 



A9 



l»efi> 1 |>ielej«nc*s 



search > 



search groups: 

?.?3tth 3ouices byiopK. 
i oulck sian 

web by Jiv*.cr>ni 
i booke by jmaion 



^^MMii^mmmmmm 



^^H^M^ 



'■ reference by 
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i news hy live.totn 

i wlkipcdra 

! ADAntazon.com 

! Web Boo tier 
,,..' Blog S«afth 

; People 
_j Companies 

IIIO) C JOU1CC5... 

cmeii.iiiintotii 

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on the wflb... 



po^.«ersc b^ 



2.629779 results 

1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

CDC offers lips tor travetefs" heaah. Ireining and employment • esources. news updates, and reports on the sp.-ead of dangerous diseases. 



f?Windi 



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2 Travei 



'Wi I CDC 



US - Centers foi Disease Coirlrol antl 
Pieveniion (CUC) 

ede gov 

About this site: 
. Trirr.cfiji*;Z.4T3 

• Silts lh*t LJ<*h«i»: J*,?/? 

• Onhni> Sinw:2?.AgB9l 

People who visit this page also visit: 

• ftK,'J arid Ch-vxj ftfji'iifiidralltii Eusy-j 



s outbreek alerts, reference material, destination updates, cruise sh'p frispecflon scores, recommended 



& Re?pon$e Site 

, lab Information, emergencv preparedness tor business, preparation and planning, and surveflance. 



>rism Updates 

kI by the Centers tor Disease Control and ... Department ot Hearth and Humeri Services. Centers tor Disease 



cal administration o* «S District, irellatinB, pianrmrj and managing community programmes. Wormatlon about Is 



6 CDC WONDER 

COC WONOER is a system tor diserrerKitrtg PuWrc Health data end mormelion, 

ettects atter vaccination by . 

Mtp:/Arvonder ede gov/- C^cheil- s««fc>ie 



, New Data* Vaccine Adverse Event Reports Released . Reports of adverse 



242 



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In early 2006, two great resources came together. A9 added people search using 
the excellent Zoomlnfo search tool. Zoomlnfo (formerly , Eliyon) is a "web 
summarization" site that contains over 26 million summaries of people on the web. 
According to its FAQ, "Zoomlnfo automatically and continuously grows its base of 
Web Summaries from corporate and personal websites, government filings, press 
releases and other public sources. All information found by Zoomlnfo and used to 
create your Web Summary comes from public sources and can be found by anyone 
by using most major search engines like Yahoo and Google." 93 What Zoomlnfo does 
for the user is to summarize that data and present it in easy to handle small 
packages. Basically, Zoomlnfo does some of the "leg work" for you. 

Zoomlnfo is not one of the default settings on the A9 homepage, so you will need to 
add it by selecting "add a search group," "Edit groups," search for Zoomlnfo, and 
add the Zoomlnfo People and/or Company search to your A9 homepage. Here are 
the results for an A9 people and book search on Brewster Kahle of the Internet 
Archive fame: 



A9 



help i fWeiencaa 



search groups: 



search siiurres hy torjlr 

O wel> by ltve.com 

P) books l>y Amazon 

[J reference by 
answer spoilt 

O newcliyllvft.com 

fj wikipedta 

i.J AIIAninzon.com 

Q Web Boostei 

{_'} Bloij Sew ch 

@ People 

f ) Companies 

moie ftouicee.., 

einenaiiiiiient 

■iiit.izoit.com 
imbues 
BloySe.nch 
onlho wott... 

•iiMietnpve Sft.nch 
<|imi|)$... 



■j 



biewster kahle 



soarch > 



>0;5ejrt+i fpr F*oplB-fiiifli'fflfa'ti« ■' 



Zoomlnfo Person Search for brewster kahle 

5 results 

1 Brewer Kahle -at Internet Archive organization 

said Kahle, slonctng oA the podium Inside ttie Coition Gate Cl«l>. - Founder of the Internet Ai chive, Kahle Is an ebuHent... (mcne) 



;'5*e'lnK0 

2 Brewster Kahle « The IESG 

3. It Is w»h regret thst I report that Bernhard Stockman has resigned as Co-Director of the 0poi4tion.il Require me rvt3 Aie.i of the IESG,... (more) 

rti«;iftir; 

3 Brewster Kahle at European Union 

Bie*stei Kjhle Joint Reoeaich Commission, Euiop«4ii Union 

I 4 Brewster Kahie at Joint Research Commission , European Union 

I Bi«w9lei K.ihte Joiiit Reqejicli Commission , European Union - 

^SitjE'frito") 

! 5 Brewster Kahle at Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Nappines 

! Biewctoi Kahle 

; C.S»*.lnfD 



Now, when I click on the first hit under people summaries, I get a rather impressive 
dossier on Kahle. I can't show you nearly all of what is on this page — this is just the 
top part of an extensive entry that you will note was "automatically generated using 
234 references found on the Internet." 



93 



FAQ, Zoomlnfo, < http://www.zQominfo.eom/# > (14 November 2006). 



UNCLASSIFIEDr VrOR OmCIAL UOL O N LY 



243 



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j i.-t ,jh | Cen^&nv 



f ihd Per&on: f 



f m i 






FSntl 



Be fcund 



^ewerSearth 



About Us 




Mr. Brewster Kahle This is me 

Board Member 

Electronic Frontier Foundation 



! ftfWtoC&ttteagpoaj < ■' *to*Wa#**dtefc4i 






fcmpfoyment History 



Founder 

internet Archve - S<n rr&i«eo, Ceiiforit' 

Founder 

Alt'>.« lr+enjft 



£$ Print View. 



Board M»rtf)a 

Etedciorr:: rr enter f CJPsdcCiori 

C'rtpf^iam 

Ctwitabas Oiganfcabortt ?. 

Founsabore 

Pfjundisi 

internet Ancfcve 

(Media Si Internet 

S«a?dh £rt£.nt^ ^. Interred Portals 

Ale^a internet 

H=oi matior* Colteccion & kdivei y 

Show A(l 



Founder 



Colleagues & A<r30cfat&&- 

v- = Vended <$ = Mot V=n?ied 



Zoomlnfo also searches for "companies," but keep in mind that they index more 
than just companies or businesses — you will find all sorts of organizations, 
associations, academies, etc., in their database. 



^%@oi!ininfo 



w 



I'vwj! ! L**H*P*.v KclDcti-.f.iiv 



C>r.i?„Ay | 



L*^J 



Frnd 



8e Found 



Powers «ueh 



About Us 



"Tsssa 



Alcatel SA 

NYSE: ALA 

26501 W. Agoura Rd. 
Calabasas, CA 91301 

USA 

Phone: (818)707-1220 

Fax: (918) 707-6298 

Website: wwi.alca'.'d.com 

Industry: r^lanuFactufmc;, Telecommunication Equipment 
Revenues: $15.1 BiPJon 
Employees: 263516 



Th« summary was automat icafly generated using *?foimatlon found on the 
Internet, Vfe/j selected web r?ferenw 



Company Description 



Akar.e! provide* communscabons solutions to telecommunication carriers, Internet 
service providers and enterprises for delivery of voice, data and video applications I 
their customers or employees. Alcatel brings its leadnrj posrtion m fixed and mobile 
broadband networks, applications and services, to help its partners and customers 
bjid a user -centric broadband world. With sales of EURO 13. 1 twhon and 58,000 
employees in 2005, Alcatel operates in more than 130 countries. 



BeFound Pro Feature* 



Srww el tfi'rAvH's at Alcdttl SA 
Shew cwnpslitors cc Akste! SA 



si 



.«ng** J 



White Paper* 



7>j\V.erjy VVhSe Paper: Convercjent 
Transport Networks 

Strattflj Writs Papii : Seyorwi 
Kgh-Speed InteriK ■ tJuilritrig 
Mufci-Servico Broadband 

Met/o Ethernet-. cjij-siity or Services: 
Teetwtegy Wr-ifte P-sctr 



BNET 



Summary loots 



244 



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You can also go directly to Zoomlnfo to search companies and/or people. 

Zoomlnfo http://www.zoominfo.com/ 

Other features and facts about A9 you should know: 

> "A9 Lite ( Iite.a9.com ) is a version of A9.com that has been designed to work 
on older web browsers as well as many mobile devices. A9 Lite does not 
require JavaScript, so if JavaScript on your browser is turned off, or if you 
have an older browser, you will automatically be sent to A9 Lite. A9 Lite 
provides limited functionality, and does not have search groups, continuous 
scrolling, or the ability to add additional search sources." 94 

> advanced Live search options are available, and Live's special web syntax 
appears to work. 

> continuous scroll eliminates need to click to see more results. 

> cached option is available. 

> no "similar pages" or "more results from..." options. 

Clearly, Amazon is ambivalent about A9 and its future, but given Amazon's 
extraordinary accomplishments and the company's innovative approach to providing 
information (and selling stuff), I hope A9 will not merely survive but thrive. 



A9 
A9 Lite 



http://a9.com/ 
http://lite.a9.com/ 



Book Search 



Google, Amazon/A9, Microsoft's Live Book Search, and Project Gutenberg 
< http://www.qutenberg.org/ > provide an invaluable service for researchers that is not 
duplicated by any other type of search. This new approach to search is nothing short 
of a revolution in the way we are able to discover, access, and use information. Book 
search results are frequently better in terms of authoritativeness, utility, and 
thoroughness. However, I have found that the overlap among the three book search 
services appears to be even less than the overlap among web searches. 



94 



A9 Help, < http://a9.eom/-/company/help.isp#lite > (10 October 2006). 



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If you are serious about in-depth research, you must use book search sites. The fact 
is, the information avaitabie through book search is for the most part entirely 
different from that provided by web search. I urge you to use this deep web 
source, which Newsweek correctly described as "a lightning bolt from the future." 95 



Amazon's "Search Inside the Book" 

A9 (select "books by Amazon") http://www.a9.com/ 

Amazon (search "Books") http://www.amazon.com/ 

Despite its many options, the main reason for using A9 is Amazon's Search Inside 
the Book feature, a major and unique tool for researching the invisible web. Until I 
started using it, I did not realize how important and valuable this feature is for 
researchers. Search Inside the Book lets users search through millions of pages 
from hundreds of thousands of books in the Amazon catalog. Unlike most book 
searches, most of the searchable books at Amazon are still under copyright. To 
avoid copyright infringement problems, users can only access content of books for 
which Amazon has the publisher's permission to display copyrighted material. Also, 
while anyone can search inside the available books, only registered Amazon users 
can see the full text. 

However, if you are able to register to use Amazon's service, Amazon's Search 
Inside the Book results are often better than web searches in terms of 
authoritativeness, utility, and thoroughness. Furthermore, Amazon's Search Inside 
the Book often lets users view the full content of books for which Google's 
and Live's book searches only provide limited views. 

Search Inside the Book is an option to search full text and full image content, but 
only as permitted by the publisher. This means that given two different editions of 
the same book — in this example, Pride and Prejudice — one is fully searchable while 
the other is not. How do you determine which books allow you to search their 
contents? Look for the "Search Inside" logo with any book at Amazon, if it is 
there, you can search the contents of the book (including front and back covers, 
table of contents, index, and text). Only keyword searching works (no phrases, for 
example) and ALL terms are searched. Here is an example of a search for [pride 
prejudice] in Austen's classic: 



95 Steven Levy, "Welcome to History 2.0," Newsweek, 10 November 2003, 
< http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3339649 > (14 November 2006). 



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Am^on Online Reader > v '** - Pa a* 



(p.cftflMtn Cf^jiicja 

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If Elizabeth, when Mr. Darcv gave her the letter, did not expect 
ir to contain a renewal of his offers* she had formed no expec- 
tation at ail of its contents. But such as thev were, it may be well 
stioposed how eaitcHv she wem through them, and what a 
contrariety of emotion thev excited. Her fee Lines as she read 
were scarcely to be defined. With amazement did she first under- 
stand that he believed any anoloev to be in his power; and 
stedfastlv was she persuaded that he could have no explanation 
to snve. which a just sense of shame would not conceal. With a 
strong prejudice aeainst every thine he micht say, she began his 






J 21 



Notice you can view the pages continuously, view just the image of the page, and 
zoom in or out. What you cannot do, unless you buy an upgrade, is print the book (or 
any part of it), add bookmarks, highlight passages, or copy portions. The conditions 
for upgrading your search inside the book options require that you purchase or have 
purchased from Amazon.com in the past the specific book you wish to search. At 
present, upgrades are only available to US customers. 

Here are a couple of important things to remember about Amazon's Search Inside 
the Book: you can actually search the entire Amazon book database or even the 
entire Amazon product line from any search inside the book query screen. The 
dropdown search menu includes options to search all Amazon books or products. 



Search [inside this Book 

Amazon .corn Books 
!■"■*■■< All Products 
w The Web (A9.com) 

Furthermore, the A9 search engine will also search inside all books in the Amazon 
database and does so more efficiently. From my experience, I can tell you that 
Amazon may claim it cannot find any results that match your search; however, 
selecting "Click here to see additional results that may be relevant to your search" 
brings up the same results you would get from an A9 search for the same term, so 



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always check those additional results just in case (or use A9 in the first place). As of 
now A9 remains the most efficient way to search inside the books at Amazon if you 
want to search across the Amazon database and not within a specific book. Look for 
the "See more references to [keyword] in this book" in the A9 book search. 



The easiest way to understand the A9 search is to try it. Here are the results for the 
query [elliptic curve cryptography] limited to books by Amazon. 



AQ 



search groups: 

se3n,hs'.'urf.ciilJVlr.it»i(,. 
.quick Stan 

...; wehl>y live.com 
@ boohs by amnion 
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1 ,474 results 



1 Advance? in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (London Mathematical Society Lecture Note 
Series) 

by Ian F Bioko. Gsdiel Seroussi. and Nigoi P. Smart (31 May. !005) - CambrWgo Unlversrty Press 



m 



2 Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Springer Professional Computing) 

by Darrel Hanfcerson, Alfred J. Meneies. and Scott Venstone - Springer 



' 3 Implementing Elliptic Curve Cryptography 

|P| by Michael Rosing (01 January, 1998) - Manning Publications 



4 Elliptic and Hyperetliptic Curve Cryptography. Theory and Practice 

by Henri Cohen. Gerhard Frev , Roberto Avaozi. Christophe Doche, Tsnja Lange, Kim Nguyen, and Frederfc Vercauteren (19 July, 
2005) ■ Chapman & Hal/CRC 



ui S EHjptic Curves jDiseretei^othemat i cs and It5 Application ^}[ 
F"^ by Lawrence C.Washington (28 May. 2003) - Chapman R H*IJCRC 



H 

mm 



$ Elliptic Curve Public Key Cryptosystems [The International Series in Engineering and 
Computer Science} 

by Alfred J. Menezes - Springer 

I>.>ne1 . " ..and then proceed to ntroduce elliptic ciiivecryptosystems. 1.1 Private Key Cryptoyrapliy The fundamental 
goal of cryptogupliy has ristoricafly been to achieve ... " 

See mote i efei enccc to ellipitic cm ve ciyptogi jplty in this book. 



zl 



On the right are results from a search across the vast Amazon database. If you click 
on a link to one of the books, that book's entry at Amazon appears, along with a new 
Search Inside the Book option. From here, you have to enter the search terms again 
(an extra step A9/Amazon would do well to eliminate). Here are the results for the 
query [fermat's last theorem] in this specific book: 



248 



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AmazonOntineRearier vieWT Pd o e P of448 



mate 

Applications) ; 

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Tabic of Contents 

Copyright 

Excerpt 

Index 

Back Cover 

Surprise Me 1 



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1-10 of 73 pages with references to fermat's last theorem: 

Return re book 

1> .g.!__Pa_tta...?.: 

"... This equation represents the easiest case of Fermat's Lost Theorem, which asserts 
that the sum of two nonzero nth powers of integers cannot he a nonzero pith power 
when n ..." 

2. .giL.Psyas._3fi: 

"... Arabs in the 900s and represents a special case of Fermat's Last Theorem, which 
asserts that the sure of two nonzero nth powers of integers cannot be a nonzero nth 
power when n ..." 

3' Qn_Pa_ne_;d8: 

"... deduce from this that the only integer solutions to a4 + b4 - c'2 satisfy ab - 0. This 
yields Fermaf s Last Theorem for exponent 4. We will discuss this in more detail in 
Chapter 8. ..." 

4. g,ii Page Vij: 

"... Therefore #E(Fq,,) - qn + 1 - s. - 1 - a" (mod p). By Fermat's little theorem, ap-r ■ 1 
(mod p). Therefore, E(Fgv-l) has order divisible by p, hence contains a point of order p. ..." 

5. on Page 371 : 

■'... Chapter 13 Fermat's Last Theorem 13,1 Overview Around 1637, Fermat wrote in the 
margin of his copy of Diophantus's work that, when n > 3, ..." 

6. on P3Q6 37 2: 

"... 372 CHAPTER 13 FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM exponents. Refinements of Kummer's 
ideas by Vandiver and others, plus the advent of computers, yielded extensions of 
Kummer's results to ..." 

7. on Pa_35_3_Z__: 

"... 374 CHAPTER 13 FERMAT'S LAST THEOREM numbers ar, under control, Frey predicted 
the following, which Ribet proved in 1986; THEOREM 13. ..." 

8. on Page 376 : 



As you can see, each of the 23 pages with references to Fermat's Last Theorem in 
this book appear in order. From here, you can select a specific page and view it, but 
only if you are a registered Amazon user. 



UNCLASSiFiED //ron ornc i AL use only 



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Amazon OnlineReader v,ew * pag^F ^""a 




Return 10 Amai<?n.ccfn 






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i )'.i-ti'-! l <i- n ?}"!>iri fJlt |>p.'.vi ; w.|[c[t .'; ■ i. I in fir-! mmil ui I li' i .im' :: II 
w.,i- pso'ui.h i|ii-- (<• t- itn.it \\, II lii-i 11^-. -*ihd- c.( ilr nli-iv> {■» lie pMu.f iti 
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Registered Amazon users can view the full text, although Amazon prohibits 
downloading or printing 96 of these pages for copyright reasons. 

Until recently, no one really came close to Amazon's book search option, but Google 
and Live Search are making great strides with their respective book searches. 



Google Book Search 



http://books.google.com/ 



The shift during 2005 from the old Google Print, which was designed to "provide 
links to some popular book sellers that may offer the full versions of these 
publications for sale," to Google Book Search transformed this service into a 
genuine competitor of Amazon's Search Inside the Book . 

As a further sign of Google's commitment to digitizing print materials and making 
them searchable, Google added a distinct Google Book Search homepage during 
2005. Unlike Google's web search, Google Book Search only searches an index of 



96 



There is an inelegant work-around to enable printing of pages inside books at Amazon; put your 
browser into full screen and select "Print Screen"; then paste the image into either Word or 
PowerPoint and print from there. 



250 



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books either from its publishers' collection or its library collection. It's important to 
understand the enormous significance of this search: Google Book Search searches 
the content of thousands of books. Here's what Google says about its service: 

"When we find a book whose content contains a match for your search terms, 
we'll link to it in your search results. Click a book title and you'll see the 
Snippet View which, like a card catalog, shows information about the book 
plus a few snippets - a few sentences of your search term in context. You 
may also see the Sample Pages View if the publisher or author has given us 
permission or the Full Book View if the book is out of copyright. In all cases, 
you'll also see 'Buy this Book' links that lead directly to online bookstores 
where you can buy the book." 97 

Each book indexed by Google includes an "About this book" page with basic 
bibliographic data like title, author, publication date, length and subject. There are 
three types of "views" for scanned books: 

5. Full view : only for books that Google has publisher permission for or are in the 
public domain (out of copyright). If the book is in the public domain, users can 
download, save, and print a PDF version of the book. 

6. Limited preview : books from Google's Partner Program permit users to view a 
few full pages. Even in limited preview users can run multiple searches within the 
book or browse the available pages. 



Web Images Video Mews Maps 
akaat ex 
BooK Search S_7 n.u Search: G All books C Full view books 



Web Images Video 
( -iOOQI^ ^[barakaat exchange" 



Desktop moie >> 
rSeafChiBooks 



Advanced Bool' Sejich 
Google Book Seatch Help 



Book Search 



Books 




Funding Evil: How Terrorism is Financed - And How to Stop It - Page 48 
by Rachel Ehrenfeld - 2005 - 296 pages 

... continued to maintain their association with his family and with him.79 Al-Barakaat 
Exchange The al-Barakaat Bank, headquartered in Dubai (which was one ... 
Limited preview - Tabte of Co men' *; - AbouJjhj?__bo_oil 



7. Snippet view : users can view the "About this book" page and search within the 
book. Search results will show a maximum of three snippets of text from the book 
with the query term highlighted. 

8. No preview available : users will only see an "About this book" page with 
bibliographic information about the book and links to bookstores or libraries 
where the book may be available. 



97 About Google Book Search, < http://print.qooqle.com/qooqleprint/about.html > (14 November 2006). 



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Even a limited preview can provide very useful information. As you can see, the 
query terms are highlighted in the text and there is a search box that permits 
additional searches inside the specific book. Furthermore, you can view the book's 
table of contents and index, read a summary, and find out more about the book. 



Couple Book Search |oJ berokaet exchange Search Books [ 

Funding Evil: How Terrorism Is Financed - And How to Stop It a, f^h* cwoieH 



I he blmiiiM l'Uij;\if ; AJ-Qaeda -VJ 

the Tnlidun, along whh &iudi Arabia and Pakistan}, wa*> uctivdy in- 
volved in ihfi funding of terrorism. It was fnundird in l<IH»} hy a So- 
m;ili finrtiKif r and close friend of Osama bin 1 aden. Ahmed .N'ur 
jirnjilf. w " i Jimule lia<) become familiar wiih die American hanking sys- 
inn while wnrkiim hot wren iy7il unJ 11)86 nl die Suiuli American 
Bank, founded in le.ddah by CIHbnnk. 

Al- byrakaat Nonh America was headquartered in t kuchesier. Mass- 
achnseii.v with hrandtes in Minnesota, Ohio, and Washington Srate. 
Al-Ha/nkanis ctcs in ilic U.S. extended 10 the HoyaJ Bunk of Scotland; 
PLC a- Ciuzcns Hank Unh: IP Morgan Chase ant) Company"'; Oiase 
Manhattan; key Corps Key Hank Unii: t irsi Data Girp's Wevicrn Union: 
and Ciiij-iwup'i Citibank and SunTrust Rank. In addition. al-Bankaat 
worked wild rlu- Anirric-jin hninch i>f al-Barakn Exchange, which Ji- 
nancetl yci another nl-Qaeda-aihllaird hnMiioss. nl-Haramain Trading, 
in E-jQ-pi and Chechnya. Al-Banikaui. tciycihct wuh sull anodter hank, 
uf-laqwn, raised. managed, invested. ;ind distributed funds for al- 
Qaeda: provided lernin\t.s uith Internet sorviecv secured telephone 
comniiuijcntioav and arranged fur shipments of wraponv* 1 

■VI-lfciraLui jImj used die htuvaUt services of another I Jukti hank, 
ihc al-ltaraka I'srhanpe. to i ran -die r close 10 SI million to the Sepinu- 
bcr )i hijackers"- through Western Union l : in;mcial Serviec.*, iWpsi- 
cm Untun was fined SB million hy New York hank regulators in 2002 
On viuitiuiiK tepurtin}; requirements, enabling money laundering, 
and lermriM JinaiH , iii)>.} n - 1 



Sign in 



<► Full screen 



Summary 




By terrorism expert Rachel 
Ehrenfeld, uncovers the 
clandestine and sinister ways that 
Islamic terrorist groups finance 
their global network. Terrorist have 
grown increasingly savvy m ways 
to bolster their financial power.... 
More about this book 



Q Content? 

Table of Contents 
Title Page 
Index 
Copyright 



279 



B Buy this book 

Bonus Books. Inc. ■ Publish?: 
Amazon.com 
BamesSjMoble.com 
BookSense.com 

Frooqle 

Find this book in a library 

9 Search in rhis book 
Go I 



Google Book Search offers a number of advanced search options either using the 
advanced search page or special syntax: 

> inpublisher: Publishers such as W. W. Norton need only be searched as 
inpublishennorton. 

Example of how to use the inpublisher: command : [inpublishero-reilly] 

> inauthor: Unless the author is Shakespeare or Chaucer, a full name search 
is advisable. 

Example of how to use the inauthor: command : [inauthor:patrick-o-brian] 

> intitle: Multiple word titles are best searched for as phrases, i.e., in double 
quotes. 

Example of how to use the intitle: command : 
[intitle:"nutmeg of consolation"] 

> isbn: Very useful for finding a specific edition of a book because the 
International Standard Book Number uniquely identifies each edition, 



252 



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variation, or format. 

Example of how to use the isbn: command : [isbn:0393030326] 

All of these special search operators — with the exception of ISBN, which identifies a 
unique entry — can be used in combination or alone. For example, the query 
[inpublishennorton] returns almost 61,000 pages from books published by W. W. 
Norton. I can add to this query a keyword for a title, e.g., [inpublisher:o-reilly 
intitle:programming] to see how many books O'Reilly publishes with programming in 
the title. Or I can look for keywords occurring anywhere in a specific publisher's 
books: [inpublisher:o-reilly "network security"]. 

To find public domain books that can be viewed using Google Books' Viewer and 
downloaded as PDFs, first restrict the search to "full view books" because all public 
domain books can be downloaded. However, the converse is not true: all full view 
books are not downloadable. How can you tell if a book can be downloaded? As of 
now, the only way to do so is to select the book and see if the Download PDF 
option appears, as it does here: 



^ic Book Srofch lauihorvififteheadinhilQ mathematics Search Books 

Introduction to Mathematics .. ~ >.i ;, j ...>.. ~i 

KgJ D CD _ 

jlV.opdoes| 



t 



AN INTRODUCTION TO 
MATHEMATICS 

CHAPTER I 

TUB AD3THACT NATURE OF MATHEMATICS 

The study of mathematics is apt to com- 
mence in disappointment. The important 
applications of the science, the theoretical 
interest of its idena, and the logical rigour of 
its methods, nil generate the expectation of 
m spced.v introduction to processes of interest. 
We are* told that by its aid the stars are 
weighed and the billions of molecules in a 
drop of water are counted. Yet, like the 
fchost of Hamlet's father, this great science 
eludes the efforts of our mental weapons 
lo grasp il — "'Tia here, 'tis there, 'tis 
Uf>no" — (*nH whrit wp <\n srn does not sui?L r est 



<*Page| 7 |>> 



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J 



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UNCLASSIFIED Z/rOR OmC I AL UOC ONLY 



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Please note that you can also search inside the book from this page. Google Book 
Viewer includes a zoom option and the option to view one or two pages at a time, 
making the page-to-page scroll much smoother. I cannot recommend Google's 
"About This Book" option highly enough: it provides the book's publication 
information, a summary, links to find the book in a library or to buy it, the table of 
contents, selected pages, related books or references from the book, and key terms. 



L,o ^lo P'.r<kV.iTh fiie-i Snatch Books | 

Iran: time for a new approach; Report of an independent task force 



Summary 



jwu*nH8 



By Zbignrew K 

Published X04 
Council on Foreign 
Rations 

Politics / Cuireit Event* 

84 pages 

!S3MCe?G093i54 



R«#ttt»StKH)K 

Contents 

Eyec.JtJveSunrnary 
■ Oft'iAn, le^Ton, ru'>Q* 

flonprolifefwl'tr.. fuel, pcfs'fi^ri 

adttSfcl. goldfold, itl^r; 
T f'8. -ft mi Oo^p'vo-^ 

gunge) , utws*. ttippei 
tfft-ggrft f^[t> li Sfitut f irtS * r I Prtyif. d A-'.lpr* 



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rvodutlton I Ver'y Sofcolsk* 1 Checking lisr's Mutleai AmV.'iaftS' 

fttpoit Recomrrtiidalion? NPsrC Projecl e,n kan I Iran* "Legal' 



d 



You will discover when you start looking at a PDF version of a book that these 
volumes were scanned by hand. You may even see images of people's hands as 
they place the books on the scanner, so don't be surprised if you see strange 
images. At this time, there are some problems with the downloaded files: "The PDF 
download seems to be have problems, as all the downloads stop at 1.3 MB, even 
though the files are much larger, but the bugs should be fixed." 98 



98 lonut Alex. Chitu, "Download Public Domain Books from Google," Google Operating System BJog, 
30 August 2006, < http://qooqlesvstem.blogspot.com/2006/08/download-public-domain-bookS" 
from.html > (12 September 2006). 



254 



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While there is no option to limit your search by language, you can also search 
Google Books in languages other than English simply by entering a query in another 
language, e.g., ["quedo el moro"] returns only books written in Spanish. However, 
many public domain books in other languages have not been scanned because the 
Google Book project thus far has focused mainly on US libraries. There are many 
Spanish, French, German books scanned into Google Books, for example, but very 
few in Arabic. 

At the same time many US publishers were fighting Google Book Search, several 
European nations complained that Google was not offering to add non-English 
language materials to the database. In September 2005, Google opened Google 
Book Search to European publishers and added a number of new discrete 
webpages for Google Book Search in several non-English speaking countries. They 
are: 

• Austria 

• Belgium 

• France 

• Germany 

• The Netherlands/Holland 

• Italy 

• Switzerland 

• Spain 

• Brazil 



A number of European publishers expressed interest in participating in the 
digitization project, but of course similar copyright concerns raised by US publishers 
will have to be addressed for European and, eventually, other non-US publishers. " 

Even though users may use a specific country interface, they will probably see 
results from other countries' indices. Thus far, the European publishers that have 
signed pacts with Google are Grupo Planeta and Grupo Anaya of Spain, De Boeck 
and Editions De L'Eclat of France and Springer Science & Business Media of 
Holland. Interestingly, all this comes at a time when Google is embroiled in a lawsuit 
brought by the US book industry over alleged copyright violations. Google is trying to 
avoid a similar fight in Europe by limiting its book scanning to books that are either 
pre-1900 or in the public domain or from publishers with whom Google has signed 
agreements. 



99 Michael Liedtke, "Google Opens Digital Library to European Book Publishers," The Detroit News, 2 
September 2005, < http://www.detnews.com/2005/technoloav/0509/05/0tech-300866.htm > (14 
November 2006). 



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During 2006 Google also added a Library Catalog Search feature to Google Book 
Search. This feature will help searchers find books in libraries around the world. 
According to the Google Blog, "Queries on Google Book Search will automatically 
include results from library catalogs when appropriate. Each result includes a 'Find 
Libraries' link to help readers find libraries that hold the book — ideally a library 
nearby, or if need be, a library far away... we have worked with more than 15 library 
union catalogs that have information about libraries from more than 30 countries, as 
well as with our colleagues working on Google Scholar (which includes a similar 
feature just for scholarly books)." 100 



Google Books advanced search has an option to limit a search to library catalogs, so 
if you know the book and want to see where it is available, this search makes it easy 
to find a library. Keep in mind that at present Google Books and WorldCat are 
searching a limited number of libraries and catalogs. 



Goode 



Find usitltt 



Search: 



Advanced Book Search 

wiih .til of 1fre wcrds 
with IhE exact pluase 
wrh at l«asr <»nt of ih« wjrts 
wltfiotil ll>e winds 



Afaovfl GDt&ifc 



|AiK)rfc Be* 



1 1 90 .-e^te. ^j Google Search 



r All b<i>5 r Full view ij-jgVs (^ Libiai'/ Mtalogr 




Use Google Books Advanced Search to limit query to library catalogs 



Web |fTi.dy£i V'd&o 



tJ<>0KS^artt)O c a -,.^k C Ait ! 



Search Books 






Search r All book? ^ Lib*ar/ catalogs 



Library Catalog Search 

Advances m databases antf information systems 

b-> A?j.h, ^ U.-mvui ■ .. , .U J . • ■! ■ .(.'. - 

Database management, information lechnologf, Dalabsses (Databases), 

Inforrnaijori sysiern; {Inforfnatirjn sy^ietns). ADBIS (ADBIS) 

Advances m databases, and mf ormation systems. 81 h East European conference, ADBIS 2004. Budapest 

li» A*><M.i<. R.-iK-'iii - ; i ; n ■ __,[ _- ^__- . 

Uj algonimusok 

AtgoriimusoK Algonlhms., AJyonlmui. Algonimus — aszk&. 
Algor»i i»us« Smeioi— oszUr 

Catching up wtfi European Higher Education Fund {CEP} 

(■'> AihIm 1 . Hrtn.:tn. -ifj- •-' I titr. ■" ^--i "irt ■■■ f> nt ,:.:•••,, i" r+. . y- L . ,,,, . ,-. ^,^ ■., ■, 
Fel^DD^tmas — E*j*op^, FelsooWtatiH — Mag-yaimszfeg; 
GflucnUon, Higher— truiope , Education. High?! — Hunrjarv 



Boo&a 1 - 18 of 18 on Amli.is Efenczur . (0.00 s« 



Ancftjs 

VVt'iai ev&i you're looking lor 

you can get rt on eBay. 

>AW cL'SY LJC 

Rretrel Shi ps. fre e 10% Ofj 
Official Relator Of Rie del 
ijn-STock. Free Same Day Shiprjt 



100 



Bruno Fonseca, "Finding the wealth in your library (and everyone else's)," Google Blog, 24 August 
24 2006, < http://qooqlebloq.bloqspot.com/2006/Q8/findinq-wealth-in-vour-library-and.html > (12 
September 2006). 



256 



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The other way to use the library search options is to click on the link for a book title 
and look for the "Find this book in a library" link. At this point, you enter a geographic 
location and the WorldCat search will try to locate the book as close to you as 
possible. In some cases, you may even be able to click through and reserve a book 
at a local library. 



Find in a Library ^j^wwwcar 



¥«4itft lm rttrrm «i I 



j&'Wfteirl Hs*> 



Romancero del Cid : anadida y reformada sobre la$ antiguas que contiene 
doscientos y cinco romances 

b V Carolina Michaeti* de Vaseoncellos 



Po-"ir^l iPurtnjj-t. 



SiII'i^ck: <• i '^ 


-,'/: inij)'' tPT' !■' C. 


























(.iln.-Mksa 


J r^ti. e 


• m*-v 




F^ltnns 




R«*vif'»v- 


! 




CVipaVnctfl'stl* 


;j 1 -Ij-101 4 


Eittei LvK.ll 


01 


ttiffoiiit.itioii: 

fz-.-.cr:*,'.. 


w- 


Ul< 


~'.X 


' r.o j 


^1 

!■- 

Ulkiltif Kingdom 






il<>r.tjgnf»% y< into 



| Jir-ri i.« a L&i irry anytime 



! Cambridge University -amiiwigp, Cfl i aOP jrai»n HngMm 

S«mi*cs: i tt-i:- rt.--r 'ii-n 
!' Gtasgow Univef sity Library OU^ow. J 2 80= JiHted ^jr«gjuir, 
^ R.'.ok 

.= London Library L?PGrn.twi<''iU<Lr,fiirdMnydom 
J University of Oxford 0<". -J 0* ! 3LL' Um'.v : J- - ■ ■■ > i: <n 



This is an excellent service that builds upon library catalog search and makes it 
more user friendly and accessible through a single interface. 

Google is clearly trying to do for book content search what it did for web search, that 
is, make as much content freely available on line as possible. This may ultimately 
involve some sort of payment by users who wish to search, print, and download full 
text content for in copyright books, but for now Google is relying upon advertising to 
pay for Google Book Search. Google Book Search's future in large measure 
depends upon the outcome of the current battles between Google, Inc., and 
copyright holders and publishers, either through some mutual agreement or through 
litigation. 



UNCLASSIFIED //rOR OfMC I AL USE O NLY 



257 



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UNCLASSIFIED //FOR OIT I C I AL UOC ONLY 



Live Book Search (Beta) 



http://books.live.com/ 



In December 2006 Microsoft introduced full text searches of public domain (out of 
copyright) books only. Libraries participating in the digitization project include the 
University of California system, Trinity College, and the University of Toronto (and 
Microsoft is actively trying to enlist other libraries). Lest you think that there is no 
need for yet another book search tool, let me assure you there is. As with search 
engines, there is a startling lack of overlap in book searches. It did not take me two 
minutes to find an example: Google did not return a single copy of John McTaggart 
Ellis McTaggart's The Nature of Existence, while Live Book Search found the book in 
the University of Toronto collection. As you can see, the public domain books may 
be viewed and searched in their entirety online or downloaded as a PDF. 




Images News 



Maps 



Classifieds 



Books f ■«» 



Academic f " Xi 



iiscv. ro fro^k ?sarch results 



The Nature of Existence 

by John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart 

340 pages 

Download the entire boo:- 



Search inside the book 



["organic unhy" 

21 pages, sorted by relevance 



| Search | 



Page 166 "does not necessarily possess value 
because it forms an organic unity, yet the 
conception of organic unity may have an important 
bearing on the judgments which we form as to the 
value of the universe," 

Page 162 "of the whole is obvious although the whole 
possesses neither life nor beauty. But there are no 
large and well-defined classes of wholes in which 
organic unity is obvious, except the classes of ... " 

Page 161 "i sties of organic unity far more obviously 
than others do, Most of the unities in which these 
characteristics are specially obvious fall into two 
classes biological organisms, and objects which are ... 



Pago 160 "I have entitled this chapter Organic 
Unity, because it seems to me that our present 
position is very like that which has generally been 
given by philosophers the name of organic unity, or 
of Inner .., " 



Zl 



1 — ij- vTB^r- ■ ■ — ■ ■' - " ■- ■"■- 


THE NATUKE OF EXISTENCE 




i 

BY 




JOHNT MTAGGART ELLIS M^rAOGAllT. 




LITT.P, CUtimilKiE, LUf. rtT .S^DRBW*y 

n,iL*>w aj>t) ldtpuku of TBiirm c'i.:.s'tr. in CAMnnitHJB, 
ixu.t>^ o> tun mimsii acadkmt 




VOLUME 1 


i 


i 


J 



The most serious limitation of Live Book Search is the lack of advanced search 
features. At present the only one that seems to work is intitle:. Live Book Search 
needs a way to limit searches by author, at the very least, and would do well to 
emulate Google Book's advanced search page. Still, it is a thrill to be able to search 
the full text of so many of the myriad books the world has to offer. 

Live Book Search is accessible either under the "More" tab on the Live homepage or 
directly at < http://books.live.com/ >. 



258 



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Metasearch Tool for Book Search 

Alan Taylor, a professional Web Developer, created an ingenious tool that searches 
A9/Amazon Search Inside the Book, Google Books, and Live Books at once. Taylor 
recognized that, as wonderful as these book search engines are, "they require the 
searcher to either guess which website is most likely to house the results they want, 
or to try them one after the other." < http://kokoqiak.CQm/ > 

This is an invaluable tool because there seems to be even less overlap among book 
searches than web searches. As you can see from this search, the three search 
engines returned a number of different books for one author. 



A9 



(Search Inside books nom A9.com, Googie.com and MSN Live Search - at 1he same time) 



Goodie 






Studies In The Hegelian Dialectic 

bv John McTaggarl (2008) - Kessinger 
Publishing. LLC 



The naime of existence 

by John McTaggarl Ellis McTaggarl 
(1927) -University Press 



Some Dogmas of Religion 

by John McTaggarl Ellis McTaggarl 
(1 906) -Edward Arnold 



S ome dogmas of l eliuion 
by John McTaggarl Ellis McTaggarl 
(1930)- E. Arnold 



Philosrtphic.il slmlies. 

by John McTaggarl Ellis McTaggarl 

(196B) - Books For Libraries Ptess 



Studies in Hegelian cosmology 
by John McTaggarl Ellis McTaggarl 
(191 8) -University Press 



John McT<i<iqact Ellis McTaqqail. 
1866-1925 



1 



by CO Broad (1928) • H. Mil/ord 



Some Dogmas of Religion ■ Pai|& xvi 
by John McTaggarl Elfis McTaggjil - 
1906 - 299 pages 
SOME DOGMAS OF RELIGION 
CHAPTER I THE IMPORTANCE OF 
DOGMA 1. BY metaphysics I 
mean the systematic study of the 
ultimate nature of reality, and by dogma I 

Full view - Table o;' C ontents - 
About This book 



"O.ii e to In; Wise".: An Address 

Delivered B efore the "Her etics" 

Sociaty mCamhrirlue, on the 8th. „ - 

Page 1 

by John McT.iggnir Ellis McTaggarl ■ 

1910- 16 pages 

... DARE TO BE WISE AW ADDRESS 

Delivered before the "Heretics " Society 

-in 

Cambridge, on the 8th December. JOHN 

mclnggail ELLIS mctaggarl DOCTOR 

IN LETTERS ... 

Snippei view - About this book 



A Commentniy on Hegel's Logic 
by John McT.iyydit Ellis McTaggait 

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. In this 
book I propose to give a cn'tical account 
of the 

various transitions by which. Hegel 
passes from the category of Being to ... 
Limited preview - Table of Contents - 
.About this bcok 



Lecture!* and Essays On Nan.ir.il Theology 
nnil Ethics 



The Philosophical Radicals and Other 
Essnys 



Histoiy af the Foily -sixth Regiment 
Indiana Volunteer InhMUiy 

Tney learned then, and they know now, that a 
grateful country will never forget what ihey did for 
it. ??Jonn?? ^7/wcTaggart??, of Company D. 
was shot In the left leg, at Sabine Cross Roads 



The Nainre ol Existence 
Triey learned then, and Ihey know now. that a 
graterui country will never forgel what they did for 
It. ??John?? ??McTaggart??. of Company D. 
was shot in the left leg, at Sabine Cross Roads. 



The Namre of Existence 

They learned then, and they know now. Ihal a 
grateful country will never forget whal they did for 
it, ??John?? ??McTaggart??, of Company D, 
was shot in the left leg, at Sabine Cross Roads. 



Some Dogmas of Religion 

They learned then, and they know now, that a 

grateful country will never forget what they did for 



Metasearch for Books 



http://kokogiak.com/booksearch/ 



UNCLASsiFiED //ron ornciAL UGC ONLY 



259 



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Answers.com 



I am usually skeptical about "ask a question" tools, but this one is definitely a cut 
above most. The reason it is better is simple: Answers.com is the "new" interface for 
GuruNet, which was subscription based and required users to download and install 
its software. In fact, before the Answers.com site came online, GuruNet was already 
an integral part of Amazon's A9 search service, powering A9's "Reference" results. If 
you aren't familiar with GuruNet, it provides information on over 750,000 topics. 
GuruNet has an extensive reference database, including dozens of encyclopedias, 
glossaries, and dictionaries. GuruNet will provide reference information from 
dictionaries (including definitions, pronunciation keys, and language translations), 
encyclopedias, thesauruses, a geography dictionary, key American historical 
documents, US Presidents, US Congress, US Supreme Court cases, conversions, 
abbreviations, Bible dictionary, Old & New Testament, English idioms, wine glossary, 
music glossary, planetary & astronomy glossary, Marine lingo, and many more. 
Answers also draws upon Wikipedia for some of its responses, a trend I believe is 
overdone. 

Now users have many options for accessing the Answers.com/GuruNet resources: 

1 . Answers.com website, where users can enter questions or queries that will 
draw from GuruNet's huge resource repository. 

2. A9, which will simultaneously query Answers.com/GuruNet, Google, Amazon, 
and other sources. 

3. Google, which switched from Dictionary.com to Answers.com for definitions 
and other reference information. 

Answers.com also earns its place as the premier "answer machine" on the Internet 
by adding a very handy "cite" option. At the bottom of the results page where all the 
copyrights for each source are listed is a new "Cite" button. 



260 UNCLASSIFIED //F Q R O FFIC I AL USE ONLY 



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Copyrights 



^ MM I i in 



Dictionary definition of Francis Mitterrand 

The America Hedt3?e f $DiefranarY of the Ensign Language. Fourth Edition Cnpv right ® 

2C-CM, 2000 by Houghton Mifflm Company . Pir^- 1 — " — " — ^ ' '"" ~ mv. *\\ ns.hu 

HfWY$$. i^ore from Dictionary h *^ e ** 



Click on "Cite 



it 



Encyclopedia information about Francois Mitterrand 

The Columbia Ejectionjc Fncvclotigciia, Sixth Edition Copyright f D 2Q0C ? Columbia IJni^e* s% 
Press, L^enred from ColuftitttaUnwerrity Pre?;. Ali n&nt;- reserved- 
miAitM .cc.columbia.edu/cu /cud/ More from Encyclopedia ^Cite^ 

Wikipedia information about Francois Mitterrand 

This article i* Hoeived urvje r th~; GNU Free Documentation licence . It use? matenal from the 
Wik iped.ia. ar ticJgT r^r^Qls Mitte r rand" . More from WiKipedia u * 1U ' M 



When you click on "Cite" you will then see a page that offers proper citations in MLA, 
Chicago, or APA formats. To use one of these formats for the citation, simply copy 
and paste the text from this page into your bibliography. This is a very handy tool for 
researchers who need to cite their sources correctly. 



Cite this source from this AnswerPage 



The URL of this AnswerPage is: 

|h*p://www answers, co rri/iopic/fran-ot$-rrnttetianci 



Select URL 



f nation Myle 

f CM: i££ 

*" List reference source 



Add this to your Bibhogiaphy 

Select the text below and then 'copy ft paste' it to your document; 



"Francois Mitterrand." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English language, Fourth 
Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com GuruNet Corp. 06 Jul. 2005. 
hHp:/ /www, ant5werq.com/ topic/ fran-pis-mitterrand 



During 2006 Answers.com continued to update its service. One of the most 
noticeable changes was the "find as you type" option, which uses AJAX technology 



UNCLASSIFIED // FO R O F F I C I AL UOC ONLY 



261 



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to anticipate your query. As you type, possible matching topics appear in a drop- 
down box as shown below; 



Answers. 



r^rrltf '-nr.es 



^ ; w/ i^J* ?a*i rati- 



Tett me <ibout 



Sitf.. £. '* It ht fro'. PvuJ 






sjai 


Ao^wfrs ■ Web Sfc«i» 


Chwse a ««igg««4«d topic... 


M&JdrtKS&cas 


* /J'V ■■" (technology? 




• £Ul (to pofedO 




* «ia. (so*iQfTeiam<wof Salamie) 




* '^' v ' (acronym) 




* *fc* (1906 automobile) 




* ^...OSOaulormoMte) 




* Mu . <192t automobile) 




« *u« (1936 automobile) 




* J-lCi.-i Bw'.liftj: 




• Tfci .*i otM >ii ^.ei-j (Alan ifte Oiwft 




.„ot finish typtttg and ptess Enter. 



J, >'*■->*. 



Surfwax is aggressively marketing this technology through its company LookAhead 
< http://lookahead.surfwax.com/ >. Answers.com is only one site among a growing 
number using AJAX technology; for example, Yahoo's Instant Search, A9 and A9 
Maps, Ask, and many others all use AJAX. At the Answers.com site, if you do not 

like the Find as You Type feature, you can disable it on the preferences page. 

The preferences also include a long list of languages to which Answers.com will 
translate from English, but not the other way around. I found this feature very 
confusing, so here is how to use it. If you have a term you want to translate from 
English, on the Answers.com home page enter the term and then scroll down the 
page until you see "Translations," and you will see the terms translated into all the 
available languages or only those languages you have selected on your preferences 
page. The translation also includes common idioms, which is very useful. You can 
also go to the translations' page < http://www.answers.com/librarv/TranslatiQns > and 
select the term from an alphabetic list:. 

Here is a partial list of translations of the English word "abode"; this could be a very 
useful tool for copy/pasting search terms without needing non-Latin 
keyboards to input the terms. 



262 



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Deutirh (Geiman) 

n, - Wohnort, Wohnsitz 






idioms: 


.Wnska (Swedish) 




♦ no fixed abode ohne festen Wohnsitz 


n, - boning, bostad 




n. ■ KOToiKia, ev6iaiir|pQ| fiiagovr 1 ) 


M<ffl»> {Chinese | 

fiat, urn 


Simplified )| 


idioms; 


idioms: 




* no lixed abode xujplc; ptivipn KOToiKia 


• no lixed Abode 


SSSfiAt 


Meiliftno (Italian) 

residenza, domicilio 


■££<£«) (Chinese (Traditional)) 

n. - im <m 


idioms: 


idioms: 




• no fixed abode senza fissa dimora 


♦ no lixed abode 


BBSftjg 


♦ light o( abode diriUo di soggiorno 

Poituftiies (Poitu^uese) 

n. - lar [rm), permanent (f) curta, residencia (f) 

idioms: 


SJ3CH (Koiean) 

n. -X5,^± 

B^S (Japanese) 

n. - flffi, Jg(I 




• no fixed abode sem residencia fixa 


idioms: 




• lighl of abode direito (m) de residencia 


* no fixed abode 


teflfT^ 


PyccKMti (Russian) 


♦ tight of abode 


gfite 


jKHJiHiue, o6nTannme 


Sy^' {Aiabfci 




idioms: 


Ual ,>o (,— VI) 




• no fixed ctbode Sea noc.To*HHoro MeciaxwenbCTBa 


n'-iiw (He blew) 




• light of abode npaeo Ha xnnoe 


n. - |ijm ,ti'i ,D"iun ,m'i 



Answers.com continues to expand and improve. It is often my first stop for search 
and research. 

As with any search, the best tool to use depends on what you need to find. 

> If you want links to relevant websites about a topic, Google is probably the 
way to go. 

> If you only need a fast answer in the form of a dictionary definition or 
encyclopedia entry, Answers.com is the best choice. 

> But if you want thoroughness, A9 wins this one hands down because it 
quickly offers a choice among web, image, book, and a huge number and 
variety of reference results that are only a mouse click away. 

Any way you look at it, Answers.com is a great addition to any researcher's resource 
set. 



Answers.com 



http://www.answers.com/ 



UNCLASS)FlEDJ /rOR OFFICIAL U3E ONLY 



263 



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OAlster 



Add to your deep web bookmarks OAlster (pronounced "oyster") to help you "find 
the pearls." This information retrieval resource now contains a very impressive 
9,950,256 records from 729 institutions (as of 10 January 2007). OAlster states, 
"The service encompasses as broad a collection of resources as possible (i.e., with 
no subject parameters). It is accessible to the entire Internet community, without 
bounds." However, as you might have guessed, OAlster is not for run-of-the-mill 
searches. 

So just what sort of information does OAlster index? The project seeks to provide 
easy access to actual digital records, not just lists, links, or bibliographies. What are 
these digital resources? They "can range from a 1959 photograph of an A&P bakery 
(from the Library of Congress American Memory project) to poems by Emily 
Dickinson (from the University of Michigan Digital Library Production Services 
American Verse project). Digital resources include items such as: 

> electronic books 

> online journals 

> audio files (e.g., wav, mp3) 

> images (e.g., tiff, gif) 

> movies (e.g., mpeg, QuickTime) 

> reference texts (e.g., dictionaries, directories)" 101 

Let's take a sample query and see what we come up with in OAlster. Here's a 
simple phrase query — ["turing machine"] — asking for results to be listed in 
descending order by date (most recent first). Since many of the resources in OAlster 
have reliable dates (e.g., journal articles), using the date sort option should work 
fairly well. 



101 "What Are Digital Resources?" Wheeler Library, Otero Junior College, Colorado, 
< http://www.oic.edu/library/diqital.htm > (18 January 2007). 



264 UNCLASSIFIED //FOR OFF I CIAL USE ONLY 



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f-od the pr-dr."; 



Search 



Browse Institutions 



Use this form to find digital 
resources (what is a 
digital resource?) from 
many institutions (which 
institutions are available?). 

Why do I sometimes get 
duplicate records? 
Why do I sometimes 
have trouble accessing 
digital objects? 
Check out this 
explanation, 

See help for search tips, 



Use a wore 


i or phrase, e.g., diploma*. 


fancy dress 




| Keyword 


^J ^turing machine" 




|And _J 


| Keyword 


dl 




[And jj 


| Keyword 


jr 







Limit by resource type 

Choose one or more 



(h«i P ) 





1*1 


text 




image 




audio 




video 




dataset 


zl 



Choose sorting of results (h e t P ) 

e.g., results in date descending order, from 2002 to 1999 

[date^deTcendin^ 
"tille " 
aulhor/creato 




search 



date ascending 
hit frequency 
weighted hit frequency 



You can see from the "results by institution" on the left below that these 916 results 
are not your typical Google hits. 



Your search was in the entire record fiold for "turing machine". 

You found 916 records. 

* Revise ^ojr scotch to retrieve (ewer records. 

• View your results, starting with records 1 to 10 of 916. 



Results by Institution 



arXiv.org Eprint Archive 
91 record* 

Bibhoteca Digital Brasileira de 
Computeeao (BDBComp) Archive 
1 record 

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Tide- Are There Absolutely Unsolvable Problems? Gcdel's Dichotomy {dagger} 
Author/Creator Feferman, Solomon 

Publisher Oxford University Press 
Year 2006-01-09 0S:38:S7.O 
R 9 source Type TEXT 
Resource Format text/html 
Language English 

Note This is a critical analysis of the first part of Godel's 1951 Gibbs lecture on certain philosophical 

consequences of the incompleteness theorems, Godel's discussion is framed in terms of a distinction 
between objective mathematics and subjective mathematics; according to which the former consists of 
the truths of mathematics in an absolute sense, and the latter consists of all humanly demonstrable 
truths. The question is whether these coincide; if they do, no formal axiomatic system (or Turing 
machine) can comprehend the mathematizing potentialities of human thought, and, it" not, there are 
absolutely unsolvable mathematical problems of diophantine form. <I>£ithcr ... the human mind ... 
infinitely surpasses the powers of any finite machine, or else there exut absolutely unsolvable 
diophantine problems</I>, 

Subject G&oumljdel on Mathematics and Logic Special Issue Article 
URL httpy/uhJmat.oxfordjOurrjjIs.org/cgi/coriWnt/^horVrikiOOJv; 
URL hnp://d*.dpi.ora't0.tC^?/philmat, / ni'jDO'J 
Rights Copyright (C) 2006, Oxford University Press 
Institution Highwire Press, Stanford university 



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OAlster works best in finding scholarly work from such sources as CiteSeer, arcXiv 
Eprint Archive, a number of research institutes, and numerous digital libraries. And 
some of the data is truly impressive. For example, I searched in all fields for 
[neutrino*] (note the ability to use a wildcard) looking for the resource type image. 
Here is one of the 32 images I found: 



Bentley Image iBank 



view: tidl Nuage d«$ciiption 



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You are not going to find images like this with a Google, Live, and Yahoo image 
search. 



It is important to keep in mind that OAlster is not a search engine but a 
repository of information that is structured in a very specific manner, and 

retrieving the data you want has to be done in conformity to the way the data was 
entered into the record. 



OAlster 

More Scholarly Search Sites 



http://www.oaister.org/ 



Other academic search engines that may yield better results than Google Scholar 
and Windows Live Academic search at this point. 



Citeseer ifc 

Scirus 

Cornell University's arXiv.org 

Research Now 



http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/ 

http://www.scirus.com/srsapp/ 

http://arxiv.org/ 

http://researchnow.bepress.com/ 



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CiteULike http://www.citeulike.org/ 

Foreign Doctoral Dissertations 

http://www.crl.edu/content.asp7H =5&I2=23&I3=44&I4=25 

ISI Highly Cited http://isihiqhlycited.com/ 

Scholar Universe http://www.scholaruniverse.com/index.jsp 

Ingenta Connect http://www.inqentaconnect.com/ 

Infomine's Electronic Journals Search http://infomine.ucr.edu/cqi-bin/search7ejournal 
Science Direct (select Abstract Databases tab) http://www.sciencedirect.com/ 

Wiley InterScience Journal Search http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/ 



The Internet Archive & the Wayback 
Machine 



You have to give Brewster Kahle credit for thinking big. The founder of the Internet 
Archive has a clear, if not easy, mission: to make all human knowledge universally 
accessible. And, who knows, he might just succeed. What has made Kahle's dream 
seem possible is extremely inexpensive storage technology. As of now, the Internet 
Archive houses "approximately 1 petabyte of data and is currently growing at a rate 
of 20 terabytes per month. This eclipses the amount of text contained in the world's 
largest libraries, including the Library of Congress. If you tried to place the entire 
contents of the archive onto floppy disks (we don't recommend this!) and laid them 
end to end, it would stretch from New York, past Los Angeles, and halfway to 
Hawaii." 102 In December 2006 the Archive announced it had indexed over 85 billion 
"web objects" and that its database contained over 1.5 petabytes of information. 103 

But that's not all that Kahle and company have archived. The Archive also now 
contains about 2 million audio works; over 10,000 music concerts; thousands of 
"moving images," including 300 feature films; its own and links to others' digitized 
texts, including printable and downloadable books; and 3 million hours of television 
shows (enough to satisfy even the most sedulous couch potato!). Kahle's long term 
dream includes scanning and digitizing the entire Library of Congress collection of 
about 28 million books (something that is technically within reach), but there are 



46 Internet Archive FAQs, < http://www.archive.Org/about/faqs.php#The Internet Archive > (14 
November 2006). 

103 Brewster Kahle, "Wayback Machine has 85 Billion Archived Webpages," Internet Archive Forum, 5 
December 2006, < http://www.archive.orq/iathreads/post-view.php?id=84843 > (16 January 2007). 

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some nasty impediments such as copyrights and, of course, money. None of this 
deters Kahle, whose commitment to the preservation of the digital artifacts of our 
time drives the Internet Archive. As Kahle puts it, "If you don't have access to the 
past, you live in a very Orwellian world." Ironically, between the Internet Archive's 
voracious appetite for websites, which many view as an invasion of privacy, and the 
Alexa technology, which "monitors" web browsing through the "related links" feature 
in browsers, many people think of Kahle as the Internet's "Big Brother." 

In addition to trying to capture every publicly available webpage and making them 
searchable via the Wayback Machine, Kahle is pressuring Google to give him a copy 
of its database with something like a six-month delay to avoid competition with "live" 
Google. So far, the search engine innovator has not yet come around to Kahle's way 
of thinking, but Kahle has a way of persuading people and institutions to make a 
"positive contribution to mankind" by contributing to the Archive. 

Announced just 24 hours after Google went public with its own effort to digitize 
several major library collections, the Internet Archive's plan to digitize the collections 
of ten major libraries cannot be a coincidence. Among the libraries agreeing to 
participate in the Internet Archive's project are: 

> Carnegie Mellon University and the Library of Congress Million Book Project 

> University of Toronto, Canada 

> Library of Congress American Memory Project 

> McMaster University, Canada 

> University of Ottawa, Canada 

> Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt 

> Indian Institute of Science, India 

> International Institute of Information Technology, India 

> Zhejiang University, China 

> European Archive, Netherlands 

The goal? In Brewster Kahle's own words, "anyone with an Internet connection will 
have access to these collections and the growing set of tools to make use of them. 
In this way we are getting closer to the goal of Universal Access to All 
Knowledge." 104 Once again Internet Archive founder Kahle reinforces his reputation 



,04 Brewster Kahle, "Announcement: Open-Access Text Archives," 15 December 2004 
< http://www.archive.orq/iathreads/post-view.php?id=25361 > (14 November 2006). 

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as a true visionary: "Imagine being able to analyze the changes to the English 
language over time. Imagine being able to use the hand translated versions of past 
books as a way to train automatic translation technologies so we can more 
effectively translate any book into any language. Imagine being able to analyze the 
interrelation of papers through their footnotes and links to find new patterns of 
thought. Each of these projects is already proceeding using the digital holdings of 
the Internet Archive by researchers." 105 You have to love this guy. 

Microsoft and Yahoo both threw in with Kahle and the Open Content Alliance (OCA) 
during 2005, Microsoft in advance of its new Live Book Search. This occurred as 
Google was embroiled in not one but two lawsuits to stop its book digitization 
project. The OCA has thus far avoided any such suits because it is only indexing 
books and other content in the public domain. But Microsoft has made it known it will 
not be content to stick with public domain content, which will put Microsoft on the 
horns of the same dilemma as Google. It will be interesting to see how OCA and its 
members handle copyright and other infringement issues. 



Open Content Alliance 



http://www.opencontentalliance.org/ 



While some of its members may view the OCA project as a way to take on Google, 
Kahle is not at all unhappy about competition from other digitization projects. Quite 
the contrary, he sees his efforts as augmenting more commercial ventures while he 
openly seeks to emulate in the public domain Amazon's approach to full-text search. 
Any way you look at it, this is great news. Sometimes with all the petty annoyances 
in our everyday lives, it is hard to remember we really are witnessing and even 
participating in a revolution in human knowledge. 

And just how does Kahle envision storing all these treasures? He worked with 
Capricorn Technologies to design what is called the PetaBox, basically a very large, 
affordable data repository that can store a million gigabytes of data. Capricorn 
shipped the first of its PetaBox products to the Internet Archive in June 2005. 

All that data is accessible to users in a variety of ways, none more interesting or 
useful than the Wayback Machine. Using the Wayback Machine, you may very well 
be able to retrieve a page or an entire site even if it disappeared from the web years 
ago. Also keep in mind that Yahoo also offers an excellent way to search the 
Internet Archive to its fullest. 



105 



Kahle. 



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269 



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i\ii«vit t i r u i v i 




Search: |~ 



Way back Machine 



J 



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u£| 




&out tfift Wayb»ck | i he «OqgtaA ttKfefa* 



Browse through 40 billion 
web pages archived from 
1996 to a few months 
ago, To start surfing the 
Wayback, type in the 
web address of a site or 
page where you would 
like to start, and press 
enter. Then select from 
the archived dates 
available. The resulting 
pages point to other 
archived pages al as 
close a date as possible. 
Keyword searching is 
not currently suppoited. 

htip/Zarehive bihaley.org , 
the Internet archive at 
the New Library of 
Alexandria, Egypt, 
mirrors the Wavback 



|http:// 
Take Me Back 



Advanced Search 



Take The Wayback Machine With You 



Put the Wayback Machine right in your browser! 

The Wayback Machine Bookmarklet 

Drag this link lo your browser's toolbar: Wayback 

When you visit a page that you want to find an old version of, just click the 

toolbar link. 
You will be transported to any historic versions at the Wayback Machine. 

Thanks to qvford.com 



Web Collections 



n_u_ 



The Wayback Machine 



http://web.archive.org/ 



To use the Wayback Machine to bring back the past, simply search on a url or use 
the new bookmarklet that can be dragged and dropped onto your browser's toolbar. 
Whenever you are visiting a webpage, clicking on that bookmarklet searches the 
Internet Archive for earlier versions of that web address. What you will see first is a 
list of all previous versions of a website stored in the Archive. 



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ISTF.IKET tICHIVI 

IHHttlMi 




Enter Web Address: 


http:// 1 All 


J( Take Me Back 1 






Searched for htip:/v\rww.ikliwan.ne1 






90 Results 


Note some duplicates are not shown. See all 










* denotes when site was updated. 










Search Results for Jan 01, 1996 - Sep 07, 2005 






1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 


2002 


2003 


2004 


2005 


pages pages pages pages pages 4 pages 


IS pages 


26 pages 


42 pages 


pages 


Apr 10. 2001 * Jan 23, 2002 * 


Jan 24. 2003 


Jar. 02, 2004 




May 17, 2001 


May 24. 2002 * 


Jan 30. 2003 


Feb 02, 2004 * 




Jul 21 . 2001 


May 29. 2002 * 


Feb 07. 2003 * 


Feb 10. 2004 * 




Sep 24. 2001 


Jun 04, 2002 * 


Feb 13.2003 * 


Feb 11. 2004 






Jul 25, 2002 * 


Feb 17. 2003 * 


Anr 05. 2004 * 






Auq 02,2002 * 


Mar 29. 2003 


Apr 07,2004 * 






Auq 1 1 , 2002 * 


Apr 01. 2003 * 


Apr 13, 2004 






Sep 22. 2002 * 


Apr 23. 2003 * 


May 10.2004 






Sep 24. 2002 


Apr 25. 2003 * 


May 21 . 2004 






Sep 27. 2002 * 


May 23. 2003 * 


May 24, 2004 * 






Sep 29. 2002 * 


Jun 06. 2003 * 


Jun 02, 2004 * 






Oct 02, 2002 


Jun 16.2003 * 


Jun 03, 2004 






Nov 24. 2002 * 


Jul 20. 21303 * 


Jun 06.2004 






Nov 26. 2002 * 


Ju! 28. 2003 * 


Jun 10.2004 






Now 28. 2002 * 


Auq 04. 2003 * 
Auq 05, 2003 
Sep 22. 2003 
Sep 29. 2003 * 
Oct 01. 2003 * 


Jun 12.2004 
Jun 15.2004 
Jun 16. 2004 
Jun 18, 2004 
Jun 19, 2004 * 





Selecting any date will show you an archived copy of the site as it appeared on that 
date. Here is the (now defunct) Jihadist website lkhwan.net as it appeared on 23 
January 2002: 



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The Internet Archive doesn't just archive the homepage of each website. In most 
cases, you can dig down deeply into a site to find many additional pages from a 
website that might have disappeared or dramatically changed over time. A special 
feature in the Wayback Machine's advanced search lets users compare two versions 
of a webpage using technology from Docucomp . This option will identify any 
changes — inserted, deleted, replaced and moved text and code — in webpages and 
documents. 106 

The Wayback Machine is, very simply, one of the greatest deep web tools ever 
created. 



106 In case you are curious about what happened to the Internet Archive's foray into search, aka 
Recall, the programmer who wrote Recall was hired by Google in 2004 and that appears to be the 
end of Recall. 



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Other Invisible Web Resources 



A great deal of what is on the Internet is going to remain inaccessible to search 
engines, either because the information is password-protected, is behind a firewall, 
requires registration and/or payment to view, etc. In short, this information either is 
not intended for public viewing or there is a price to do so. There is, however, a 
substantial amount of data that is meant for public consumption but is not indexed by 
search engine spiders: public databases. These run the gamut from very technical 
medical or scientific databases (e.g., MEDLINE, NASA EOSDIS) to frivolous (e.g., 
Jokes.com). How do you find these online databases and other "hidden" websites? 

BUBL http://www.bubl.ac.uk/ 

There are a number of very good websites devoted entirely or mostly to tracking 
down web databases and other "hidden" resources. One of the most impressive 
catalogs of hard to find sites is BUBL. First established in 1990, the name stood for 
Bulletin Board for Libraries. Today, BUBL offers a huge index of resources primarily 
for academic researchers. BUBL's index can be sorted by topic, alphabetically, by 
country, or by Dewey Decimal System. Deep Web Research 




BUBL LINK Catalogue of Internet Resources 

Dewey | Search | Subject Menus | Countries | Types 

Selected Internet resources covering all academic subject areas 

AJ ^| C_| D_| E_| f_| G_\ HJ LI JJ KJ L | MJ HI OJ P_\ 0_| R_| SJ T | U_| V_| WJ X_| YJ Z 



Q00 Genet. ilitios 

fnciudes: computing, Internet, libraries, information 
science 

JlPJ_.PJil!.*l?.^lL(iy.i)l^<LL } >^.?i.! : .?l!L*Jl 
fnciudes: ethics, paranormal phenomena 

200 Religion 
includes: bibles, religions of the world 

Includes: sociology, politics, economics, law, 
educalion 

Includes: linguistics, language learning, specific 
languages 



500 Science <iml mathematics 

fnciudes: physics, chemistry, earth sciences, biology, 
zoology 

GOO TecF molixt y 

includes: medicine, engineering, agriculture, 
management 

700 The a us 

Includes: art, planning, architecture, music, sport 

fnciudes: literature of specific languages 

000 Ganj| i vi pity a mi hisimy 

fnciudes: travel, genealogy, archaeology 



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Infomine 



http://infomine.ucr.edu/ 



Another scholarly resource is Infomine, from the University of California. Infomine is 
an excellent way of tracking down not only online databases, particularly in all the 
sciences, but also finding technical websites. For example, Infomine has a superb 
Maps and GIS webpage, with a large number of links to databases devoted to 
mapping and/or GIS. 

Aardvark: Asian Resources for Librarians 

http://www.aardvarknet.info/user/aardvarkwelcome/ 

Aardvark: Asian Resources for Librarians, owned and managed by iGroup, a 
database and eJournal distributor, keeps a low profile, which is too bad because it is 
a very good resource. Aardvark has two sections: Literature and Recommended 
resources and sites. I especially like the Asian Databases section, which currently 
lists over 650 databases. Thompson Gale published an excellent overview of 
Aardvark by Professor Peter Jacso. 107 



jjk Aardvark 



>lon Rojsoufces for librarians 



B^j!igin!ff!lTffiiS^li1W!ffTff 



wasiuuut-ia'iH' 



Library -X2_]oumal5 
Science *->■ 



Asian Databases. 






^ Conference* 6, 
V-J Exhioifion; 



<^C5\ moss 



To browse bsckfiles 
click hcrg 



Business Needs 



■■-*» *j -tr g^% Fftlt. thp Educational Resources Information Center, is the world's largest source of 

f*. JC. J. C-* education information. It has more than 1 million abstracts of documents and journal articles 

Search Nlir on °ducstion rsscarch and practice. Aardvark's version of the database, provides access to 

''provided b~r ERIC document citations from 1966 to data and to the full text of several thousand articles. 

e Bridge* 



Aaidymfc Search 



Archiving & Document Preservation 

Courseware 

Di gital ( nU qrtion l >cvf l onment 

OigitM nbier.f identifier fr>Ql) 

Info kw. jteimSjisTJUUt. 

Kn.B.Wt.'Brit.tg ila ftrtqqp^enl 

j-lfttadata 

Oocn Archives Initiative 

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A sian I, ifrrn ry_ Consortia 
JSflPft N^ljonal Mbrorjc^ 

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Copyright 

CrossRef 

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Digitization 

Juunul Crisis 

J,.i.0Jlia!LfetlDAUjiLi£5 

fl P. ff" Arc j t ,ss 

OQt-nUR L 

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Asian librar y Schools 
Asian University Libraries 
Proffstio n jl Organisations 



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107 



Peter Jacso, "Aardvark," Peter's Digital Reference Shelf, Thompson Gale, October 2006, 
< http://www.qaleqroup.com/reference/peter/aardvark.htm > (26 October 2006). 



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Deep Web Research http://www.deepwebresearch.com/ 

Deep Web Research is an information weblog created by the Virtual Private Library. 
As a blog, the site is designed to stay current with many links to a wide variety and 
number of sources related to deep web search and research. Topics covered 
include current and historical articles, papers, and videos; cross database articles, 
search services, and tools; presentations; and resources. Deep Web Research 
presents an impressive set of links that includes everything from articles on what 
constitutes the deep web and how to search it to online search sites such as 
SearchLight, the University of California's interface to publicly available databases in 
either the sciences and engineering or social sciences and humanities. The biggest 
drawback of Deep Web Research is the lack of annotation of the links. Most are 
simply listed by title and there is no way to know what services they offer without 
looking at each site individually. Still, Deep Web Research is an impressive 
collection of deep web resources. 



A9 http://a9.com/ 

Amazon http://www.amazon.com/ 

BUBL Catalog http://www.bubl.ac.uk/ 

The Complete Planet http://www.completeplanet.com/ 

Deep Web Research http://www.deepwebresearch.com/ 

Infomine http://infomine.ucr.edu/ 

Intute (formerly Resource Discovery Network) http://www.intute.ac.uk/ 

Pinakes Subject Launchpad http.7/www.hw.ac.uk/libwww/irn/pinakes/pinakes.html 

Research Beyond Google: 1 1 9 Authoritative, Invisible, and Comprehensive 
Resources http://oedb.orq/librarv/colleqe-basics/research-beyond-gooqle 

Ultimate Guide to the Invisible Web 

http://oedb.org/librarv/colleqe-basics/invisible-web 

There is a lot more to the "hidden web" than just that information stored in 
databases, however. Many of the most interesting sites are simply not indexed by 
anyone, in part because search services have made a conscious decision not to try 
to index the entire web. How do you find them? Unfortunately, there is no magic, but 
here are a few tips that might help (and often really do work): 



UNCLASSIFIEP //FOR OFF I C I AL UOC ONLY 275 



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Tips for Navigating the "Hidden Web" 

1. Always examine and follow the links from "links pages" at an 
interesting site (it's quite possible that those links lead to webpages 
that are not indexed). 

2. Try url guessing, i.e., just try what you think might be the address of 
a site you're looking for and you might get lucky. Do pay attention to 
any domain naming conventions widely used in a particular country. 
The Russians often use cities as part of the name, e.g., 
http://www.pager.nnov.rw, many other countries use the conventions 
of .co for companies, .ac for educational institutions, e.g., 
http://www.aid.co.at or http://www.ua.ac.be , etc.). 

3. Spend time browsing a country's domain name registry] many of 
these registries list "all" the websites in their top-level domain (more 
on how to find a country registry later ). 

4. Visit a country-specific website devoted to listing "all" the sites for 
that country and browse or search their list (you will undoubtedly find 
a number of websites not indexed by US-based and focused search 
engines). 



IfiafajSEiaaiiia^^ 



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Casting a Wider Net — International 
Search, Language Tools 



International Search 

I have tried to think of a better way to describe this topic, which I used to call "foreign 
search" until I realized that what is "foreign" to some readers is "home" to others. 
The concept I am trying to get across is simple: do not rely on your favorite search 
engine for research. Simple idea, difficult implementation, because users naturally 
and quite understandably have a very strong tendency to depend almost exclusively 
on certain search tools that focus on their location, whether a specific country, 
region, or city. That makes perfect sense until you try to find information about 
and/or from other locales. "Vanilla" Google, Yahoo, and Live Search are targeted at 
US users and locations, just as Baidu targets the Chinese audience. Researchers 
must first get out of the habit of using US-centric search engines, then look for and 
bookmark country and local search services to have them ready to hand. 

US search engines have largely set the pace and the standards for search tools 
around the world and, in many cases, are the engines underlying international 
search sites. However, the target market for US search engines is the US user, not 
the rest of the world. This means that when you are "traveling" on the web, you must 
find and use search services that are appropriate to that region, country, or city. 
What are some of the advantages of using regional search engines? 

> Focused search: regional or country-specific search engines often permit you 
to search in one region ("all European countries," for example) or one country. 

> Focused data: most non-US search tools collect and store data primarily or 
exclusively from their region or country. 

> Language selectivity: international search engines must offer the ability to 
search in the native language(s). 

> Non-Latin code sets: the non-US search engines in countries that use non- 
Latin character sets often allow you to input your query in one or more 
character sets. Of course, your computer must already be configured to type 
in the non-Latin characters (unless you want to resort to the cut and paste 
approach). 

> Translation function: you may come across an unusual translation option in 
an international search engine. 



UNCLASSIFIED //fOR OIT I C I AL UGC ONLY 



277 



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The major US-based search engines continue to expand into international markets, 
offering a myriad specialized interfaces by country and/or language. Search results 
may be much more precise using the international version of Google, for example, 
than the generic site. In fact, there is even a site that lets you compare the 
differences between Google searches using two different Google datacenters. 

Look at the difference between the same search for the acronym ETA using 
Google.com compared to Google Spain: 



We 

Google ft 



Weh Images Video News Maj)? ttesMop moie 



Search | 






Web 

Employment & Training Administration [ETA) - U.S. Department of Labor 

Information on programs, assistance, and training opportunities for employers and employees. 
•Kit* rjolet.i g?v.-' - 92k - Oct 31 . iQQfj ■ Cjjrn^ - S^ilai uzytr.- 

ETA Programs & Initiatives. Employment & Training Administration ^ 

ETA Programs & Initiatives. The Employment and Training Administration funds and/or runs a 
number of piogtams to help ensure the smooth functioning of ... 
■avw ffole-to gn^/rsrioffs/prcgr.im'- *J?)> ■ ( ^hf-i? ■ ^vi^|5ii^2£l 
■';', J'! f V'jlfi v\ '. ■' :irieiJ ;ov ] 

ETA'Cuisenaire' Choose from over 7QQ0 manipulative-based ... 
Math manipulates, VersaTiles, Cuisenaire Rods, Algeblocks, Reading Rods, Miriam 
Treheame, lab coats, anemometer, can be found here. 
■v-,VjV ei.ifiuisenaire ram' - 1 3k ■ { .I'.ji^ - c .niH-ji ii : »_\i < ! 

Unisys Weather NAM Model Forecasts 

MAM Model Forecasts Latest image Cunent NAM SL Pressure/Precipitation Forecast. This is 
a set of contour plots using data from the NAM model. ... 
•A'^tlrJi urwiys.r.rt'.r.friitm' ■ 14k- CjK_h?i| ■ S^ rt 'i?l.k2iiILl 



Results 1 - 100 of about 50,000,000 for em -wikipedfa.onj. (0.19 seconds) 



Sponsored Links 
ETA Australia 

12 month ETA Visas. 20% discount 
Australian visitor & business visas 
w//w lit.i.Ausiinlirt corn au/_E 1'A_Visa 

E-T-A Circuit from Beyond 

Components, 9 warehouses! 
Specialize in Terminal Blocks, etc. 
"-vtv. 1 B')yoiu;Ciirn|.:oni:ini? c.ini 

Dubai Properties 

ETA Star Freehold Properties 

"Own a Home, Built On Trust" 

VAW frU?Ul.f,f;IT; 

Lowest Marzocchi Prices 

Learn everything about Marz forks. 
Learn & buy from the "small" guy 



Here is the identical search using Google Spain and restricting the search to 
Spanish sites. Clearly, Google Spain "understands" that to most Spanish users ETA 
means the Basque separatist group Euskadi Ta Askatasuna: 



Google 



La Web Imaqenes Giupos Nolicias 



leta 



Desktop mds 
BOsqueda | 






Biisqueda' <~ la Web *" paginas en espanol **" paginas de Espana 



La Web 



Resultados 1 - 10 de aproximadamente 4.990.000 de eta. (0,28 segundos) 



ftesuftatios de noncias due contienen eta - Vo« i.v, Jii*^,o?tiejJi tkhoy 

^' g Et PP creg que ETA ha recupeiado su capaeidad ope-atrva ■ El Omm Maiilaries ■ hace 1 1 horas 
"^k/ Descubren julo utili:ado oor ETA en lobe de arrnas en Francra ■ El Univsri-il (MiVcico) - hace 17 horas 
■jarzon incrimina a alms Ire? dinqantes de Batasuna oor ... - Meal Cugital - hace 10 horas 

el mundo es I Es nectal ETA l a dictadura del terro r 

informacion sobre la banda terrorista ETA, su hisloria, sus atentados, las viclimas que han 

provocado, las negociaciones con el gobierno. 

ww elrnundo as/et.i/- «k - E^i ^v.-m - r^injj .^. '"'•'■ r 1 '"'"' 

ETA anuiKia un 'alto el fu9qo pennansnte' I einiundo.es 

ETA anuncia un alto el fuego permanente La organization terrorista ETA ha anunciado un alio 

el fuego permanente en un comunicado remitido a la television ... 

wvftJ olmundc- e*/olmur:do"C0^1j3£I7esp&ria'1 14302G-M4 himl ■ 24V • 






E L BOLETO - La verclad sobre ETA [La web de Anq&lberto) 

Web con mucha informacion sabre la banda terrorista ETA 

rlw-ites V'lanPtwnik^ a-^'pRr.-.onsl/aoriBlhGrlct/ - ".'V - E^^h^ - Prjj>ii.->, .-i;-: ii'ir°'- 



Google provides the list of its "local" (meaning country) sites, identified by thumbnail 
flags, on its language tools page. There is also a very good list of the languages and 



278 



UNCLASSIFIED //rOn ornc i AL USE ON L Y 



DOCID: 4046925 



UNCLASSIFIED //rOR OFFICIAL UGC O N LY 



Google international interfaces that support them available at the French website 
Intelligence-Center. 



Visit Google's Site in Your Local Domain 



■ ii 

www.cioogle.de www.qooqle.fr 

Deutschland France 



«»IP2. 






www, qooqle.co.uk www. goQqle.co.jp www,qoocile.co.kr 

UK * *t = 



& 



www, gopgle.com. co www.gooqle.es 



Colombia 



Espana 



ll 

www.qooqle.il 
Italia 



■♦■ ll 



www.google.ca www.google.com.mx www, google, co. 
Canada Mexico "?«iu' 



www. google.se 
Sverige 



Nederland 



www.qooqle.ch 
Schweiz 

II 

www.qooqle.be 
Belgifi 



www.qooqle.cl www.qooqle.com.au www.qooqle.co.id www.qoQqle.com.ar wvw.qooqle.com. pa 

Chile Australia Indonesia Argentina Panama 



www.qooqle.at 
Osterreich 


ww. qooqle.pl 
Polska 

www.qooqle.co.nz 
New Zealand 


www.qooqle.dk 
Danmark 

www.qooqle fi 
Suomi 


www.qooqle.com.tw 

tin 

w 

www.qooqle.co.in 
India 


wvw.qooqle.ru 

PoCCMfl 


www. 


qooqle com.br 
Brasil 


www.qooqle.co.th 



Google International Sites 



http://www.qooqle.com/lanquaqe tools 



UNCLASSIFIED //FOR OFFIC I AL UOC ONLY 



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Visit Google's Site in Your Local Domain 



www.google.ae 

ii^ll JLa>Jl *IJL^I 



www, google, corn, ar 
Argentina 



fcj 



www.qoogle.ba 
Bosna i Hercegovina 



www.qoogle.bi 
Burundi 



www.qoQqle.com, b; 
Belize 






www.qnoqle.ci 
Cote D'lvoire 



www, google corn.af 



www, google, as 
American Samoa 



www, google, com, ag 
Antigua and Barbuda 



www.Qooqle.at 
Osterreich 



www.gooqle.com.bd 



ii 

/w.qoogle 
Belgie 

E3 



www, google be 
Belgie 



www.qQogle.corri.bo www, google, corn, bi 



Bolivia 



Brasil 



www.qoogle.off.ai 
Anguilla 



www, google, corn.au 
Australia 



141 

www, google, c a 
Canada 



www google. cd 
Rep. Dem. du Congo 



www google co.ck www.gooqle.cl 

Cook Islands Chile 



www.gooqle.bg 
BbJirapHfl 



www.google.bs 
The Bahamas 



D VA 



www.qpQgie.cq 
Rep. du Congo 



www.google.cn 



www qooqle.arri 

i'jijmuinuifi 



www, google, a; 
Azerbaycan 



www, google, com, bh 



www.google.co.bw 
Botswana 



www.qooqle.ch 
Schweiz 



www qQogle.com.cn 
Colombia 



www.qoogJe.co.cr www.qooqle.corn.cu www go o gle, cz 

Costa Rica Cuba Ceska republika 



ww w. gppgle.dk 
Dantmark 



www.google.dm 
Dominica 



www.google.de 
Deutschland 



www.qQoqle.coiTi.dQ www.qooqle.corn.ee 
Rep. Dominicana Ecuador 



www, google, dj 
Djibouti 



www.qooqle.ee 
Eesti 



Intelligence Center: Google Worldwide 

http://casselin.free.fr/french/gooqleworldwide.htm 

While acronyms are a type of search that often renders ambiguous or misleading 
results, searching for the English-language name of a non-English-language entity 
can cause similar confusion. Here are three different searches for the Mexican group 
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias del Pueblo, known in English as the 
Revolutionary Armed Forces of the People. The first search ["Revolutionary Armed 
Forces of the People"], using generic Google, generates the following results, which 
clearly illustrate the problem of searching for the translated name. This search 
comes up with groups of this same name in Guinea-Bissau, Colombia, and Mexico: 



280 



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j,— > t Web Images Video News Maps Desktop inoio >. 

CjjOOQlC ["Revolutionary Armed Forces of 1he People" Search | fj^| 



W^b Results 1 - 58 of about 325 for "Revolut ionary Anned Forces of the People". (0.24 seconds) 

M)PT Terrorism Knowledge Base 

The Revolmionary Aimed Foices of the People, known by its Spanish acronym FARP, is 

one of these splinter groups. FARP has demonstrated its continuing ... 

..va-tV' Ikb.oryXNDUp.jsp'^rcuplO-jS?! - '25V. ■ i .-^hcd - SNjvlarj 

MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base 

Revolutionary Amieri Forces of the People (FARP) attacked Police target (July 23. 2000. 

Mexico) Incident Date: July 23. 2000 ... 

--WW Ikb ory.incidfera j&f^im'ID-'MISb -21k- Carh£! - 'Z}±[\\Ui±.im£S:. 

Revolutionary Armed Forces of the People - Wikipedia. the free ... 

Revo lutio uaiy Aimed Foices of (lie People (in Portuguese: Farias Armadas 
Revolucionaiias do Poyo), the armed wing of PAIGC during the struggle against ... 
en vvikiQ'Jdia oi*Sil:i;Rc'VoluiiorF&r;,-_Arriieu_F5!CC-5_.of..lli | 3__Pt>op|& - ] Ik - 
■>&&& ■ >$ii£LMm£ 

African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde ... 

... in which both the political and military arms of the PAIGC were assessed and reorganised 
with a regular army (Revolmionary Armed Foices of the People, ... 

en wKi-jijrjirt or9/v/ikf/Partido_Afric&!iri_daJrjdiif>&nd&iK'is_d&_Guii'ife,„9..Cabn_Vetdo -31k- 
.'".„'^!.::,'' rf - ■ 5;.P.i'!.iLPiiiJi2 

I bL'lif' ri ~r'-'-' : \: ' : .k.!jT>!edi3 ')\t\ | 

Revolutionary Armed Forces of the People: Information from Answers.com 

Revolution jry Armed Forces of the People Revolutionary Aimed Forces of the People 

(in Portuguese Farias Armadas Revolutionaries do Povo ). the armed. 
WW answers rc'm.''iopir/ievolultoii.-ny.Aiined-loices-of.tlie.|j«opU ■ ?9k ■ 

Next, we search for the group by its Spanish name [Tuerzas Armadas 
Revolucionarias del Pueblo"] using generic Google. The results are very different 
and most refer to the Mexican group: 



Google 



Weir 'mapcs Video '' Na>,$ l*,&p$ Desktop msie » 
f Fuerzas. Armadas Revolucionanos del Puet Search ' ' 



F i*t*itf wj 



Web Results 1 * 100 of sbatf 37,300 for Tueuas Armadas RevolucloiMilas del Pueblo " fft.W second? 

i f Sfaif h ia' English f gsi-its. only Yrjy tan specify y0^ r search language in FVfprencas r Si , ,,,,,< » j: ^ 

APIA - Com. unic ado de ias Fuarzas Armadas Revolucionarias del ... - 1 t^__j_ ^.jIi.jl:^ l R%£ji^2!lil<^B 

Fuerz Js Aimadas Revolutionaries del Pueblo FARP Err,iado el FrtJsy, 01 September a Vsew ous huge Inventory ol N*// and 

1st I7-3J35 por apia Login Nickname Passwcrs ... 0?*d Ntisso Cais, Trucks, and SUV's. 

'.%■■•■/ ^['m iftfnl crm.'mocl i - r - r k f''nahi^N J "'-^fi!;i~.'ifii'-<s%,=.i i='ilU - ]'.-■ - " pp ., itUXi- \Wav S i,ion cum-'K s JC iii 

APIA ■ Commtcado di? las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias del ... j '<;.._ ...a..,!. 1 .^. -:•:.;.. I 

Fneiz.is Aimarian Revalucionaiias del Pueblo, FARP Republics fclextcana. a 7 de agostn 

ds 2CC& Eiuiado el tuoErfay, 08 August a fas CS-33 - 3S por apia ... 

/'■'■>■/) *pn ut'ia! r-irii'nvs f : - : r^p'Ytamp=t(-v.*.°.irte=qii-i--.<.t'3 ::: l ■;'"-?' ■ £'■- ■ 

CronoiOQia de E^rcno Fo&utar Revolucionano (EPRj y de las ... * f " . i , i ■. : . ;-,,. \ 

Sujetos desrsfx-tidas, quien&s. eslananvmculados cart «1 orupo subvErsr.'C Fuerras 
Aim a das RevolircEonaiEns del Puehlo (FARP). que opeiaiia en el ?s:aia (*e ... 
■ .w> rj'"wi':" --'- 'enra-p''.. ifnk^f/^i i/-: ; fi.i. '■■ti ■ '■';■<■■ M-t- .. ' ■ ; - v,-* 

CRONO-CC-.A DEL EPR. el ERPivjaj PAPP :?QC 0-2001! ■ [ : L , :_,j.:. - : , 3 

1 4 Coordinl^.'A Guemllera 1,'acional ""Jose Mar'a WofeiOS". loierjrarja por las FueiZM 
Aimadiin Revo|iiclon>iii«$ de) Piteldo (F.ARPJ, el Ejcrtito VVhsta ... 

M-.1-A: ::...:: :....:.-.x^:: :.... I 

f.rHDEMAXRG.i:.C'?r.^o d e DQ c unfeitgcibr de Jos Mc^/i mien:os Arm ados - 1 : i . . u j v ; !,; . ■ ■ .*.t | 
OocuinOfttaciOf r«c;^, P^fs, Grupo. Oslogoria, Triulo 2006 OS 2&, Mnasco, Partid? 
Oerrruciit'CJ Popular Rewo^c/oflwio-ejercflo Popular RewHut/onario ... 

..,-■-, -'J i.KM.f,^, ^1 ■ . _ -.?;:.■:.._„ ...:., 



UNCLASSIFIED //rOR OfriCIAL UOC ONLY 281 



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Notice how different the results are if we switch to Google Mexico 
< http://www.gooQle.com.mx/ > and limit the search to Mexican pages; virtually every 
result refers to the Mexican group FARP, the one we were seeking: 

Accedei 
La Web Imageries Grupos Noting Desktop mas » 



V^OOQtC l" Fuerz9S Anriados Revolutionaries del Puel Busquads | ^g^ VJPa 
V^ Busnueda *"" la Web f oaainas en escanol "" oaainas de Mexico 



L«l Web Rasultados 1 - 10 de aproximadamente 188 de "Fueizas Atmadas Revolucion.nl as del Pueblo" (0.36 sagundos) 

boletin 

... SE T1EWE CONOCIMENTO QUE LAS FUERZAS ARMADAS REVOLUCIONARIAS DEL 

PUEBLO TARP". SON UNA FRACCION ESClNDIDA DEL AUTO DENOMINADO EJERCITO 

POPULAR ... 

WAfwpijr rjnh ii"i!(i : r.iriftL:fjal/b:v[]l/ir,fi/Vi!Jfinni toirni - \AU ■ ^L^;'/'*' - P'iniiVli; -'i^jj;^"'- 

El Sur de Acapuico 26 de del 2006 

... a pesar de todas las descalificaciones y que han usado a las FARP (Fuerzas Aimadas 

Revolucionaiias del Pueblo), para golpear al movimienlo armado, ... 

-\/«w oui^capufcct com m.,/riots.!Jhp''id_not3=^203 - l£!k ■ Lf; ^ y.'^ - cjiwy-,^ jin-jijip ; 

El pais, intestado de qru&os quemlleros 

-Fnerzas Armailas Revolucionarias del Pueblo. Grupos con presencia regional:, Sonora. 
-Comite de Defensa del Pueblo Baja California Sur ... 

wy»\v laensi*- com rnx/cyi-hin/cris-Ciji-'DisCoiriu-T! crji?L,ohjni22%7C20G<i0^GBD3121£ - 13k - 
En ..Mchu ■ P^Hr'V.T.:™:!.'-/.'.-^ 

Reoreso de las bombas cataliz adoras 

... y acreditados a un grupo autodenominado Fueizas Aim.idas Revolucioitaiias del 

Pueblo Nunca se supo m3s de esa organrzacion supuestamente guerrillera. ... 

\v*w.- Ihcrtii'i.wo riix/c(ji-bm/cn£-cciL : [:i?Com'Jni ctj!?Lu!um04%7C^J]4G5??DC5241 - ?k - 

Abrio PGR 15 averiguaaonQs en Oaxaca Cabeza de Vaca 

... y de las Fueizas Aimadas Revolucionaiins del Pueblo (FARP), escision del 

PDPR-EPR, con una actividad de propaganda polilico-mililar en Nazareno Ella. ... 

aw- oom.tOiTi m?J?l5oldeacapulco/nctai/n3592l.hlrrt-2flk ■ Em ".'i r .ji? ■ P-K] i, : ; i<: '.i;Ti;IJ*ri. j :- 

La Jornada 

... Nolasco buscaban infofmacion sobre actrvidades de las Fuerzas Armadas 
Revoliicionaiias del Pueblo (FARP). que hizo su aparicion en Xochimilco en 1999. ... 
V'.v-v.'.jornEd^.uniim ir>i;.Cti04-'11-l!iVL)33r)1t3p php ■ ^-n^a:- ■h inLorei 

Cuestiona la APPO a Rueda por el posible regreso a clases 

Mas aiin. las Fueizas Armadas Revolucionaiias del Pueblo (FARP) convocaron a todos 

loc aftnroc nnlitirns Hoi mnwimiontn nnnular w manictorial a llamar 'a la 



Google's local search usually offers the options to search all of Google, pages only 
from that country, or pages only in the language of the country (sometimes, as in the 
case of India, the Google local search has versions in multiple languages). As we 
have seen, you will get very different search results if you limit your search to a 
specific country and search in the language of that country; the results are especially 
dramatic when the native language uses non-Latin encoding. Here is a comparison 
of a search for [Jii>^ u— *** ] (Nasrallah), first in generic Google: 



282 UNCLASSIFIEP //rorc OITIC I AL USE ONLY 



DOCID: 4046925 

UNCLASSIFIED //FOR OFF I C I AL USE ONLY 



Google HS= 



Web Irriaq&s Video Nev^s Maps Desklop more 

Search 






Web 

XunisiaGate Community ~ *jg jjaio^aH ... - [ L^bi.tm;^;.^ \ 

Full Version- j*— . jb— U iU v>J (JW <^Vi ^.j ... & ^ ^~ *Ji *JSJ JJ£ii Jill ... 
ww-'iurii^q&lu ne^FiirunylofweisJon/mder fihp?i795 hinil- 27k - Ca<:hoiJl- ^\\':)\£.\>'*ixt, 



^^.iUIjSi up^J ^ <>-VI **j ... r 200B / 08 / 09 . y> /-»- j— *->" J-* 1 ^ t^Sli ^ ... 
cw-vv.tunisiaqate.ner/romm/iRdeK-php^acr-STgc^^&t-? 1 ^ 10Bk- Supnltmeni^l Result 
■.U^ili^ - I-[Hl:^.'..l^i,i?-^ 

S ~ 
BBC Arabic corn I ^U»j Jiy I JLmAi L «>ill „. - 1 ir^h^ji^, n^jr.- I 

... i>' y^ j*«» p^ ^ MJ* (^ (J?*' .^lA^ l)" 1 ^ "-"•J*-" <J ^a* l>« oA^ <CAjjkl jJJ ... 

nowc.bbc.co.iik/lii/arsbic.'ri-iiclflie^sst _n?w:..'n?-.-wSFd jS'JDSt O.&im ■ 56k - 

Palestine Information Center - 1 T.^:^'*?!£i^:usi;:, ] 

»ww o^l^tine-info-urdu roni/ijuJu/hrtrnriiPi^niaa sl9l^r:&nr&/2CIQ«;/l001..?Fl 3=J"D4 shunl - 34k - 

Palestine Information Center - 1 Yr^bie ihig p*k,-? 1 

... ^lc LlDJ ^^£. ^^-1 jljyl 'ojjl ^O. ,jta» JtiJJ tfjSjifal tbii ^ £l 4J> '(Jfiic tfljjt luj fU ... 

vw-Vw.pal>;oi : :ric-ir,fc-uidu ccirf)/!jftiu/nBws/2uWa|}ii|/1 l/ndc-:; shiml -221!< ■ 

L'?!l.:.!i<: " r-^'i : p f 5'=;i?y 

[ .=V:.'!J.Y.j.*jJ/J - vualb;£iinii-i.n:c"JniiJ.i:0-T! ] 

Iranian Bar Associations 

-w.w nnb^: nnj/rirt/l rihp ■ 3Rk • 0_r\'n,id ■ JiL^.'iklli-i.-ii*' 



Here is the same search at the Google Saudi Arabia site limited to Saudi sites: 

Desklop 'gt j^ji <^ [ ^** jj-* »-j 



■ Google 



(04H j^^^j!"? i'^j— JW-SOO^'j-i-IO-lc^ ^i 

'■••■ ih > ... -^jjL £i ^ >^ >,c c >i .c^L^i 

Ai Walaii A Saudi newspaper concerning Ise qtebaf. retjiorval, and local rrtatleis -rs s?os» of 

T . 't^ l ^*^ COrrvfij'xrrfii Wi? rfelig^s. cormmeicial. p&Mical, soc^l. ... 

R^d I tie L&ie^i Kov,-$ on U.S / ■ ■ ' ■- - - - ■ ; ■ ?vav •//.■. *f t .r- -. ■.■■. j </tf.iw./202o J3?.5/p'.'litii;-;?poli;ii: ^J1 hi?t* ■ 2** 
FoiDign PoliLy, Viss &. EducaJion 

■:.''. .' .ilu (ju' ; i- ... _^iuj^/S U Ail tj^jji^ibi 

. .. ^i ^j ^liJB "jjv,JI- ^> ^ 4U* j 1 , ^Z jJit ^ Ail (> :-f '■ c^ 1 

^...^ ■_ .:.■."* ■ 1:.::.lL:..i 

... olaLiJ ^'-^. ? - " ^ ^"^^ : r^r J ^ g 












UNCLASSlFIED //rOR OFF I C I AL U3C ONLY 283 



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UNCLASS)FIED //ron ornciAL UGC ONLY 



You can, of course, search in Arabic at the generic Google website, or you can go to 
various specific Google locations to search. Your results will be different depending 
on where you search, how you limit your search (by domain, country), and in what 
language you search. While basic Google may be fine for a "quick and dirty" search, 
detailed research requires us to explore and exercise many search options. 

I suspect we are all guilty of relying too heavily upon Google and thinking that if it is 
not in Google, it doesn't exist (well, at least not on the web). That, of course, is 
wrong. Here is an example. First are the results — rather, the absence of results — of 
a Google query for a Russian website [forummurata.h15.ru]: 



Google 



Weh jrn*ye$ ^j 



n?ws wm% mmsji. 



lorurrtnnursts.lil5:>j 



Search j ggSSf*"** 



Web 

Your sessch- forummurata.h15.ru - did nod match any documents. 
Sue assizors 



♦ Make sure dil words- are spelled correctly. 

♦ Try different keywords 

♦ Try wo«-e general keywords 



Even Google Russia does not find this particular url. However, look at the results for 
the identical query from the Russian search engine Rambler, which returns 5054 
documents from 15 sites: 



Rambler 



■Hl Hortpc-Tn 


KapT<<t*KH 


How "Mi 


""jcpiio" 


Pilco.iti 


C/iojn?n 




Klorurcmuia;a M b iu 










1 Hafmrf 




jle>aftawnGM 













Sw tKMrn: fotummurdtaJil Sju, na^A^nc-comiM; IS, AwyteHMt: 5054 



•\ !.-\jj.j j) '.^iim Ru "M -rt-'if-i 3:<'JMLi 



1.15 



>ttK.-iov«tt.ettoio<:n«'a.vaBPiti? - i- i .,>-vJ> 



C^ai^tu&qLtA;iM-ii.iw*io8iajc*;H*yi^Mrbria , L'>iCJ«iM4BUrpc«ifrto pOsho I2i*er 3iu coCt*Ttte QvteMns c 



1 forunnmur3tahl5.ru fnftSHaa 

.. [not:* I no>fc»Mrej»c | T;mi;>n 1 £*Ofl Crwecc tjMpyttt* Forunttnuratfl hl5.ru ^enyLiee epnw Cp Aei 09. SDO&t.Ol. 

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FORDC.com 



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Please believe me when I tell you that there is a remarkable lack of search engine 
overlap in general, and those differences become even more dramatic when we are 
focusing on international sites, terms, and non-English/non-Latin encoding. 

Interestingly, in the example above, Yahoo performs well, returning 37 hits for the 
same query. The results for Yahoo and Yahoo Russia are virtually identical, which 
means they are searching essentially the same database, while in general Google's 
local searches produce very different results. Yahoo offers its own version of an 
international page. 



Yahoo! International 



http://world.yahoo.com/ 















e* 








jQ^HOOJ.^i^" l" ? Sign Up 


<h* Vfib I 


Search J 

Halp 


International Yahoo! 










Americas 


Asia Pacific 




Europe 




Argentina Mexico 


Asia 


Korea 


Austria 


Netherlands 


Brazil U.S. 


Australia & N2 


Malaysia 


Catalan 


Norwav 


Canada U.S. hi Chinese 


Cnina 


Philippines 


Denmark 


Russia 


Canada en francos V! Telemundo 


Hortg Kong 


Singapore 


Finland 


Spain 




India 


Taiwan 


France 


Sweden 




Indonesia 


Thailand 


Germany 


Switzerland 




Japan 


Vietnam 


Gtetce 
Italy 


UK A Ireland 


C«n»da .nfriftCiu .Canada. 


NOtW»\ 

UK ft Inland* 
N*therUrnJ* * 
Switzerland 
Franc*, a 


• Finland 
'« * Sweden 

■ Germanu 
• • Austria 
• Italy 

■ Greece 


• Rusria 

*A*ia 




United State; • 

U.S. m Chin***.. ■■ / 


5p.m. 


China* •Ka«a 

■ Japan 




V! Telamundo ..." 

Mexico* 






., • Taiwan 
India • H "« *•«< ' ' ,_ 

Singapore* 

* Indonesia 





tAtgcntina 



> Australia feNZ 



While non-US search sites are often the best places to perform country-specific 
searches, finding these resources can be a research project in itself. Your best bet 
for locating these search tools is to start with a directory of search engines that 
offers a section devoted to international search tools, such as the sites listed here. 
Also, remember to look at the megasearch sites for sections on international, 
regional, or country search engines. 

All Search Engines.com http://www.allsearchenqines.com/foreiqn.html 

Beaucoup! http://www.beaucoup.com/ 

European Search Engines http://www.netmasters.co.uk/european search engines/ 



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FetchFido European Search Engines 

http://homepaqe.ntlworld.conn/fetchfido2/interface/search engines european.htm 

FetchFido World Search Engines 

http://homepaqe.ntlworld.com/fetchfido2/interface/search engines worldwide.htm 

FinderSeeker http://www.finderseeker.com/ 

Infisource Foreign Language Search Engines 

http://www.infini50urce.eom/search-enqines.html#foreign 

International Search Engines http://www.arnoldit.com/lists/intlsearch.asp 

ISEDB Local and Regional Search Engines 

http://www.isedb.com/html/lnternet Search Engines/Local and Regional Search Engines/ 

ISEDB Local and Regional Directories 

http://www.isedb.com/html/Web Directories/Local and Regional Directories/ 

Phil Bradley's Country Based Search Engines http://www.philb.com/countryse.htm 

Regional and Special Search Engines 

http://www.ntu.edu.sg/lib/search/specialframe.htm 

Search Engine Colossus W http://www.searchenqinecolossus.com/ 

Search Engine Guide http://www.searchengineguide.com/pages/Regional/ 

Search Engine Index http://www.search-enqine-index.co.uk/Reqional Search/ 

Search Engines 2 http://www.search-enqines-2.com/ 

Search Engines Worldwide (2003) http://home.inter.net/takakuwa/search/ 

Ultimate Search Engines Links Page http://www.searchenqinelinks.co.uk/ 

In summary, the basic rules for international search are: 

> Search first using generic search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Live 
Search, Gigablast, Exalead for a quick overview and to size the query. 

> Locate and bookmark multiple international search engines and directories, 
including country-specific search sites of major search engines such as 
Google and Yahoo. 

> Search on the English-language term [Kurdistan Workers Party], the 
transliterated term [Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan], the native language term in 
its proper encoding, e.g., [Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan] in Kurdish, and the 
term in any related language, e.g., [Kurdistan \§g\ Partisi] in Turkish. 

> Search for variations on a name, e.g., PKK is also known as KADEK, Kongra- 
Gel, the Freedom and Democracy Congress of Kurdistan, Halu Mesru 



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Savunma Kuvveti (HSK), or the Kurdistan People's Congress (KHK)...you get 
the idea. Some queries demand a lot of attention and effort. 

> Search for acronyms in their native language version [PHE], a transliterated 
version [RNE], or an English-language version [RNU], all of which stand for 
the group Russian National Unity, aka Russkoe Natsionalnoe Edinstvo (RNE) 
or PYCCKOE HAMMOHAJlbHOE Efll/IHCTBO (PHE). 

> Use sites such as Wikipedia to find native language spellings and encodings; 
these can be copied and pasted into search engines that can properly handle 
non-Latin encoding and/or diacritics. 

> Limit queries to country-level domains (e.g., site: plus country digraph) or to a 
specific language (e.g., language: plus country digraph) or use the search 
engine's advanced search feature. 




Rule Six 

Look for specialized and/or unique 
functions in foreign search engines 



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Online Dictionaries and Translators 



Finding online translation tools is becoming easier as the quality of these machine 
translators steadily improves as well. There are three basic types of translation tools 
available via the Internet. At the simplest level are online dictionaries, which 
translate one word at a time, usually from one language to another. One step up 
from online dictionaries are text translators, which translate words, phrases or 
maybe a paragraph entered either by typing or by copy-and-paste. Text translators 
are most useful for translating an odd or unusual word or phrase to English. The 
crown jewels of Internet translation are the web page translators, which automati- 
cally translate a web page or even an entire website. The quality of the machine 
translation varies enormously from product to product (some are surprisingly good; 
others are dreadful). However, most are usually good enough to let you know if the 
page you're viewing is about soccer or cellular technology. And certainly if you are 
dealing with languages that do not use the Latin alphabet (Russian, Chinese, 
Hebrew, for example), almost any machine translation is a blessing. 



yourDictionary 



http://www.vourdictionary.com/index.shtrril 



There are innumerable language dictionaries now on line, most of which offer some 
sort of automated look-up feature. I believe the best of the online dictionary 
metadirectories is the one created at Bucknell University that has become 
yourDictionary.com. This site has the most comprehensive, impressive set of links to 
dictionaries I have seen. 



youi/^S^ict ion aryx om T 




'2 'nvms & more I ' < Grammars | =3 Language Identifiers | O Research | © Library | dj Fun & Games | ; £ More 



Professio n al Tr a nsla ti on Service 

tu.'in^,ib, brochures, wtibojCfQ. -yotlytarc - virtually a^V tL s )i<? 



Language 
fti c rio Haiies 

Top Ten Language 
Dictionaries: 

■3 English 
'J Spanish 
0; French 
^ German 
O Japanese 
'i Chinese 
Q> Hindi 
* Arabic 
'j Russian 
& Thai 
O230 moie'. 



Multi-lingual 



Quick Look-up (Engli 



Dictionary: 

TYPE IN YOUR WORD ft CLICK GO! 




^^ 



Thesaurus: 

TYPE IN YOUR WORD ft CLICK GO! 



B£) 



O- Help with tfjg Dictionary ft Thesaurus 

Meni am- Webster; CoHtqi.aU& Dictionary f« Thesaurus 



Word of the Dai 



YDC SELECT 



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mmms^-j 



fiTeUIBRARYM 
|P5!FR££lTRIALflL 



ZTi »-«WilHV(iI:lil3a ilt'J 



March 
Madness 
Glossary 



Hi! 



EXCLUSIVE ANALYSIS 

[Inaugural Address 



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Foreignword 



http://www.foreiqnword.com/ 



Foreignword is an excellent language and translation resource that automatically 
links users with more than 265 online dictionaries for 73 languages and single point 
access to 28 text and url translators for over 38 different languages. Be sure to 
check the Tools page for Translate Now!. This page provides access to machine 
translation tools, including Systran, Arcnet, Worldlingo, InterTran, and Cybertrans, 
among others. 




JDoTvruoad Now* 



$ba*f 0««e Jruiguage wh%ft& 






>£ am/vdu 



Foreignword.com 

The L.nguj^c Silt- 



Mm****-! "imam*.* m&i'ztmm. 



Translate 

► word 
translation 

Access 265+ 
online dictionaries 
for 73 languages 
English, German, 
Spanish, Italian, 
Dutch, Chinese, 
more.., 

►• Text 
translation 

Use this tool to 
translate small 
texts. Some 60 
languages 
supported 
English, German, 
Spanish, Italian, 
Dutch, Chinese, 
more,,. 

► Language 
guessers 

what language is 
this? 

► Find a pro 

Wirh rhp 



iPj 



More software fro 
Foreignword.,. 



from: [JESt 
Bulgarian 
Catalan 
The first free Cebuano 

all-in-one translat Chechen 
wizard for PCs. Chinese 
Download no* Chinese (pinym 
Chinese (yale) 
'X a isi/vo Croatian 
Czech 
Danish 
Dulch 
English 
Esperanto 

t Estonian 

Software tools fo 
translation: 

Finnish 

- Text translation Fren cn 

-Translation Frisian 

memories Galician 

-Other tools Georgian 

The origins of 
machine translation 
by John Hutchins -> 

Do translators fit into 
machine 
translation? -> 






I *Mono-lingual ^J Go 



se of 



idangered 



alth 
jnslation 



narket 
irtimedia 



e gets 
■use 



ttore/sugge 



Tongue tied no more 
Black English Equals 
Any Other Language 
Translation mistakes 
can be dangerous for 
medical patients 



Eureka, the new 
search engine for 
language and 



;.;: - : ' ■ mofe/suggest 

Numbers in Over 4500 
Languages 

TrAnclarinn 



J 



^EUREKA 

Language Search Enghe 



It's new at 
Foreignword: 

All our free 
language tools are 
now also available 
in: 

->Po!lsh 
-^Slovenian 
— >German 
~>Catatan 
~>Russian 
— >Udlidii 
-^Turkish 
-->Hungartan 
-->Port)iyue^« 
(Eur.) 

~>Portuguese 
(Br.) 
-->Kreek 
->Crodtiaii 
->Miite(]onian 



Don't miss the new 
KATO- RUSSIA 



PROMT 



http://www.translate.ru/enq/srvurl.asp 



PROMT maintains the best overall web page translation service. PROMT offers both 
text and url translations to and from English, Russian, French, German, and 
Spanish. Keep in mind there are many more single language machine translation 
services available. Use Word2Word and Foreignword to locate these sites. 

The most widely used, though not the best, translation system on the Internet 
remains the Systran machine translation software. Systran's translation is available 
through AltaVista's Babelfish, Google, AOL, and the French search engine Voila. 



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Pfl 

'?! 

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km 


irte 


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1 (^pruiiil Prolusion**! 7.0: Features awl Benefit r 


* \" J JWS&AM ■ 


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SB'S 


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j^J'T' M :l^^^'l!?*^kf' mft ; 5 ! K> *> FA G AJ?dirt «n**J: 


maiJ 






B^miozs 



t$N- Translate text 



Translate WWW 



Translate E-rnaii 



Translate WftP 



ayi 



ebsite Translation by PROMT 

HWfl offers free Website Tianslailon seivice for English, German. French, Spanish, Portuguese 
(Brazilian), Italian and Russian languages. The service is powered by new -<imonrt ?.() h;m>!.tii<>ti s&ftw^fr . 

All ths text conlenl of Web site will be translated including hyperlinks and picture titles. Also, the original Web 
site layoul is preserved in translated pages and linked pages will be translated automatically when you 
navigate to them. 

>» Make your website multilingual for FREE! <« 



Online TRANSLATOR 



Do wnU.nt 



Address; 



fhttpiF 



Direction, IJJ!§lL s J]^H§— a " ? ra J?!l a i3 Subject: j Common lexis 3] 



Jul 17 -Jan 18 




I s Russis 



18.10.2006 

TROMT Transition 
Scwercm AOL 

03.10.2006 

P^WT«nteiMhe 



Encoding: , , Russjan . Erp0 | isn translation 

Autotranslate links Oerman-Russlan translation 
Russian-German translation 

Transliterate unkn French-Russian translation 
Russian-French translation 
Spanish-Russian translation 
Russian-Spanish translation 
. Italian-Russian translation 
English-German translation 

1 Type or pas German-English translation 

2 Choose tht English-Spanish translation 

3 You can ch Spanish-English translation 
field "Encot English-French translation 

4 To IranslaK French-English translation 
first page c Engltsh-Portuaueso transiatic I 

5 Press "Trar Portuguese-English translate 

French-German translation 
German-French translation 
French-Spanish translation z. 



How to trvttvjla' 






(Auto) 



S 



m 




ite you would like to translate, 
imthe list (e.g.. "internet"), 
and translated pages in the 

surfing through links from the 




Logos Multilingual Portal 

Another site that has been around for years but was vastly improved is the Logos 
Multilingual Portal. Logos includes a dictionary, a universal conjugator, glossaries, 
a translation course, and links to other language and translation sites. The Logos 
dictionary contains over 7 million entries in 150 languages. In addition to translating 
terms, the Logos dictionary gives complete definitions, grammar, context, 
pronunciation, and, in some cases, associated pictures. Logos also offers access to 
over 1000 glossaries in different languages. 

One of Logos' best features its ability to search in all languages at once, which is 
very helpful in language identification, i.e., identifying non-English terms without 
needing to know the language of origin. The easiest way to find terms in multiple 
languages is to go to the Logos Dictionary main page, select Advanced Search, then 
type in the term. Logos will present the term in all the languages in which it occurs: 



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about us 



dictionary 
children's dictionary 



universal conjugator 



wordtheque 
children's library 



I logos 



toolbars 



anagrams 
crossword 



add search box 



non solo purofc 





Query word :^ pa role 



Abbiamo fcisogno di vinceie !a fame, 
la iniseria e resclusione socials. 
AssaclatJone Itaitacta Sostenltort Fame &n> 



lang4Jage 



querv aaain 




help 










English 


parole 






II 


French 


parole 


3: 


Hebrew 


parole 


II 


Italian 


parole 


5S 


Latvian; Lettish 


parole 














Bi 



If I then select parole in Italian, I am presented with its definition (in Italian) and the 
option to translate parole, with the following results: 



wordtheque 
children's library 



logos toolbars 



anagrams 
crossword 



add search box 



forum 
glossaries 



helo 



credits 
translation course 



wordfast 
verba volanl 



home page 



Quotation of the day 



IP English 


II 


Italian 


WMmm 


Spanish 


II 


French 


BS 


German 


e- 


Russian 




Arabic- 


m 


Chinese 


■1 


Albanian 


^ 


Ar agones 


£9 


Asturian 


an kb 

33 SS 


Basque 


M0i Bengali; Bans) a 


p| Bolognese 


SB 


Brazilian 


Portuguese 


£] 


Bresciano 



= Breton 



L word 
L parola 
L palahra 
mot 
Wort 

L- ^L 

l a 

fiale 
parola 
pailahra 
L Mfa 

parola 
palavra 
parla 



ASSOCIAZIONI, NOMI E NUMERI 
CONTRO t_H MAFIE 




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Logos also offers a feature called Logos Library (formerly Wordtheque), which is an 
interface to a vast database containing nearly 700 million words in almost 32,000 
texts of novels, technical literature, and other texts in many languages. Logos is 
certainly one of the most valuable linguistic resources on the Internet. For example, 
here is a search on the keyword [web] and [Shakespeare]: 



CONTRO I_E MAFIE 




Wordtheque | news | jobs| Toolbar | stats | 

You can toil a word by the company it keeps 



New publications 
this month 



about us 



c*co logos 
cWtiren's dictionary 



universal conjugates 



wordtheque 
etiidren's library 



logos toolbars 



anagrams 
crossword 



add search box 



foturn 
glossaries 



[he* 



credits 
translation course 



Iworflfasl 



context information for: web 
Match N. 1 



Match N. 2 



Author: Shakespeera- William 

Title: KING HENRY V 

Source: http://me-tech, mit.edu/Shakespeare/History/kinghe 

Subject: DRAMA (812) O 



... FLUELLEN "Tis no matter for his swellings nor his turkey-cocks. God 
pless you, Aunchient Pistol! you scurvy, lousy knave, God pless youl 
PISTOL Ha! art thou bedlam? dost thou thirst, base Trojan, To have me 
fold up Parca's fatal web? Hencei I am qualmish at the smell of leek. 
FLUELLEN I peseech you heartily, scurvy, lousy knave, at my desires, and 
rny requests, and my petitions, to eat, look you, this leek: because, look 
you, you do not love it. 



I 



Author; Shakespeare William 

Title: VErNUS AND ADONIS 

Source: fiUp://the-tech,riirt.edu/3hdkeipe<jre/PjetryA/enusA[ 

Subject: POETRY (811) O 



., . believe, and yet too credulousl Thy weal and woe are both of them 
extremes; Despair and hope makes thee ridiculous; The one doth flatter 
thee in thoughts unlikely, In likely thoughts the other kills thee quickly. 
Now she unweaves the web that she hath wrought; Adonis lives, and Death 
is not to blamej It was not she that call'd him, all-tc naught: Now she adds 
honours to his hateful name; She clepes him king of graves and grave for 
kings, 



i 



Match N. 3 



Author; Shakespeare William 

Trtle: TRCILUS AND CRESSlDfc 



Wordtheque 

biography 

all the Wordtheque 

biographies 



translators 
exchange 



rr^rrr^^^^^^^^^rrrrrrr^rrrrrrrrH^^rr^rr^rr^wg 




THE DIVINE 
COMEDY - HELL 



translator? exchange 



Logos 



http://www.loqos.it/lang/transl en. html 



Logos Dictionary 

http://www.logosdictionarv.com/pls/dictionary/new dictionary-index p 

Fagan Finder Translation Wizard 

The main page of Michael Fagan's excellent search site, Fagan Finder is designed 
to "help people find what they are looking for" by providing a variety of web, 
reference, media, news, and other search options. The home page also includes a 
number of links to "informational pages" (e.g., on RSS, popularity rankings) and 
useful tools. Probably the best of Fagan's useful tools is the translation wizard. The 
translation wizard brings together over two-dozen online translators from other 



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websites. Many of the translators Fagan Finder accesses will already be familiar to 
users— Systran, PROMT, InterTran. But there are many others that users may not 
know about and Fagan Finder can help you locate and use them from one interface. 

Keep several things in mind: first, Fagan Finder is simply an interface to 
translation tools located at other websites. Second, some of the tools it accesses 
are only word-for-word ("dictionary") translations while other will translate blocks of 
text and still others are true url or webpage translators, translating entire webpages 
or even sites. Finally, some of the sites Fagan Finder accesses require registration 
to use (e.g., Ajeeb's Arabic to English webpage translation tool). All this being said, 
the Fagan Finder translation wizard is a wonderful resource not only because of all 
the translation tools it brings together in one place, but perhaps even more for the 
virtual international keyboards it offers. At present, Fagan Finder provides the 
following virtual keyboards: 

• Arabic 

• Cyrillic 

• Greek 

• Hebrew 

• Thai 

Virtual keyboards make it much easier to translate text from one of these languages 
to English because they mean users do not need international input locales (i.e., 
software for non-Latin keyboards) loaded on their computers. Fagan Finder's virtual 
keyboard option even supports right-to-left languages. Second, the international 
keyboards can be used not only to translate terms but also to search on non-English 
terms. How? It's simple. Select the international keyboard of your choice at Fagan 
Finder, type a word or phrase in, say, Hebrew. 



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lagan FiSter > Translation Wizard (beta] 



Entei text or a URL: [change text direction] 




m < .switch "r 



Hebrew Keyboard n 2? n i? n ^ v o p d*j ? id •> t 
Cltoose another [front' language to use its script 



[liicie international keyboard] 



[help & iiif ol 



identify language 



save options 



Fagan Finder Translation Wizard 



http://www.faqanfinder.com/translate/ 



Then copy and paste the Hebrew term or phrase into a search engine such as 
Google and Yahoo (and many international search engines) that handle multiple 
character encodings and you can search on the term without having to load a 
Hebrew keyboard. 

Here are some other interesting and important facts and features about the Fagan 
Finder translation wizard. The wizard gives users the option to list all translation 
matches, to choose multiple translators (when available), to select dialects, to list 
matches if there are several translation tools so users can pick one or more. Also, in 
addition to HTML, PDF and SWF (Flash) file formats are supported for webpage 
translations. 

Another useful tool that is part of the Fagan Finder translation wizard is the 
language identification interface. Here users can enter either text or a url, and 

Fagan Finder will query a set of language identification tools to try to determine the 
language and encoding of the text. However, keep in mind that it often easy to 
determine the language/encoding of a webpage either by looking at the Page Info 
(in Mozilla only; look at charset) or Page Source in both Mozilla and Internet 
Explorer. Look for charset, which will indicate a specific character set, which you can 
then use to identify the language. For example, Windows-1256, ISO 8859-6, ISO 
8859-1 all are Arabic language encodings. 

However, you cannot always find this information using Page Source/Info and, for 
individual words or phrases, Fagan Finder's language identification interface is 
especially valuable. My tests of the language identification tool indicate it usually 
does a good job of identifying either the language alone or the language and the 
encoding. Fagan Finder's language identification is not a single tool but a single 
interface to many language identification tools. Users have the option to choose 
among 10 language identification tools. Given the complexity and difficulty of 
language identification, it's probably a good idea to compare the results of several 
different tools and not rely on one. 



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For each supported language, Fagan Finder also provides a separate page with 
useful information about the language, translations, and links to other related sites. 
Fagan Finder does offer a complete list of supported languages, though there is no 
link to it from either the Fagan Finder home page or translation wizard page (the link 
is below). There is also a separate page listing all the translators invoked by Fagan 
Finder and a page devoted to the translation wizard's language identification tool. 

Fagan Finder Translation Wizard http://www.faqanfinder.com/translate/ 

Fagan Finder Translation Wizard Languages Page 

http://www.faqanfinder.com/translate/lanquaqe.php 

Fagan Finder Translation Wizard List of Translators 

http://www.faqanfinder.com/translate/tool.php 

Fagan Finder Translation Wizard Language Identification 

http://www.faqanfinder.com/translate/identify.php 



Google's Arabic ^ English Webpage and Text 

http://www.qooqle.com/lanquaqe tools 

Until recently, the only free online Arabic/English webpage translation tool was the 
Tarjim Site for Online Translation using the Sakhr translation software, where 
registration was required. Late last week Google introduced Arabic <-► English text 
and — more importantly — webpage or url translations to its language tools page. 
Here's what Google had to say about its new tool: 

"Because we want to provide everyone with access to all the world's information, 
including information written in every language, one of the exciting projects at 
Google Research is machine translation. Most state-of-the-art commercial 
machine translation systems in use today have been developed using a rules- 
based approach and require a lot of work by linguists to define vocabularies and 
grammars. 

Several research systems, including ours, take a different approach: we feed the 
computer with billions of words of text, both monolingual text in the target 
language, and aligned text consisting of examples of human translations between 
the languages. We then apply statistical learning techniques to build a translation 
model. We have achieved very good results in research evaluations. 

Now you can see the results for yourself. We recently launched an online version 
of our system for Arabic-English and English-Arabic . Try it out! Arabic is a very 
challenging language to translate to and from: it requires long-distance 
reordering of words and has a very rich morphology. Our system works better for 
some types of text (e.g. news) than for others (e.g. novels) — and you probably 



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should not try to translate poetry ... but do stay tuned for more exciting 
developments." 108 

The big question in everyone's mind is: how good is this new tool? Take a look at 
this translation of the main Arabic Wikipedia page, first in Arabic... 



iijLuj 4j._^»*j -Le_^w_j llAlU+j tA^J i^._^j_ t A «ii ji Ltl 4i* ^« ^£,1 >» ,'JUiil ii*!* t. j^^o* "U^.JL j* * 

J^t ^jej ~0CG j>V_vlj? y* **^ ijauill cjSif . U j^w ^i i-*L«JI ^*^il ^Ll^ ,^*4i i+l^j r 

,k*^ 12.702 ^^' 30 

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***** 




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then in the English translation provided by Google: 



108 Franz Och, Research Scientist, Google Research Blog, April 28, 2006, 

< http://gooqleresearch.bloqspot.com/2006/04/statistical-machine-translation-live.htinl > (November 
28, 2006). 



296 



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\ l^yJ,r,U 



Main Page 



iii^jiiJi *!/&& ^Xs-AI ^itf ■ k*SkJi\ ,'& ,.iik llivt, 



"The Ekobcdia 'multilingual project in mote than cne hunched language - Gumrso;;? Accurst© , 
integrated, diversified, open, impart is* and free of ai, all c«n contribute to the edited . Launched ihe Arebcc 
version in Jdy 2003 Tnere ere now 1 2.698 Essay . 

It this firsi site vist, sniittfed by reading pages Hewcom^i s welcome new , and found on page 
Pep*Ate<l question* C^rtnnd what thevwant pages took A3 &isi 4* tte Pfease gotoH«kl 
Efccbedid General debate. 



Suno&y 

April 30 

The first 
spring 

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/ 



Culture The Arts 

Literature ■ Civilisations • Chart • 
Orenrui ■ ^nnar.-j ■ Languages - £c^tw 



Life And the community 

Foutl ditd Ui;nks * Economy - Garner 
Cccurity ■ Animals ■ Sport ■ Tourism ■ 
Poitcv ■ Press • Heattn ■ -aw ■ Plant"- 
franker 



Natural sciences The Mathematics 

Alive Neurological saences ■ Orbit * 
Physics ■ Chemistry - Engines-ring 

Social srjcnr.cs And humane 

Date - W3rs • Archaeology ■ Socioloav 
■ A'lChronjfogy ■ Psvdioboy • Political 
Science 1 ■ Philosophy ■ Linguist ■ 
Battles 






Tift kijjU* 



Google's Arabic language tool is based on the company's own research and 
development and is not a product of Systran. Is it perfect? Hardly, and no one would 
expect it to be. But is it a whole lot better than nothing? Absolutely. I have always 
found machine translation tools to be most useful in translating between two very 
different languages, for example between English and languages, such as Arabic, 
that do not use the Latin alphabet. Interestingly, this tool will probably not be met 
with enthusiasm in some Arabic speaking countries. For example, the UAE bans 
online translation tools, which creates an enormous barrier for non-English speaking 
Arabs because so little of the web is in Arabic. 109 However, all in all, this is extremely 
welcome news. 



Babelplex Bilingual Search 



http://www.babelplex.com/ 



Babelplex is a "bilingual search service that searches the web in one language and 
in another language via a cross-language information retrieval system." 110 Babelplex 
is the brainchild of HK Tang. As with many creations, Babelplex is the product both 
of Tang's frustration and his need for something that didn't exist. The frustration is 



109 



United Press International, "The Web: Arabic Language Internet," 29 March 2006, 
: http://www.phvsorg.com/news628623Q7.html > (14 November 2006). 

About Babelplex, < http://www.babelplex.com/about.html > (14 November 2006). 



110 



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one many of us have experienced: searching in non-Latin character sets when the 
keyboard is not configured for those languages. The need was driven by the fact that 
Tang and his family are bilingual, meaning they often want to search in more than 
just English. Tang also observed that "if you simply search down to the simplest 
equation, there are two sides. Output, which Google has solidly nailed down, and 
input, which is very relevant when searching in foreign text. The input side is 
harder because computers are initially designed for the user to input text in one 
language, and anything else requires the user to make changes. 

Babelplex does the work for you by using AltaVista's Babelfish Translation, Google 
Translate, or Yahoo Language Search tools and the AltaVista, Google, or Yahoo 
search tools to run parallel queries in two languages. Take a look at the Babelplex 
homepage and you'll get the idea: 



Babelplex 

igSgarcfrJ and search your [E^sSTeJ^ 



Choose a search engine to EUlH>1|ilex: 

AltaVtsIa - Google- Gpo_qte $ ^j jjjjj} - Google fo % j jg IS j - G.oofile.8'5S£gi'- Google "ft £!•'• ffagtite Dggisch - Go.agle ss part-pt 

£0 ale f rancais .- i3cQ qteE,UrwK d -G oogle Italian ?'- G eodle frledei lands ■ Gooaje Portugues - G'oo a le Ha pyccK PU - YahdQJ 



What you don't see above is the list of to and from language pairs: 



111 John Battelle, "Babelplex: Search in Two Languages," John BatteHe's Searchblog, 26 November 
2004, < http://battellemedia.conn/archives/0Q1065.php > (14 November 2006). 



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Babelplex 



rcTiLJ and search the [Arabic translation of your English keywords 



i m i 1 1 1 111 m il 1 1 ii ii — 

i Chinese translation of youi English ^keywords 

I English tronslalion of your Arabic keywords 

»xai?u'lri sHardr " Beijing 2008 " i^ij;r, f , ??suiU liiai maiij English translation of your Chinese keywords 

! English translation of your French keywords 

(English translation of your German keywords 

^. ,-11 , 'English translation of your Italian keywords 

Choose a Google Uoin.im to use fo: „ ,. . , . ,. < , . . 

Argentina - Australia - BejaJA ■ Brasil - Canada - Chile - Colombia - Cuba - 0«il S chlai.d ■ Es^ ^ S rQnS 6 0n <**»" ?*"**** bywords 
N^Z.Tii^ TCsIiTfeh rp^Tu - P^T aI .- p3i,ip"Ri^Scl^i7 - Singapore - SouThA^ Eng sh rons a on o your Korean keywords 

s s_ — a_K — ; English translation olyour Portuguese keywoids 

. ,| ,j^ ^j| l^j ' yl J English tr_ons|a(iqn of yqui Spanish |. keywords, 

" ^ ' 1 "^ ^^- " -^-" ( ^ : -" ^^" ^^ French translation of your English keywords 

French translation of your German keywords 

German translation of your English keywords 
German translation of your French keywords 
itaiian translation of your English keywords 
Japanese translation of your English keywords 
Korean translation of your English keywords 
Portuguese translation of your English keywords 
Spanish translation of your English keywords 



©2000 Bdbalplsx- 



-pogk VAX Bilingual Saarch 



How do you use Babelplex? Enter a query in the SEARCH box in the language of 
your choice from the language pairs supported, then select a language to translate 
to/from. Babelplex now uses only Google to search. Here is a simple example of a 
search from English to Arabic: 



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Google I 



Sign in -J 
Web Images Video News Maps more » 
policy today Search 



Web Results 1 - 10 of about 53 1 .000.000 for policy io<lay . (0.28 seconds) 

Policy Today - Home 

Policy Today - A twice-monthly digital magazine spanning topics in politics, 
economics, law and society.. Policy Today's editorial brief. 
www.|»<tlicyiot|ay.co:rV-23k ■ C >(.;J;if d - ^liijilar 

Policy Today - Common Cause 

We are pleased that our redisricting reform efforts in California are featured in a 
new digital publication called Policy Today that debuted this week with ... 
-■■vvw. common eau-ic- or^ed!Siiicting/|>olH'yio;l<iy - 17k .yjnsisfj - Sjmi^Lfci^Mi: 

Fiscal Policy Today 

Overview Fiscal Policy Today ... and by Ihe 1960s the viaw that the government 

could use fiscal policy to "fine tune" the economy was widespread. ... 

www ing.-imayne com/econ/FiscalDead/Oveiviev^I'ln^wa html ■ ?k - 

Amazon.com: Japanese Foreign Policy Today Books: Takashi 

Inoqiichi ... 

Amazon.com: Japanese Foreign Policy Today: Books: Takashi 

Inoguthi.Purnendra Jain by Takashi Inoguchi.Purnendra Jain. 

www ^rna;ori ijrri'J&p&Me5H-For«igr : -PftlicyJ^^rtihi-liic^iC!'ii/ofj J '0jir???0~G - 

11Pk - ~}_0; : (- -.7 f .l.''ti. ,:>v!i«-,ii 

AEI - Events 

We got a 6.1 percent average GDP growth per year, but I think that when we look 
at a more assertive Russian Foreign Policy today we should nol confuse ... 
www a?i oiy/swtii^/filier sli.eventlD. HDO/transcnrM asp - 162k ■ 



AEI - Events 



<1 



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^ idUiii 0^157^ ^.OJ-ktfsl^... 2005 <M>> cJJ-^\ d-i j- >J a^ 1 ... 

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«f : " ' " : I I ± 



Babalplex | policy today 



qooqte | and qoogle the | Arabic translation of your English keywords *l l?AL f™w Split Frames 



And here is the same query translated from Arabic to English: 



Google e? 



^■iqn in j 
Web Images Video News f^aps more >» 

SBatoh 



Web 



Results 1 - 10 of about 1.630.000 for 0.03) 



saconds) 



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Google 



Wel> Images Video News Mapj moie 



|The policy today 



Search : 



Web Results 1 ■ 10 of about 897,000,000 for The policy today . (0.18 seconds) 
News results for The policy today - '^wi^i^'f, inn F tp f i?s 

j}3% Pont ask" policy on illegals under fire ■ Toronto 3;ai - G hours ago 

Policy Today -Home 

Policy Today - A twice-monthly digital magazine spanning topics in politics, 

economics, law and society, , Policy Today's editorial brief. 

www policyiodiiy com/ • 23k ■ Cached ■ ■ii.'.ili[5i.r±</.. t :. :: ; 

Fiscal Policy Today 

Overview: Fiscal Policy Today ... and by the 1960s the view that the government 
could use fiscal policy to "fine tune" the economy was widespread. ... 
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C : j '.;!.;>."•.' - ^ i i''! l U r .^il^ 

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Inoguchi ... 

Amazon.com: Japanese Foreign Policy Today: Books. Takashi 

Inoguchi.Purnendra Jain by Takashi Inoguchi.Purnendra Jain. 

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AEI • Events 

We got a 6.1 percent average GDP growth per year, but I think thai when we look 
at a more assertive Russian Foreign Policy lodny we should not confuse ... 
www aei oro/*veni?/trlter all.everrlD.MOB/transCnpt a«p - lO - 

AEI - Events 

Russian Foreign Policy Today. Ideology, Objectives, Tactics ...What are T i 

*j ™_lll"™.L."l^ 17™ ^1 '""( "" ' " "" >J^ 



300 



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Not bad. However, the quality of results varies greatly, in part depending upon the 
complexity of queries and in part on how good the translation software works. 
Anyone who has used machine translation tools knows they are limited. Here are 
some tips that might help make your Babelplex queries more successful. 

> Keep it simple : the query [syllogism] worked very well going from English to 
most languages, but [windows operating system] stumped most of the 
translation services in pretty much every language. 

> Avoid proper names : proper names probably will not translate; a search for 
[quicken] finds acelere in Spanish; a search for [bill gates] from English to 
simplified Chinese and back to English produced interesting but unhelpful 
results. 

> Syntax matters : you will get different results for the translation to Spanish of 
the English query [spanish military] versus [military Spanish]. 

> Use synonyms judiciously : while it might seem intuitively obvious that using 
synonyms or related terms might produce better results, it may in fact confuse 
matters. If you are searching for information about cows, [cow] produces 
better results than [cow cattle bovine steer]. Also, remember that the default 
operator for all these search engines is AND, so they will only return 
webpages containing all the search terms. 

Babelplex has nice user features for viewing results. The split screen shows both the 
original query and the query translated into a second language. The left frame 
displays the results of the original query and the right frame shows the results in the 
language chosen for translation. If no translation of a query is possible, you will see 
the translation tool's webpage and will have the option to try the translation and 
subsequent search from that page. 

Babelplex enters the pantheon of search engine augmentation sites — including 
FindForward , Soople , FaqanFinder's Ultimate Google Interface — as a welcome and 
useful addition. 



Finding Online Dictionaries 

Foreignword http://www.foreiqnword.com/Tools/dictsrch.htm 

Language Automation's Glossaries http://www.rahul.net/lai/qlossaries.html 

Martindale's Language and Translation Center 

http://www.martindalecenter.com/Lanquaqe.html 

Paderborn University List of Dictionaries 

http://www-math.uni-paderborn.de/dictionaries/Dictionaries.html 



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Word2Word 
yourDictionary 



http://www.word2word.com/dictionarv.html 
http://www.vourdictionary.com/ 



Online Multilingual Dictionaries 



Digital Dictionaries of South Asia 

Eurodicautom* 

Foreignword 

Language to Language 

Logos * 

OneLook Dictionaries 



http://dsal.uchicaao.edu/dictionaries/ 

http://europa.eu.int/eurodicautom/ControHer 

http://www.foreiqnword.com/Tools/dictsrch.htm 

http://www.lanqtolanq.com/ 

http://wwwJoqos.it/lanq/transl en. html 

http://www.onelook.com/ 

Online Dictionary http://www.online-dictionary.biz/ 

English<->French, German, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, Russian 

Papillon Project http://www.papillon-dictionarv.org/Home.po 

English<->Estonian, German, French, Japanese, Vietnamese, Korean, Malay, Chinese 

FreeDict http://www.freedict.com/ 

Travlang's Translating Dictionaries http://dictionaries.travlanq.com/ 

UltraLingua http://www.ultralinqua.net/ 

English<->German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Esperanto, Latin 

Word Reference http://www.wordreference.com/ 



Online Text Translators 



AjaxTrans 

Babelfish from Yahoo 

FreeTranslation** 

Foreignword 

InterTran** 

Mezzofanti Translations 



http://aiax.parish.ath.cx/translator/ 
http://babelfish.yahoo.com/ 
http://www.FreeTranslation.com/ 
http://foreiqnword.com/Tools/transnow.htm 
http://www.tranexp.com/win/itserver.htm 
http://www.mezzofanti.org/translation/ 
PhraseBase http://www.phrasebase.com/translations/index. php?action=lanquaqe 
PopJisyo (Asian languages) http://www.online-dictionary.biz/ 

PROMT** http://www.translate.ru/enq/text.asp 

Reverso** http://www.reverso.net/text translation. asp 



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VoyCabulary http://www.voycabularv.cQm/ 

WorldLingo** 

http://www.worldlinqo.com/products services/worldlinqo translator.html 

yourDictionary http://www.vourdictionarv.eom/diction1.html#translate 



Online Web Page Translators 

Ajeeb! Arabic <-► English+ http://tariim.aieeb.com/aieeb/default.asp?lanq=1 

Babelfish from Yahoo http://babelfish.yahoo.com/ 

InterTran** http://www.tranexp.com/win/itserver.htm 

PROMT http://www.translate.ru/enq/srvurl.asp 

Reverso** http://www.reverso.net/url translation.asp 

Systran http://www.svstransoft.com/ 

VoyCabulary http://www.vovcabularv.com/ 
WorldLingo** http://www.worldtinqo.com/en/websites/url translator.html 

Other Language Sites & Tools 

Computing with Accents, Symbols, & Foreign Scripts 

http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suqqestions/international/index.html 

Detailed instructions from Penn State University for working on computers and the 
Internet in non-English characters and encodings. 



+ Requires free registration 

** Site offers virtual keyboard or special characters for non-English translations 



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You Gotta Know When to Fold 'Em 



A last thought before bringing this section to a close. With the plethora of information 
available today via the Internet and the fact that more data is added every day, it is 
easy to fall prey to the erroneous belief that if we just know where to look on the 
web, the information we seek — all the information we seek — is "out there" 
somewhere. The danger is that this misguided idea will give rise to the never- 
ending search, that is, the conviction that "if I just go to one more website, run one 
more query, or search one more database I'll find what I'm looking for." 

Sometimes the information you need simply is not to be found on the Internet and no 
amount of searching, no amount of creativity or ingenuity can make it appear. I have 
the sneaking suspicion that most Internet researchers have fallen victim to the 
never-ending search on occasion because it is so tempting to believe that the 
answer is there, somewhere, only a few more clicks away. If the data is not 
available, you are not going to find it, no matter how clever or persistent you are, so 
try to keep this last in mind when you feel yourself becoming obsessed with a 
particular research topic: 







Rule Seven 



Know when to stop searching 



The problem with the Internet is that it is open-ended. Think of it in these terms. Let's 
say your job is to go into a large room piled high with papers and determine if a 
particular document is in that room. If you are careful and methodical, you will 
eventually find the document or be able to say with confidence that the document is 
not in the room. Not so with the Internet. You can never be sure something is not 
"out there" because there are always more possible places the information could 
be located than you can search and examine. While the number of documents on 
the Internet may not in fact be infinite, in practical terms the Internet is limitless. So 
give yourself a break if you can't find everything you're looking for! 



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The Rules of the Road 



1 . Use the right tool for the job. 

2. Let other people do as much work 
for you as possible. 

3. Develop, maintain, and backup 
bookmarks. 

4. Use more than one search engine. 

5. Read the instructions. 

6. Use the specialized and/or unique 
functions of foreign search engines 

7. Know when to stop searching. 



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Beyond Search Engines — Specialized 
Research Tools 



Search engines are a good and natural starting place for performing research on the 
Internet, but they represent only a small portion of the data available on the web and 
only one way of tapping into that data. It is also important to understand that search 
engine spiders do not access (and therefore search engines do not index) most 
data contained in many databases or websites that require registration or 
payment to enter. For example, search engines do not normally index the data in 
PeopleData.com (a database) or any information beyond the first page or so of the 
Chicago Tribune (which requires registration). These types of sites require users to 
access them directly. The information at these sites is part of the invisible, hidden, or 
deep web. 

The types of sites and information that are not generally accessible to search 
engines include: 

> information in databases: phone and email directories, Whois registration & 
DNS data, dictionaries, encyclopedia articles, statistics, legal and medical 
data, financial information. 

> rapidly changing information: news, airline flight information, stock, bond, 
currency market data, auctions. 

> for-fee and subscription services. 

> information behind a firewall (corporate, government, educational). 

To give you a better idea just how vast the deep web is, consider these points from 
The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value" 112 by Michael K. Bergman. 



112 Michael K. Bergman, 'The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value," BrightPlanet, August 2001, 
< http://www.brightplanet.com/lechnologv/deepweb.asp > (14 November 2006). 



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> Public information on the deep web is at least 400 to 550 times larger than 
the commonly defined World Wide Web. 

> The deep web contains 7,500 terabytes of information compared to nineteen 
terabytes of information in the surface web. 

> The deep web contains nearly 550 billion individual documents compared to 

the one billion of the surface web. 

> More than 200,000 deep websites presently exist. 

> Sixty of the largest deep-websites collectively contain about 750 terabytes of 
information — sufficient by themselves to exceed the size of the surface web 
forty times. 

Therefore, it is vital to maintain a good set of bookmarks for a wide variety of 
research tools beyond search engines. Specialized search tools — database finders, 

email lookup tools, and online telephone and fax directories — are good first additions 
to a robust set of research tools. 



f Web Tip 



If you don't want to "be found," 
never post to Usenet news- 
groups. Once you do, expect 
to be spammed and to appear 
in directories, such as email 
lookup databases. Your only 
real solution at this point is to 
get a new Internet account. 



i «aanwE? 



Illllllillilil 



— TT 



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Email Lookups 



Email lookup tools vary widely in quality and the features they offer. Most, quite 
frankly, are not very good because their sources of data are poor. Most email lookup 
tools gather their information from two sources: 

1. trolling Usenet news postings and 

2. users who add themselves to the listing. 

Also, don't expect to get a lot of information about someone even if you do manage 
to match a name and an email address. The most you usually get is a full name, a 
complete email address, and maybe an affiliation. This does not mean all email 
lookup tools are useless. 113 Sometimes it is a coup just to match an email address 
with a name. 

Email lookup tools sometimes offer some type of domain or reverse lookup. 

Infospace permits reverse email lookups in the format [@eunet.yu]. This option is 

not under email search but under reverse lookups at: 

< http://www.infospace.com/home/white-pages/reverse-email >. 

Furthermore, Infospace lets users enter partial addresses and will return all 

listings starting with those characters, e.g., [@eunet]. 





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Phone Number Lookup 

Address Lookup 

Arxiii (ode Lookuo 

ZIP Code Lookuo 

Inte-nabonnl Diahnct Coder. Lookup 

Email Lookup 

Match an email address to a name, 


Looking for the InfoSpace 
Corporate Web site? 

^P InfoSpace Corporate 

tfy^IrrfoSpsca Mobtia 

^ Search & Directory 


Free Toolbar 

Resources 

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find your most recent 



113 In fact, Wired raised quite a few eyebrows with its article on Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein's public 
email account that was provided at the Iraqi President's website. Brian McWilliams, "Dear Saddam. 
How Can I Help?" Wired, 28 October 2002, < http://www.wired.com/news/conflict/0.2100,55967,Q0.html > 
(14 November 2006). 



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Infospace http://infospace.com/ 

Infospace Email Lookup http://www.infospace.com/home/white-paqes/email-search 

Infospace Reverse Email Lookup 

http://www.infospace.com/home/white-pages/reverse-email 

Look4U claims to maintain a database of over 2 million Chinese names and email 
addresses not only from Taiwan and Hong Kong but also from China, Malaysia, 
Singapore, the US, and many more countries. The real advantage of Look4U is that 
it is designed to be searched in either GB or Big5 Chinese encoding but also permits 
the use of pinyin pronunciation of the name. 



look- for ->fru 

LOOK U 

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Chinese People 
finder 



itfl 



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Add Me 
Login 
Language 
FAQ. 
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About us 



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L00K4U is the largest Chinese people finder in the world! 
Search over 2 million Chinese names and e-mail addresses! 



FIND A PERSON 



English Name or Nickname: 

e.g. Joseph Ng, Lin M&i-yu. Michae l Chang, ete... 

|shun4 ZJ3 W Search using pinyin fHelpI 

Location: 

Afore-... 



China 



SEARCH 



; Everywhere 
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Canada 



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Macau 

Malaysia 

Philippines 

Singapore 

Taiwan 

USA 



Pleasft iftad out co&vticht iMotmation and usage agreement 



Look4U 



http://www.look4u.com/enqlish/ 



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Finding Email Directories 

Email-Directory.com http://www.email-directory.com/ 

Nedsite http://www.nedsite.nI/search/people.htm#email 

International Email Lookup Tools 

Addresses.com http://www.allemailaddresses.com/ 

Infospace Email Lookup http://www.infospace.com/home/white-pages/email-search 

Infospace Reverse Email Lookup 

http://www.infospace.com/home/white-pages/reverse-email 

Look4U http://www.look4u.com/enQlish/ 

MESA MetaEmailSearchAgent http://mesa.rrzn.uni-hannover.de/ 

Peoplesearch Reverse Email Search 

http://peoplesearch.net/peoplesearch/peoplesearch reverse email address. htmt 

World Email Directory http://www.worldemail.com/freemail.htm 

Mega/MetaDirectories 

If these email look-up sites aren't sufficient (or you would just like to see what other 
email search tools are available), the following websites either link to many email 
lookup web pages (megadirectories) or actually run parallel email searches from 
their site (metadirectories). These are also the fastest and easiest way to see if a 
region or country has an email search tool specific to it. Some do, but I have not had 
a great deal of luck finding useful information using these email lookups. However, 
as the Internet expands, expect these services to improve. 

Email Megadirectories 

Freeality Email Lookup http://www.freealitv.com/findet.htm 

Infospace International Directories http://www.infospace.com/intl/int.html 

MESA MetaEmailSearchAgent http://mesa.rrzn.uni-hannover.de/ 

Nedsite http://www.nedsite.nI/search/people.htm#email 

Peoplesearch 

http://peoplesearch.net/peoplesearch/peoplesearch reverse email address.html 

Infobel's Email Addresses 

http://www.infobel.com/teldir/teldir.asp?paQe=/enq/more/email 



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Telephone and FAX Directories 



Most of the email lookup tools above also have a telephone lookup service as well, 
so I am not going to discuss these sites again. Be aware, however, that no single 
source has every directory listed and that new directories come on line all the time. 
Also, many telephone directories are limited to or strongly emphasize North 
American telephone and fax numbers. Your best bet by far for international phone 
and fax numbers are country-specific directories. Unlike the very limited 
international email directories, some international telephone and fax directories are 
outstanding. 

There are two basic types of telephone directory sites: the first are specific 
telephone lookup sites where you can go and look up a number or name. The 
second are metasites, sites with many links to telephone directories on the web. 
These will help you find an online directory in a specific region, country, or city. 

Infobel, the website of the Kapitol directory publishing company, is the best single 
source for online directories at present. It provides many types of directories for a 
number of countries, including Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Spain, Italy, Denmark, 
the Netherlands, UK, and more. In some cases, for example Belgium, there is even 
a GSM directory. Infobel allows users to pick any country, see which directories are 
available (white pages, yellow pages, GSM, fax), and go directly to that directory. 

As of January 2003, Infobel and Telephone Directories on the Web (Teldir) 

merged, providing one huge interface to hundreds of links to white pages, yellow 
pages, fax listings, email addresses, and business directories by world regions. 
Teldir does not provide a search interface but is instead a directory of links to online 
directories for most of the countries that have them. 



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International dialing Codes 

Information and services for more than 184 countries. 



Find Anyone 

In The 
United States 



North America fe Caribbean 



Europe 






United States 

Canada 
Mexico 

Jamaica 
more... 



United Kingdom 
France 
Germany 
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South & Central America 



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more... more , 



# 



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Australia 8c Pacific 






South Africa 

Ivory Coast 

Senegal 



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New Zealand 
Indonesia 
more ... 







Infobel's Telephone Directories on the Web 



http://www.infobel.com/teldir/ 



Phonebook of the World has emerged as one of the most comprehensive 
telephone directory sites. Click on the world map for your country of interest and 
Phonebook will tell you if there are white and/or yellow pages for that country online, 
then link you directly to the pages. Many online directories are, naturally, only in the 
native language. For example, each Brazilian state has an online directory and all 
are in Portuguese. 



Phonebook of the World 



http://www.phonebookoftheworld.com/ 



Infospace International Directories is another good metaguide to international 
online phone directories. Selecting a specific country will show the types of online 
resources available — white pages, yellow pages, email directories — and, in a few 
cases, permit searches from the Infospace website. However, most of the phone 
directories are accessible only as links directly to their own webpages. 



Infospace International Directories 



http://www.infospace.com/intl/int.html 



International White and Yellow Pages, run by a Norwegian company, is another 
good starting place for finding online yellow pages, white pages, and fax directories. 



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The site lists countries alphabetically by continent, indicating the types of online 
directories — white, yellow, fax — available for each. 



International White & Yellow Pages 



http://www.wayp.com/ 



Remember that city directories often produce better results than country directories, 
even though most phone directory lists lean towards country directories. Also keep 
in mind that it is important to search in the target language. Here is the Moscow City 
Telephone Directory, which has a very good search tool: 




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Users can search by type of business, street name and/or number, telephone 
number, email address, or even web address. But searching in Russian is a 
precondition of using the search tool to the fullest. 



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Te.n.; 9555524 
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Tea: 2320840; 2324110 



Moscow City Telephone Network 



http://www.mgts.ru/menu.html 



AnyWho International 

AOL International Directories 



Tools for International Telephone Lookups 

http://www.anywho.com/international.html 

http://www.aol.com/netfind/international.html 

EscapeArtist Telephone Search Engine 

http://www.escapeartist.com/qlobal/telephone.htm 

Infobel's Telephone Directories on the Web http://www.infobel.com/teldir/ 

Infospace International Directories http://www.infospace .com/intl/int.html 

International White & Yellow Pages http://www.wayp.com/ 

Nedsite http://www.nedsite.nI/search/people.htm#telephone 

Phonebook of the World http://www.phonebookoftheworld.com/ 

SBN International Yellow Pages http://www.sbn.com/international/international.asp 



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Many specialty directories also exist. The World Telephone Numbering Guide 

"provides information on the world's telephone numbering formats. This includes 
various website links regarding telephone numbering. Area code lists, text articles, 
news of phone number changes, number-finding forms are included as much as 
feasible." 114 Unlike many sources, the WTNG includes information about mobile 
telephone systems. This is an exceptionally good and current resource not only for 
finding telephone numbers but also for garnering details about telephone systems, 
numbering schemes, and regulations around the world. 



Number Format 



JLres Code: 
Subscriber Number: 
Trunk Prefix: 
International Prefix: 



3 digits (was 2-4 digits) 
7 digica (uas 5-7 digits) 


00 



_4rt a code information 

♦ tcyr 

♦ Iran Telecom mobile number chants 

♦ DCCL 

December 2003 - March 2004 - mobile changes 

Iran mobile number? were changed in a multi-stage process from December 2003 through March 2004, 

1 "-20 January 2004 - mobile changes 

Changed mobile numbering was introduced in certain areas on 17-20 January 2004, Permissive/parallel operation of former and new numbering was in effect until 20 
March 2004, 



Place 




Old 


numbers 


Neu 


numbers 


Comments 




Amol 




+98 


911 


121xxxx 


+98 


911 


121xxxx 


No change 




Amol 




+98 


911 


122xxxx 


+98 


911 


122xxxx 


No change 




Amol 




+98 


911 


125xxxx 


+98 


911 


125xxxx 


No change 




Amol 




+98 


913 


121xxxx 


+98 


911 


32lxxxx 






Amol 




+98 


913 


122xxxx 


+98 


911 


322xxxx 






Babol 




+98 


911 


lllxxxx 


+96 


911 


lllxxxx 


No change 




Babol 




+98 


911 


112xxxx 


+96 


911 


112XXXX 


No change 




Babol 




+98 


911 


113xxxx 


+96 


911 


113xxxx 


No change 




Babol 




+98 


913 


llxxxxx 


+98 


911 


31xxxxx 


lllxxxx-H4xxxx 


Bam 




+98 


911 


S44xxxx 


+98 


913 


lllxxxx 






Bam 




+98 


913 


344xxxx 


+98 


913 


344xxxx 


No change 




Bandar-e 


Anzali 


+98 


911 


lSxxxxx 


+9B 


911 


lBxxxxx 


No change; 


181xxxx-l83xxxx 


Bandar -e 


Anzali 


+98 


913 


181xxxx 


+96 


911 


3Blxxxx 







World Telephone Numbering Guide 



http://www.wtng.info/index.html 



ACR's International Calling Codes website provides country and city codes and 
adds the ability to list codes numerically. International City Codes also offers an 
excellent database of city calling codes. My favorite Internet telephone database is 
Americom's International Decoder, which permits you to look up either calling 
codes from city names or find out which city anywhere in the world matches a 
specific dialing code. Not only does Americom tell you the country and city codes, 



114 



WTNG Help and Information Page, < http://www.wtnq.info/wtng-hlp.html - HowTo >. 



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but often provides other useful information, even a telecommunications assessment, 
in some cases. 



Americom's International Decoder 



http://decoder.americom.com/ 



Specialty Telephone Lookups 

ACR's International Calling Codes by country 

http://www.the-acr.com/codes/cntrycd.htm 

ACR's International Calling Codes listed numerically 

http://www.the-acr.com/codes/cntryno.htm 

Americom's International Decoder http://decoder.americom.com/ 

International Dialing Codes http://kropla.com/dialcode.htm 

International City Codes http://www.numberinqplans.com/kropla/ 

World Telephone Numbering Guide http://www.wtnq. info/index. html 






¥ Web Tip 



Email lookup tools are not the only way to 
search for email addresses, phone/fax numbers, 
and street addresses. Search engines may 
actually be better at finding what you're looking 
for because most of them index entire 
webpages, and whatever data is on that page, 
including email addresses and phone numbers, 
is indexed. 



^n.fr yj?,, 



:<:■■■: ' 



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Online Videos and Video Search 



Online video of all types accelerated greatly over the past year. During the first half 
of 2006 it became apparent that online video/video search was going to be one of 
the year's biggest topics and developments, with new video sharing and video 
search sites gearing up and established companies such as Google, MICROSOFT, 
and Yahoo jumping on this particular bandwagon. "The market share of Internet 
visits to the 10 leading online video sites has increased by 164 percent in the past 
three months (week ending May 20, 2006 versus week ending February 25, 2006)," 
according to Hitwise, a competitive intelligence company. 115 

Furthermore, some in the "old media," e.g., ABC, CBS, BBC, AP, and Fox, saw this 
as a wave of the future they wanted to ride and began or expanded their video 
offerings via the Internet. To put the video revolution in perspective, "Apple 
Computer Inc. sold 12 million video clips at $1.99 each from its popular iTunes 
Music Store in just a few months" 116 and more than 40 million videos were viewed 
per day at the YouTube website. 

Because we usually need to be able to find and get our hands on video quickly, 
there is a lot of interest in online video and video search. As with any new venture or 
technology, there are problems. In the case of Internet video, the main problems at 
the moment are: 

> Quality — lots and lots of really awful, silly stuff. 

> Quantity — still only a small number of videos are available compared to 
webpages, images, music. 

> Format — there is no standard format in which videos are offered; some sites 
require you to download and install their proprietary software while some use 
MacroMedia Flash, QuickTime, RealPlayer, Windows Media Player, or 
something else. 



115 "Hitwise Data Shows Overall Visits to Video Search Sites Up 164%," Hitwise News Release, May 
24, 2006, < http://www.hitwise.cofn/press-center/hitwiseHS2004/videosearch.php > (November 28, 
2006). 

116 Walter Mossberg and Katherine Boehret, "Searching the Web for Video Clips," The Mossberg 
Solution, The Wall Street Journal, < http://ptech.wsi.com/archive/solution-20060301.html > (November 
28, 2006). 



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What blogs are to traditional news, online videos are to television and, to a lesser 
extent, movies. The spread of broadband connections, cheap data storage, free or 
inexpensive video technology have all contributed to this boom. In a perverse way, 
al Qaeda in Iraq was an early adapter of Internet video, making effective if 
horrendous use of videos to spread its terror message, recruit new members, 
communicate across its terror network, and even offer training and support. 

And, of course, online video has given rise to its own neologisms; vlogs (weblogs 
containing video), vloggers, vlogcasts, vlogcasting, and vlogcasters, as well as 
vodcasts/vidcasts . I suppose there are even vlogmasters, though that word conjures 
up images of a character in a Wagnerian opera. 

Given the relative ease with which Internet videos can be produced and spread by 
anyone anywhere, we must take this technology very seriously and learn how to find 
videos of interest quickly and efficiently. Here are the some of the major players in 
online video and video search, excluding companies that are offering solely 
entertainment-related video uploads and downloads. Also, most news sites do not 
make video clips available for very long, usually no more than a week, before they 
are archived. Once archived, the clips may require registration and/or payment to 
view them. 

The two basic types of video on line today are downloadable and streaming video. 
Some of the video sites I discuss below offer downloadable video, which may be 
saved and played later; this type of video may have a format that requires a specific 
type of video player. Virtually all the video sites below offer some form of streaming 
video, that is, one-way video transmissions over the Internet to a compatible media 
player. These do not require the user to download the video, nor can the video be 
saved for later viewing. You've seen this "buffering" message before, I'm sure, when 
requesting video be streamed to your computer: 

I he Stioamin^ton^opt 
Extra packets are buffered in memory in order to compensate for the 
unpredictable delivery over the Internet. 

From Computer Gttsktop Er*cyic(op*dia 
O 20O3 TT\* C&rr.paj!«r Language Co. lr»e 




Filling tli* Suffei 

"Buffering 70% complete" means 70% of a reserved area in 

memory is filled- When it gets to 100%, the software 

(Windows Media Player in this example) will start "playing" 

the video. 117 



117 "Streaming video," Answers.com, Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Computer Language 
Company Inc., 2005. < http://www.answers.com/topic/streaming-video > (15 November 2006). 



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What you are witnessing is streaming media. While not the smoothest, cleanest 
technology, it is cheap (the most popular software used for streaming media is free), 
and with broadband connections, it is relatively fast if sometimes choppy. The major 
free media players (all handle audio and video) are the following: 

> Windows Media Player — Microsoft's proprietary software that plays many 
audio, video, and streaming formats, including MP3, WMA, CD audio, and 
MIDI. 

> MacroMedia Flash Player— a browser plug-in that, according to the company 
"is installed on 98% of Internet-enabled desktops worldwide and on a wide 
range of popular devices." 118 The Flash Player displays content created with 
MacroMedia Flash and plays files with the .SWF extension. 

> MacroMedia Shockwave Player — The Shockwave Player displays content 
created with MacroMedia Director and plays files with the .DCR extension. 

Because there is so much confusion about these two products, MacroMedia created 
a webpage that compares these two products: 
< http://www.adobe.com/products/director/resources/inteqration/ > 

> QuickTime — the only one of these free media players not originally developed 
for the Windows environment, QuickTime is an Apple Computers' product 
capable of handling various formats of digital video, audio, text, animation, 
music, and more. The QuickTime media player is bundled with Apple 
computers but free downloads are available for Windows as well. 

> RealPlayer— RealNetworks' media player that plays its own proprietary 
RealAudio and RealVideo as well as other formats including MP3, MPEG-4, 
and QuickTime. It was one of the first media players capable of handling 
streaming media over the Internet. 

The Major Online Video and Video Search Sites 

I decided to list these alphabetically because there is no good way to rank them: 
each has some advantages and usually quite a few drawbacks. Some things to keep 
in mind about the current state of video search: 

> Most video search sites only search the metadata and/or text associated with 
a video. TVEyes is an exception; it uses voice recognition technology to index 
every word spoken in a video, but the technology is imperfect. Most video 



118 Macromedia Flash Player FAQ, < http://www.adobe.com/prQducts/flashplaver/productinfo/faq/ 
item-1-1 > (November 28, 2006). 



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search engines will index the text of television programs with closed 
captioning. 

> Many video search sites only search their own video collection and do not 
search for videos across the web. I will note which sites do this below. 



AOL Video Search 



http://search.aol.com/aolcom/videohome 



AOL Video Search employs the video search engines of not one but two of the 
companies it owns — Singingfish and Truveo — for its own search site. AOL "Video 
Search results include multimedia streams and files (Real Media, Windows Media, 
QuickTime, MP3 and Flash) from AOL and the Web sorted by relevance." Note that 
you cannot sort the results by date. AOL Video search lets users limit the search to 
subfields including news, television, music, movies. Phrase searching works well. 
There is no way to limit your search by source, but if you include a source such as 
Reuters, AOL Video Search picks up on that keyword: 



AOL i 



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his erf er to nediee -n :he nuc^a- cisss bet,. 

Updated: 05^10*06 

Dm Jtion: 1 01 Topic: News 

Source: Reuters www fedhove.com 

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Updated; 05fl (MJ6 

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Source: Reuters 



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Sour ce: Reuters Pi 6-vKle d by: f, j„ Xtw, 



320 



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Summary : 

> Sources of video data: multiple news and entertainment sources from AOL 
and across the web. 

> Media types searched: Real Media, Windows Media, QuickTime, MP3 and 
Flash. 

> Videos viewed: videos at AOL use AOL Video Player; videos from external 
sites use site's default media player. 

> Search options: phrase searching; advanced search; no search by source 
option. 

> Sort options: by relevance only. 

> Upload video? Not directly; only via AOL's companies Singingfish or Truveo. 

BBC Video http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 

BBC does not make it easy to find its news videos. For example, there is no 
separate BBC News video page. Instead, to view a BBC video, users must go to any 
News Online page and click the "Watch BBC news in video" or "Latest news in video 
and audio" button at the top of the page. This opens a new window where users can 
select from a list of current videos by news topic: headline, UK, business, politics, 
health, etc. The videos play in the same window using either RealPlayer (preferred) 
or Windows Media Player. Another option is BBC News 24, constantly updated 
national and international headlines. The best way to find BBC videos is using a 
third-party site such as Yahoo Video Search, which offers a search by source option. 

In May the BBC announced it was opening its news archives, but only for users in 
the UK. If you are in the UK, "You can download nearly 80 news reports covering 
iconic events of the past 50 years including the fall of the Berlin Wall, crowds 
ejecting soldiers from Beijing's Tiananmen Square and behind-the-scenes footage of 
the England team prior to their victory over West Germany in 1966." 
< http://www.bbc.co.uk/calc/news/ > 



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uNCLASsiFiED //ron ornc i AL use only 



Summary : 



> Sources of video data: BBC news video only. 

> Videos viewed: Real Media (preferred) or Windows Media at BBC site. 

> Search options: no separate video search. 

> Sort options: by category (e.g., headlines or business news). 

> Upload video? No. 

Blinkx http://www.blinkx.tv/ 

Blinkx certainly has one of the snazziest sites, which is not necessarily a good thing 
because it can be distracting. However, it is a very good video search tool. Blinkx 
uses voice recognition software to transcribe the content of audio and video 
material, whether it is commercial television or personal vlogs. Users simply enter 
search terms in the box on the left of the screen and, once the results are returned, 
a slider appears that lets the user determine whether to rank the results by date or 
relevance or somewhere in between. Here is a snapshot on the Blinkx page showing 
results for [ahmadinejad] sorted by relevance. 



bl rikxi, 

TV 



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322 



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One of the best features in Blinkx is that it shows animated thumbnail images of 
each video. In some cases, Blinkx plays the full clip in the Blinkx window without 
users having to go to another website. Here is the key for determining the type of 
video and where it will play: 

The blinkx b and camera icon located at the end of the result heading indicates thai this result's 
**'** video is hosted by blinkx.tv and can be viewed on the blinkx.tv Direct Play Screen located lo 
the nght of the result. 

<j<v The eye and camera icon located at the end of the result heading indicates that this result's 
v^eo can be viewed only from the original site. 

{$} The blinkx podcast icon located dt the end of the result heading indicates that this result is a 
podcast, 

Blinkx is much better than other video search sites at weeding out videos that have 
been archived and are thus no longer available at the originating site, although 
sometimes you want to know that a video was once available even if you cannot 
access it now. 

One other thing you need to know about Blinkx is how to use the "channel" buttons 
on the left side of the homepage. Here is the "news" channel; users can select all, 
some, or none of these channels to search by clicking on the buttons. In this case, 
the news channels with the green dots have been selected to be searched: 



MC .NEWS 






Blinkx employs keyword and Boolean search options. Blinkx also has a special "Self 
Casting" channel for videos uploaded by users. Most of these are probably of 
dubious value, but it's worth keeping an eye on them. 



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Summary : 

> Sources of video data: multiple news, entertainment, radio, podcasts from 
across the web. 

> Video viewed: videos hosted on Blinkx servers use "Direct Player"; videos 
from external sites use site's default media player. 

> Search options: keyword, Boolean, & phrase searching; "conceptual search"; 
option to limit search by source. 

> Sort options: using slider, sort by date, relevance, or somewhere in between. 

> Upload video? Yes. 



CBS News Video Search 

http://www.cbsnews.eom/sections/i video/main500251 .shtml 

CBS News has both an excellent video search, which appears to pull from the entire 
archive of CBS News videos. For example, I searched for ["hurricane isabel"] and 
found the very first CBS News video titled "Isabel Starting to Scare," September 12, 
2003. Unfortunately, there is no way to force the search to look for a specific date, 
although there is the option to limit the search to specific topics (e.g., US news), to a 
specific CBS News show (e.g., "60 Minutes"), or to search in the Video Library by 
topic. However, there are almost no special search options, which makes it hard to 
find the nuggets in this treasure trove of videos. Despite this drawback, I believe the 
CBS News video search and archive is one of the great secret resources on the 
web. It is free to view the full videos, which open in the CBS News.com window 
using either RealPlayer or Windows Media Player (both free). All videos before 
November 20, 2003, play only in Real. 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: CBS News video only. 

> Video viewed: RealPlayer or Windows Media Player. 

> Search options: keyword searching; search by ANY, ALL, EXACT PHRASE; 
no date limit. 

> Sort options: sort by relevance or date. 

> Upload video? No. 



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CNN Video Homepage 
CNN Video Almanac 



http://www.cnn.com/video/ 
http://www.cnn.com/re50urces/video.almanac/ 



CNN offers only seven days of free access to its vast video archive of news and 
features. After a week, users must sign up for CNN Pipeline , which requires both 
payment and downloading and installing a CNN video player. 

Before CNN archives its video, you can search, browse, and view the free videos at 
the CNN website using Windows Media Player. All free videos are preceded by 
commercial advertisements. I find the CNN video set up very frustrating to use. If 
you go to the main CNN Video page < http://www .cnn.com/video/>, there is no way 
to limit your search to videos. However, if you go to the CNN homepage 
< http://www.cnn.com/ >, scroll down to the middle of the page to hi. WATCH VIDEO , 
and click on any video, the popup window includes a video only search box. Enter 
your search terms and CNN Video will return a list of video matches by date and 
time. You can then resort the results by Section or Most Popular. Note in this 
example that only the first two videos are still free. The rest have been archived to 
CNN Pipeline. 



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CNN has one other video feature you need to know about: its Video Almanac, a 
collection of the best video since the birth of CNN in 1980 through 1997. Users can 
select a year or topic, e.g., the video of the failed attempt to rescue the hostages in 
Iran in April 1980. The Video Almanac provides a very limited number of videos, 
most of which are very high profile events, though there are notable exceptions 
("George Burns dies"). The videos play using QuickTime. 



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325 



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Summary : 

> Sources of video data: CNN video only. 

> Video viewed: Windows Media Player version 9 and above. 

> Search options: search for one or more keywords or exact phrase in double 
quotes; filter by section; no date limit. 

> Sort options: sort by date/time, section, or popularity. 

> Upload video? No. 

C-SPAN http://www.c-span.org/ 

C-SPAN Store http://www.c-spanstore.org/shop/ 

C-SPAN is the only one of the online video and video search sites that is a non-profit 
entity. In case anyone is unclear who and what C-SPAN is, here's what the network 
says about itself: "C-SPAN is a private, non-profit company, created in 1979 by the 
cable television industry as a public service. Our mission is to provide public access 
to the political process. C-SPAN receives no government funding; operations are 
funded by fees paid by cable and satellite affiliates who carry C-SPAN 
programming." < http://www.c-span.org/about/index.asp?code=About > 

Until a video is archived, it is available for free at the C-SPAN site. C-SPAN offers 
both stored and streaming (live) media (video and audio, because there is also a C- 
SPAN radio). It is very important to remember that free C-SPAN video searches only 
index program titles, event descriptions, and air dates. "Searches are not based on 
text within the video files or closed-caption transcripts and do not include video 
available at the C-SPAN Archive < http://www.c-spanstore.org/shop/ >, where you 
can buy almost any C-SPAN program." Because the C-SPAN search is not based 
upon text or closed-captioning, you may have to work harder to find a specific video. 

Although the C-SPAN site says that "most events will remain in the archive for 15 
days or less," I found many videos going back years that are still available, so it 
appears to be hit or miss as to what is or is not available for free. Keep in mind you 
can find and view many but not all Congressional hearings at C-SPAN. The site has 
an advanced search option that lets users limit a search by date ranges as well as 
by C-SPAN series and programs. The advanced search also offers the option to 
search by phrase and even a fuzzy word search ("spelled like" or "sounds like"). 

The C-SPAN video collection includes videos from these and other sources: 



326 UNCLASSIFIED //rOR OmC I AL UOC O N LY 



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> Congressional hearings. 

> US Government Executive branch (e.g., DoD, State Department) press 
conferences. 

> Special commissions. 

> Some State and Local videos. 

> C-SPAN TV series, such as "Washington Journal," "Booknotes," etc. 
Summary : 

> Sources of video data: C-SPAN video (and audio) only. 

> Video viewed: Stored clips require RealPlayer; streaming media offers a 
choice between RealPlayer and Windows Media Player. 

>■ Search options: search for one or more keywords; advanced search offers 
date, program filters and fuzzy keyword search. 

> Sort options: sort by relevance or date/time. 

> Upload video? No. 

Google Video http://video.qoogle.com/ 

Google Video underwent a huge metamorphosis during December 2005. Google 
Video moved from being primarily a video search engine to being a store front to 
preview and buy video. This time Google's target isn't Microsoft but (primarily) 
Apple's iTunes and to a lesser degree cable television companies. Google Video is 
more focused now on selling videos, including television shows, than on searching 
current videos. However, there are many free videos still available on pretty much 
any subject you can imagine. Very importantly, Google Video only searches for 
videos hosted at its own website. Google Video has a link to AOL Video on its 
homepage, but the link takes you to the AOL Video website and Google Video does 
not search on AOL's videos from its site. 

In May 2006 Google Video (finally) wised up and let users upload their videos 
directly online without having to install any software and without the previous 
submission time lag of up to 24 hours. ("Google Inc. Tweaks Its Video Service," AP 
report in Forbes.com, 

http://www.forbes.com/technoloqy/ebusiness/feeds/ap/2006/05/17/ap2751923.html ) 
YouTube had always permitted direct video uploads and was basically cleaning 
Google Video's clock. 



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Google indexes the closed captioning and text descriptions of all the videos in its 
archive to facilitate search. Google Video search supports keyword and phrase 
searches. While Google. Video does not support search by source, it does offer the 
option of searching by title. The correct syntax is [title: keyword]. Note that phrase 
searching does not work with the title: syntax. 

Google Video has several options for viewing or limiting results. Users can choose to 
view the results as a list or as a grid (the list provides more information while the grid 
shows a larger image of the video clip). There is also an option to limit the results by 
the length of the video — long (20+ minutes), medium (4-20 minutes), or short (up to 
4 minutes). Results can be sorted relevance, date, or title. 

Google explains how it ranks videos in terms of popularity: "We use algorithms to 
identify videos that are suddenly becoming popular, and then rank them based on 
how popular they are— and how suddenly they became popular. We've been using 
this list internally, and now it's ready to share with you, so check it out. Right now 
this feature highlights videos from close to 40 countries, including Argentina, 
Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hong Kong, India, 
Israel, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, and New Zealand, to name a few." (Jon 
Steinback, "Movers, Shakers, and Hoops on Video," Google Blog, June 9, 2006, 
http://qooglebloq.blogspot.com/2006/06/movers-shakers'and-hoops-on-video.html ) 

The software required to view streaming video at Google Video is Macromedia Flash 
Player 7.0+. To view purchased and downloaded videos, users still must install 
Google's own Google Video Player, which has frustrated many users and infuriated 
others. It will be interesting to watch Google Video's evolution as the site tries to 
move higher in online video popularity, closed captioning and text descriptions of all 
the videos in our archive for relevant results. 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: only news, entertainment, radio, podcasts hosted on 
Google servers. 

> Video viewed: free streaming media uses Flash Player; purchased videos 
require Google Video Player. 

> Search options: keyword & phrase searching; title: search; no search by 
source option. 

> Sort options: sort by relevance, date, or title; view as List or Grid; limit results 
by length of video. 

> Upload video? Yes. 



328 UNCLASSIFIE D// FO R OFF I C I AL UOC ONLY 



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IFILM http://www.ifilm.com/ 

FILM "is a leading online video network, serving user-uploaded and professional 
content to over ten million viewers monthly. IFILM's extensive library includes movie 
clips, music videos, short films, TV clips, video game trailers, action sports and its 
popular Viral videos' collection. IFILM is one of the leading streaming media 
networks on the internet." < http://www.ifilm.com/about/ > Viacom purchased IFILM 
and made it a part of its MTV Network, so most of the commercial videos are from 
some segment of that network. However, what distinguishes IFILM is its vast supply 
of user created and uploaded videos. 

IFILM specializes in viral videos, that is, videos that gain widespread popularity 
across the Internet through blogs, email, IM, websites, and old-fashioned word of 
mouth. Not all viral videos are humorous. One example of a viral video from IFILM 
was "Mercenary Sniper in Iraq," described in Defense Review.com as an "interesting 
'Viral Video' clip that puts the viewer inside a helicopter in Iraq (urban environment), 
and then puts you right there with a sniper team engaging hostile enemy targets (i.e. 
insurgents/terrorists) from a rooftop (again, inside Iraq)." 
< http://www.defensereview.com/article826.html > 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: multiple news, entertainment, and user-created 
videos. 

> Video viewed: QuickTime, Windows Media Player, Macromedia Flash. 

> Search options: keyword & phrase searching; limit search to specific 
collections, such as "User Video." 

> Sort options: no. 

> Upload video? Yes. 

MSN Video 119 http://video.msn.com/ 

Don't bother trying to access this site from any browser other than Internet Explorer 
6. Once you get past that extremely annoying requirement, MSN Video is not a bad 
site. Users have access to all NBC news, sports, and entertainment, as well as other 
sources such as the National Geographic Channel and the Discovery Networks. 
MSN Video also partners with IFILM, so you can access IFILM videos from this site. 



119 As of this writing, MSN Video has not been renamed Live Video even though there is a video 
search incorporated into Live Search. 



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I cannot determine exactly how long videos are kept; some videos date back years, 
but most of the news videos appear to be from within the past 30 days. What I like 
best about the site are the many options for handling results. Users can choose 
between thumbnails or details; view all results; and sort by title, source, or date. 
Here is a screenshot of the results for the query ["hurricane katrina"] in detail view 
sorted by date: 



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Summary : 

> Sources of video data: selected news, entertainment, etc., from NBC and 
MSN's partners as well as user-created videos from I FILM. 

> Video viewed: Windows Media Player 7+, Macromedia Flash 7+ (site only 
works in Internet Explorer 6). 

> Search options: keyword & phrase searching; limit search to specific 
collections, such as News. 

> Sort options: by title, source, or date. 

> Upload video? No. 



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Pixsv http://pixsy.com/ 

Pixsy is a metasearch engine for both still images and video that searches a large 
numbers of video content providers. "As a meta-aggregator of image and video 
thumbnails images from RSS providers, Pixsy provides a visual search alternative 
for consumers and a source of free, high quality traffic for RSS syndicating image & 
video content providers. New RSS providers include YouTube, Revver, SmugMug, 
RollingStone, StumbleUpon, Defamer, People Magazine, Pictopia, Metacafe, 
TheOnion, Rotten Tomatoes, Buzznet, CNN, NPR, PBS, and many more." (Loren 
Baker, "Pixsy Adds New Video Search Content from YouTube, CNN, Defamer & 
Others," Searchenginejournal.com, http://www.searchenqineiournal.com/7p-3500 ) 

The thumbnails are small enough to review quickly but still of good quality, and a 
mouseover of each thumbnail image reveals the title of the video, a summary of its 
contents, the date of the video, its source, and the date and location where it was 
indexed. The only sort options at Pixsy are by category. The Pixsy homepage also 
links to the latest and to featured videos. 



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Summary : 

> Sources of video data: multiple news, entertainment, radio, podcasts from 
across the web. 

> Video viewed: videos play using external site's default media player inside a 
Frame at Pixsy with option to remove Frame. 

> Search options: keyword and phrase searching; no search by source option; 
no advanced search. 

> Sort options: searches for both images and videos; tab to video; only sort 
option is by category. 

> Upload video? No. 

Reuters Video http://todav.reuters.com/tv 

I have to mention Reuters because of its importance and reach, but the site is 
frustrating to use because there is no separate video search at the site. All you get is 
a list of available videos sorted by topic (news, entertainment, business, etc.). If you 
need Reuters' videos, I recommend using one of the video search sites — 
Rocketlnfo, SingingFish, RooTV, Blinkx, Yahoo Video Search, or Pixsy. 

Rocketlnfo http://www.rocketnews.com/ [select the VIDEO tab] 

Rocketlnfo offers some of the most extensive sources for news and video on the 
web, drawing from over 16,000 news sources on a continuous basis. The downside 
is that Rocketlnfo only searches for the past four days at most, and users can limit a 
search to today's videos. The search has no advanced features, not even phrase 
searching. It looks for all the keywords, so be careful not to search on too many 
terms. 

Rocketlnfo is a metasearch engine that searches many video sources, including 
BBC, RedOrbit videos, Reuters, CBS, CNN, MSNBC, local news, etc. For current 
news searches, Rocketlnfo has to be ranked as one of the best and most 
comprehensive. 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: news from over 16,000 sources across the web (not all 
or even most of these sources offer video) 

> Video viewed: all videos play at originating site using that site's default video 
player 

> Search options: keyword search only (searches for ALL terms) 



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> Sort options: by date or relevance 

> Upload video? No 

RooTV http://www.rootv.com/ 

RooTV or Roo is a powerful video search tool, but I find it annoying because it 
automatically plays a video when you visit the homepage (and it really doesn't want 
to stop!). There is a simple keyword search but no way to limit the search to just 
news, for example. The videos play at the RooTV site, using Windows Media Player 
or RealPlayer. RooTV requires ActiveX; if you are going to use RooTV, I recommend 
opening the site in Internet Explorer (you will have to add it to your Trusted Zone) so 
you do not need to install an ActiveX plug-in in Firefox or Netscape, something I 
would discourage. Sources include Reuters and AP. Supported by advertising. 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: news from sources across the web, including Reuters 
and AP. 

> Video viewed: all videos play at the RooTV site using either Windows Media 
Player or RealPlayer; requires ActiveX. 

> Search options: keyword search only (searches for ALL terms). 

> Sort options: none. 

> Upload video? No. 

Searchforvideo http://www.searchforvideo.com/home/index.html 

Searchforvideo IM Service http://www.searchforvideo.com/misc/im.isp 

Searchforvideo Reel Time Lens http://www.searchforvideo.com/misc/reel.isp 

Searchforvideo is one of the best video search engines available. Searchforvideo 
searches a vast number of sources, including BBC, ABC, CBS, CNN, AP via 
iVillage, Reuters via RooTV, RedOrbit, the Discovery Networks, and many others. 
The site also has separate pages by topic — news, sports, entertainment, business, 
technology, health, and viral— where users can browse the top videos of the day. 

Interestingly, even though there is no search by source, I found that if you use the 
name of a source and a keyword, that seems to work very well because you are 
searching on all metadata associated with a video clip. For example, [reuters iran] 
returns only videos from Reuters sources containing the keyword "iran": 



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Searchforvideo also offers IM search that works with AOL, Yahoo, and MSN. There 
is also a very interesting option to view videos that are being added or watched in 
real time at the Searchforvideo Real Time Lens page. 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: searches wide variety of video sources across the 
web. 

> Video viewed: at originating site using that site's default video player, 
except... 

> Offers video podcasts that can be downloaded to video podcast software at 
Searchforvideo Publishers < http://www.searchforvideo.com/pub/ >. 

> Search options: keyword searching; add source keyword, e.g., [bbc], to limit 
by source. 

> Sort options: sort by relevance or date. 

> Upload video? No. 



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Sky News Video http://www.skv.com/skvnews/video 

The UK's Sky News, billed as Europe's first 24-hour news channel, offers a "video 
channel" and advanced search to limit queries to videos only. Keep in mind that the 
simple search on the main video page does not restrict your search to videos: you 
must use the advanced search page. Here users have the option to limit the search 
by "item type," and Video is one of the types. Notice you can also limit your search 
by section and date range. 



sky.com 



SKY ESSE 11:49 




In the advanced search, the only characters recognized are letters, numbers, and 
hyphens. You can use a hyphen to create a phrase: [tony-blair]. Results are listed in 
date order with the most recent items listed first. Each result shows the relevance to 
your search. The videos play using Windows Media Player. 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: Sky News video only. 

> Video viewed: at Sky News site using Windows Media Player. 

> Search options: keyword searching; query terms limited to alphanumerics and 
hyphens; search by section (e.g., news), type (e.g., video), date range. 



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> Sort options: None; listed by relevance. 

> Upload video? No. 

TVEves http://tveyes.com/ 

If you want to search the content of TV and radio news broadcasts, I recommend the 
TVEyes search engine. TVEyes captures, indexes, analyzes, archives, and 
distributes in real-time content captured from television and radio broadcasts. 
"Currently live content alerts and searchable archives are available from: 

> US 

> UK 

> Canada 

> Australia 

and the Al Jazeera network. Coverage is being extended to include France, Mexico, 
Guatemala, South Africa with these countries on stream by Q4." 
< http://www.tveyes.com/coveraqe/index.htm > 

TVEyes uses voice recognition technology to create something the company calls its 
Spoken Word Index(TM), so that users can search every word in a broadcast. The 
search only seems to work if you use one keyword or a phrase because it interprets 
more than one word as a phrase. It works very well finding the right broadcast; 
unfortunately, once you go to the originating site of the news clip, you may well 
discover it is no longer available. However, TVEyes can help you locate a specific 
clip, especially if you did not know the source. You may have to pay for that video, 
but at least you know where to go to get it. TVEyes offers thumbnail versions of the 
clips, including some video no longer available at the originating site, which play 
from the TVEyes site. Full clips must be viewed at the originating site. 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: television and radio broadcasts in US, UK, Canada, 
Australia, Al Jazeera network (to be extended in 4th Q 2006 to many other 
international sources). 

> Video viewed: thumbnail versions of the clips, which play from the TVEyes 
site. Full clips must be viewed at the originating site and may no longer be 
available. 

> Search options: keyword; more than one word is interpreted as a phrase. 

> Sort options: sort by date or relevance. 

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> Upload video? No, but TVEyes "can respond immediately to any request to 
add TV channel or Radio station coverage." 



Yahoo Video Search 

Yahoo News Video 



http://video.yahoo.com/ 
http://news.vahoo.com/video 



Yahoo video search is one of the most popular on the web and for good reason. It 
draws from many sources across the web and around the world, and it has a 
powerful advanced search. Yahoo video search is one of the few that has an explicit 
site delimiter. If, for example, I only want to search for videos from the BBC, on the 
advanced search page, I would select "only search in this domain/site:" and enter 
[bbc.co.uk]. The syntax for this search (with or without keywords) is 
[fromsite:bbc.co.uk] if you prefer to use the simple search interface. The other 
advanced search options are to limit your search by format, size, or duration. Yahoo 
video advanced and simple search recognize + (must include), - (must exclude), and 
double quotes for a phrase. 

Yahoo video search has another excellent option in the form of channels. Channels 
are collections of videos created by a common source; clicking on a "channel" 
displays all video results from that source. Unfortunately, there does not appear to 
be any central list of all channels. The best way to find the channels is to do the 
following: on the Yahoo video homepage, click the "Categories" tab, then select 
"News." Now you will see the channels listed, e.g., ABC News, CBS News, CBS.ca, 
AP, Reuters News, etc. Selecting a specific channel will show you all the available 
videos from that channel. To save channels to your list of favorites, you must be a 
registered member of Yahoo 

In late 2006, Yahoo and CBS "announced an exclusive video syndication agreement 
in which local news video from 16 of CBS's owned stations will be made available on 
Yahoo! to the Internet's largest news audience. The relationship. ..marks the first 
video agreement between a network-owned television station group and an Internet 
news provider." 120 Yahoo's video focus has always been on commercial and not 
homemade video, the opposite of the YouTube/Google approach, even though 
Yahoo does have a video site that tries to compete with YouTube. Yahoo already 
had deals with CBS's "60 Minutes," as well as with ABC, Disney, and CNN. This deal 
is with local news CBS affiliates. While some are criticizing Yahoo's approach to 
offering video from commercial/professional sources, it is an approach that 
continues to work for them. When users want to find and view news videos, they do 
not think YouTube, they think Yahoo News Video. I use it heavily not only because 
of the number and quality of videos available but also because it is very easy to use, 



120 Michael Liedtkey, "Yahoo adds CBS news to video lineup," AP/San Francisco in 
Businessweek.com, 16 October 2006, 
< http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D8KPGBUQ1.htm > (24 October 2006). 



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the videos open at the Yahoo site, and you do not need to register to find and view 
the videos. 

Summary : 

> Sources of video data: searches wide variety of video sources across the 
web, including user-submitted videos. 

> Video viewed: at originating site using that site's default video player. 

> Search options: keyword searching; + (must include), - (must exclude), and 
double quotes for a phrase; limit search to specific site [fromsite:domain]; 
search by format, size, or length of video. 

> Sort options: None; listed by relevance. 

> Upload video? Yes. 

YouTube http://www.youtube.com/ 

If you have heard of only one online video and video search site, it's probably 
YouTube, the most popular such site by far, garnering almost 43 percent of all visits 
to video websites in mid-2006. 121 YouTube is currently serving 100 million videos per 
day, with more than 65,000 videos being uploaded daily. 122 YouTube started as a 
personal video sharing site and opened to the public in February 2005. While other 
video sites try to mix commercial and homemade videos, individual users create 
almost everything at YouTube. However, because of YouTube's phenomenal 
success, some commercial enterprises have latched onto the site's popularity to 
promote their own products via videos. Most notably, YouTube now offers official 
movie trailers and promotion videos from established media companies. 

It came as a surprise to no one when Google bought YouTube in late 2006 (when 
Video replaced Froogle on the Google homepage, that was a pretty clear indication 
of Google's direction). But this is a gamble, possibly a big gamble. Not everyone has 
forgotten what happened to Napster; Mark Cuban, chairman of HDNet (among other 
things) says in his blog, "It will be interesting to see what happens next and what 
happens in the copyright world. I still think Google Lawyers will be a busy, busy 
bunch. I dont think you can sue Google into oblivion, but as others have mentioned, 
if Google gets nailed one single time for copyright violation, there are going to be 



121 "Hitwise Data Shows Overall Visits to Video Search Sites Up 164%," Hitwise Competitive 
Intelligence, 24 May 2006, < http://www.hitwise.com/press-center/hitwiseHS2004/videosearch.php > 
(24 October 2006). 

122 YouTube Fact Sheet, YouTube.com, < http://www.youtube.eom/t/fact sheet > (24 October 2006). 



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more shareholder lawsuits than doans has pills to go with the pile on copyright suits 
that follow." 123 

However, YouTube was in the process of cleaning up its copyright act before the 
acquisition, and Google is certain to ensure that happens. Both Google and 
YouTube have recently made deals with major video partners, so Google may 
dodge most of the lawsuits, especially if video producers realize there is serious 
money to be made with this partnership. Nonetheless, big, rich Google makes a 
much more tempting target for potential litigants than YouTube ever did. For now 
Google says that YouTube will continue "to operate independently to preserve its 
successful brand and passionate community." 124 

Nonetheless, as of the first of this year, Google Video began to include results from 
YouTube. For now, when users click on the YouTube results, they are taken to the 
YouTube website. As of this writing, YouTube videos do not appear on the Google 
video homepage, only in search results where they are recognizable from their 
address. 

With YouTube, people can: 

> Upload, tag and share videos worldwide. 

> Browse millions of original videos uploaded by community members. 

> Find, join and create video groups to connect with people who have similar 
interests. 

> Customize the experience by subscribing to member videos, saving favorites, 
and creating playlists. 

> Integrate YouTube videos on websites using video embeds or APIs. 

> Make videos public or private — users can elect to broadcast their videos 
publicly or share them privately with friends and family upon upload. 

YouTube is building a community that is highly motivated to watch and share videos. 
The service is free for everyone." < http://www.youtube.eom/t/about > 

In May 2006 YouTube launched a new service that allows users to upload videos 
directly from their mobile phones and PDAs to the YouTube website. Clearly, two big 
concerns for a site such as YouTube are copyright infringement and pornography, 



123 Mark Cuban, "I Still Think Google is Crazy," : Blog Maverick: The Mark Cuban Weblog, 9 October 
2006, < http://www.bloQmaverick.com/2006/10/09/i-still-think-qooqle-is-crazv/ > (24 October 2006). 

124 "Google To Acquire YouTube for $1 .65 Billion in Stock," Google Press Center, 9 October 2006, 
< http://www.qooqle.com/intl/en/press/pressrel/qooqle voutube.html > (14 November 2006). 



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both of which they constantly try to avoid, in part by employing a "community 
policing" policy where users "turn in" offenders. When found, copyrighted material 
and pornography are removed. 

Lest you think every video at YouTube is of the "Snakes on a Plane" variety, there is 
so much user-created video available that there is at least a little bit of everything as 
well as a lot of some things. Take a look at this snapshot of the News & Blogs 
category, which shows the most popular tags in this category and thumbnail images 
of the most popular videos. Video tags created and added to uploaded videos is 
crucial to the success of any video being found using search, which motivates video 
creators to properly and adequately tag their videos. However, the tags are solely 
the discretion of the video's creator (i.e., there is no standard taxonomy). 

News & Blogs 

. News, Blogs, Local issues .. 



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We cannot afford to ignore sites such as YouTube because this is where users go 
every day to share and view their own homespun videos. It is an important new form 
of communication via the Internet. 

Summary ; 

> Sources of video data: only searches for user-submitted videos hosted at its 
own website. 

> Video viewed: at YouTube using MacroMedia Flash. 



340 



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> Search options: keyword searching for tags from uploaded videos; double 
quotes for a phrase will search for a video title. 

> Sort options: Relevance, date added, title, view count, users' rating (using 
star system). 

> Upload video? Yes. 

Sites requiring registration, payment, and/or software downloads 

AP Archive 

The Associated Press video archive is different from the other video search services 
in several important ways. First, it only searches the AP archive, but that is hardly a 
small thing. With over half a million stories in the archive, the AP probably has what 
you want. There is a catch: this is not a free service. The process for ordering video 
clips is complicated, but if you really need a specific video, you should read the AP 
Archive's "How We Work" page to learn the particulars. 
< http://www.aparchive.com/APArchive/paqes/admin/how we work.html > 

However, you do get some very useful data from the site for free. Look at the 
information provided about a May 2006 video entitled "Iran Nuclear": 



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Title: Iran Nuclear 

T.ipe Number: EFQ8/G422 

DuroNon: 00:01:53 

hfthite: lu;5l;09 

Dale.* 2006-05-1 7 

Somce:IRlNN 

SHGTUST: 

1. Zoom- out from banners to wide.ofralfy 

2. Close-up of people holding picture of Ahrnadinejad 

3. SOUNDBITE. .(Farsi) Mahmoud Ahrnadinejad, Iranian President 

"They say they want to give us incentives! Do you think you are dealing with a four-year old chitd to whom you can give some walnuts 

and chocolates and get gold from him?" 

4. Cutaway crowd waving and chanting 

5, SOUNDBITE: (Farsi) Mahmoud Ahrnadlnejad, Iranian President 

"I tell you mat we do not want anything beyond our legitimate, rights. We want our lights within the NPT (Non Proliferation Treaty) and we 
will not accept one iota less or more than our rights." 
6.. Pan of crowd 

7. SOUNDBITE: (Farsi) Mahmoud Ahrnadinejad, banian President 

"Don! force governments and nations to renounce their membership of the Nuclear N on pio life rati on Treaty." 

8. Crowd chanting and waving flags 

9. SOUNDBITE; (Farsi) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iranian President 

"The Iranian nalion won! accept any suspension or end to its nuclear activities." 

10. More of crowd at rally 

STORYLINE: 

Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on Wednesday rejected a European plan to offer his country incentives, including a llght-watet 
nuclear reactor, in return for giving up uranium enrichment, 

"Do you think you are dealing with a four-year old child to whom you can give some walnuts and chocolates and get gold from him?" 
Ahmadineiad toid thousands of people in central Iran, in a speech broadcast live on state television. 

European nations have weighed up adding a light- waler reactor to a package of incentives meanl to persuade Tehran to permanently 
give up uranium enrichment • or face the threat of UN Security Council sanctions. 

On Tuesday senior diplomats and EU government officials said tentative plans were being drscussed by France, Britain and Germany 
as part of a possible package to fee presented to senior representatives of the five permanent UN Security Council memoes 

Ahmadinejad also repeated his threat to pull out of nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty (MPT) if international pressure to give up uranium 
enrichment continued. 

H Don1 force governments and nations to renounce their membership of the Nuctear Nonproltferation Treaty,* he said, asserting that 
Iran had the right to a civilian nuclear power programme. 

"The Iranian nation won! accept any suspension orendlo its uranium enrichment activities; Ahmadinejad said. 

He also said Iran trusted Die European Union in 2003 and suspended its nuclear activities as a gesture to boost negotiations over its 
nuclear programme ■ only to have the Europeans eventually demand Iran permanently halt the programme. 

The 2003 deal called for guasantees that Iran's nuclear, programme wouldn't diverge from civilian ends toward producing weapons 

Iran agreed to the request but negotiations collapsed in August 2005 when the Europeans said the best guarantee was for Iran to 
permanently give up its uranium enrichment programme. 

Iran responded by resuming uranium reprocessing activilies at its uranium conversion facility in Isfahan, central Iran, 

Earlier this year it resumed research and uranium enrichment after the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN nuclearwatchdog, 
referred Tehran to the UN Security Council. 



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As you can see, the "storyline" provides extensive information about this clip and is 
free at the AP Archive website. Users would be hard-pressed to find more or better 
news video and text than in the AP Video Archive. 



AP Video Archive 
CNN Pipeline 



http://www.aparchive.com/ 



CNN offers only seven days of free access to its vast video archive of news and 
features. After a week, users must sign up for CNN Pipeline, which requires both 
payment and downloading and installing a CNN video player. Here is what CNN 
Pipeline offers: 

"CNN Pipeline empowers you to watch up to four live news feeds at once, changing 
feeds at any time with a single click. Our free video player only allows you to view 
one video at a time. Additionally, while our free video contains commercial 
advertisements, Pipeline offers commercial free access to video content on-demand, 
including free video, with multiple features for ease in searching and browsing. Our 
extensive archive, not available through the Free Video Player, gives you unlimited 
access to search and browse CNN.com's online video library." 
< http://www.cnn.eom/help/pipeline/#28 > 



CNN Pipeline 

Vanderbilt Television News Archive 



http://www.cnn.com/pipeline/index.html 



If you must have a video of a news broadcast and you are willing to register and pay 
for it, the Vanderbilt Television News Archive is the place to go. "The Television 
News Archive collection at Vanderbilt University is the world's most extensive and 
complete archive of television news. The collection holds more than 30,000 
individual network evening news broadcasts from the major U.S. national broadcast 
networks: ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN, and more than 9,000 hours of special news- 
related programming including ABC's Nightline since 1989. ..The archive makes two 
kinds of video tape loans to clients: duplications and compilations. We charge fees 
for loans to offset the costs in providing this service." < http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/ > 



Vanderbilt Television News Archive 
Conclusion 



http://tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/ 



There seems to be no end to the number of sites that provide some sort of online 
video access, whether it is news or homemade videos, for-fee sites or free ones, 
archives or live feeds. Every time I look, I find more sites, but I had to decide where 
to draw the line and when to stop compiling sites. If you believe I missed a critically 
important source, please let me know (and tell me what features make it special). 



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Online Audio, Podcasts, and Audio Search 



Last year I predicted that podcasting would be the "next big thing" for the Internet. At 
first, I thought I was wrong. While podcasting initially garnered a lot of attention, it did 
not take off until the second half of 2006. Fueled in large part by the immense 
popularity of digital audio devices such as iPod and the spread of broadband 
connections, podcasts and online audio have revolutionized the way people share 
and get news, entertainment, and information. While music downloads continue to 
dominate online audio, podcasting is coming on strong. And podcasting is not just 
for audio: video podcasting — know as vodcasting or vidcasting — is increasing in 
popularity, too. Podcasting is recording and broadcasting any non-musical 
information — be it news, radio shows, sporting events, audio tours, or personal 
opinions — for playback on a computer or a mobile device. "Though podcasters' web 
sites may also offer direct download or streaming of their content, a podcast is 
distinguished from other digital audio formats by its ability to be downloaded 
automatically using software capable of reading feed formats such as RSS or 
Atom." 125 

Think of a podcast as analogous to a radio or television broadcast. The podcaster 
first makes a file available on the Internet, either an audio file (usually in MP3 format) 
or video file 126 (these can be in a number of formats). Then the podcaster 
announces the availability of the file using a feed (RSS or Atom) that lists the 
available podcasts (very much like individual radio or TV shows) with the title, date, 
and a short text description of each episode. Finally, the user either plays the file on 
a computer or downloads the file to play it on a portable device such as an iPod 
capable of playing MP3 and/or video files. 

Podcasting has caught on because it is easy, inexpensive, mobile, flexible, and 
powerful. Many websites now serve as directories to help users find podcasts of 
every variety anywhere in the world. Podcast search engines generally index 
podcast metadata such as title, description, and length, which usually makes 
searching for podcasts fairly accurate. To date, audio podcasts remain more 
common and popular than video podcasts, but that is changing. 



125 "Podcast," Wikipedia, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcast > (19 October 2006). 

126 While the terminology is changing, I would say the term "video podcast" subsumes vloqs , which 
are a special type of video podcast, i.e., a weblog containing video. 



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Yahoo Podcast Search 

Yahoo got out in front of the podcasting trend with its new Podcasts Search (Beta) 
site after a study the search giant published with Ipsos Insight, which disclosed that 
most of the people who are using do so without even knowing it. 127 Yahoo's audio 
search option also finds podcasts, but if you are looking specifically for podcasts, the 
Podcast Search site is better. Yahoo Podcast Search indexes metadata such as 
keywords, categories, or user-generated topic tags to match queries to podcasts. 
Users do not need to register at Yahoo to listen to podcasts, but registration is 
required to subscribe to podcasts. Yahoo Podcast Search includes its own player 
that launches at the site so users can listen to podcasts. 






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Yahoo Podcast Search (Beta) 



http://podcasts.yahoo.com/ 



Podzinger 

Podzinger takes a completely different approach to indexing podcasts. "Podzinger is 
a podcast search engine that lets you search the full audio of podcasts just like you 
search for any other information on the web. ..Podzinger takes search a step further 



127 Joshua Grossnickle, et al., Yahoo! and Ipsos Insight, "RSS: Crossing into the Mainstream," [PDF] 
October 2005 , < http://publisher.yahoo.com/rss/RSS whitePaperl 004.pdf > (24 October 2006). 



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by searching the spoken words inside the podcast in order to find more specific and 
relevant results. The text-based search results include snippets from the audio to 
help you figure out if the result is relevant. You can even click on the words to listen 
to the audio from that point." 128 While this speech recognition technology works well, 
it only indexes English and Spanish podcasts at this time and the Podzinger index is 
much smaller than others. Podzinger searches audio, video, or both types of 
podcasts. 

Podzinger also introduced a special tab on its homepage that allows user to "search 
inside" YouTube videos, that is, to search the spoken text of YouTube videos. A 
search of YouTube using Podzinger will return the results with the keywords 
highlighted within the transcribed text at the exact time at which they occurred: 




^- , ;# l 



3a» 14, 



2061 



series: & YouTube. com: andrewgrumman1958 

Episode: Amy Goodman w/ DISSIDENT IRANIAN JOURNALIST "AKBAR 
GANJI" - 

AK8AR G.-N.U i* one ofM* Mos-t Prominent Dissident Journals 
int; -it Hg Spent Over 6 years in Prison infiin for Publishing a 
Series 0J'"lrwestigative Ark l*s" Regarding the (additional 
episode mfoi motion) 

Tag: amy goodman akbar ganjl investigative journalist 

dissident ij m poiilical assassination pacifica iranian 
government 

O 0:00:12 ... arrested after it took part in the conference some political 
reform in H \a he was released six years later in march of this year. Since 
his arrival in 1he United States - has been speaking out against human 
rights abuses in St .m he took part in three - hunger strike outside the UN. 
Aimed at forcing the Iranian government to release political prisoners last 
week. He declined to personal invitation lo the White House to meet with 
top US officials overseeing ii >u policy. He rejected the offer he says 
because he believed that current US policies could not help promote 
democracy in Iraq -- and she joins us now in the studio. The same can! 
come come Molly also joins us to help with translation we welcome you 

both to democracy now it's good to have you with us. welcome can 

you begin by talking about. Your investigations as a journalist in h ,m in the 
late 1980s-- ... 

© 0:08:37 ... Intention is to bring together the antiwar forces within Enron 

from If <m and from the rest of the world together In the US has 

threatened to attack an h<iu that is. The president President Bush has 
revolved around him part of the axis as evil and Patricia. What does this 
kind ... 

£ 0:09:20 ... somebody you donl have compounds Younis first it is 
impossible. And maybe h ,u in the same manner that Iraq and that kind of 
stunned hurt and made it. Have to accept quoteti him on the ... 

O 0:11:31 ...into on how Canada pro democracy group finishers in 

!i an and being empowered food should reluctant. Shouldnl be - 
advancing democracy education I don't believe we have a widespread 
democratic movement within ... 



Requirements for Podzinger are, for Windows Systems 



128 Podzinger FAQ, Podzinger.com, < hUp://www.podzinqer.com/about.isp?section=faq > (19 October 
2006). 



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> Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher and RealPlayer 9.0 or higher 

> Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher and Windows Media Player 9.0 or higher 

> Firefox 1 .0 or higher and Quicktime 6.0 or higher 
For Macintosh Systems 

> Safari 1 .0 or higher and Quicktime 6.0 or higher 

If your system does not meet these requirements, you can find podcasts and read 
the text transcript but you cannot play them. Video podcasts can be downloaded and 
played later or opened and played using a multimedia player such as Windows 
Media Player or Apple Quicktime. Podzinger supports the following video formats: 
mp4, mov, m4v, flv, mpg, or mpeg. 

Podzinger http://www.podzinqer.com/ 

Podzinger Spanish Search http://www.podzinqer.com/index.isp7iNes 

Odeo 

Odeo has been around since 2004 and now boasts over a million audio files, mostly 
podcasts from all over the world. It offers both a search and browse option. Users 
can either download the file or listen to it in a neat little player at the Odeo site. 
There is an option to create an account so that you can subscribe to feeds and save 
them at Odeo, but an account is not necessary. The search and categorization 
scheme is based upon tags, simple keywords or categories. 

Odeo http://odeo.com/ 

Podcast.net 

Podcast.net has more search options than most podcast search engines. Users can 
search by title & description, keyword, location, host, or episodes. I think the location 
search is the most useful because you can locate podcasts around the world. 

Podcast.net http://www.podcast.net/ 

Podscope 

Like Podzinger, Podscope transcribes audio from podcasts into searchable text. This 
means you can search on words and phrases that occur in the podcast; however, I 
found that Podscope's search is not entirely reliable (the search misses some words 
that have been transcribed). Nonetheless, it is a valuable podcast search site. 

Podcasts play at the site using Flash 8+: simply click on the green play button Hi; 

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^ podscp pei 



'senior fellow in public polic/j | Search! 



Podscope Search Results for "senior fellow in public policy" 

Sort Order: score, date 



Roundtable: Rice Disputes Clinton on Bin Laden (September 27) 
Source: NPR. Roundtable with Ed Gordon 






On today's roundtable. Secretary of State Condoieezza Rice says Bill Clinton has it all wrong on 
Osama bin Laden. Host Farai Chideye is joined by John McWhorter, Manhattan Institute senior 
fellow in public policy, Jeff Obafemi Carr, host of the radio show Freestyle, and Hofslra 
Unwersity journalism professor E. R, Shipp. 



ClagflJ Del.icio.u3 



Roundtable' Bush's UN. Address. Hollywood Voices on Darfur (September 21 ) 
! Source: NPR; Roundtable with Ed Gordon 



On Wednesday's roundtable: The president's address to the Untied Nations and what it may 
mean to the war on terrorism and the image of the U S, in the Middle East. Plus: Celebrity voices 
pin the pvsh to end the genocide in Darfur. Tony Cox Js joined by John McWhorter, Manhattan 
Institute Senior Fellow in Public Policy, Michael Meyers, executive director of the New York Civil 
Rights Coalition; and... 



DtdQltl felJflO.US 



Roundtable; School Race Divides, No Gore 2008 (June 7) 
Source: NPR Roundtable with Ed Gordon 






Topics- The U.S. Supreme Court wtll rule on a key dispute over school desegregation and races 
divided by neighborhoods; former Vice President Al Gore says he wont run for the White House 
in 2008: and the Pentagon edits a new version of the U.S Army handbook to remove a ban on 
'humiliation and degradation" of prisoners. Guests John McWhorter, Manhattan Institute Senior 
Fellow in Public Policy;... 



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http://www.podscope.com/ 



Other Podcast Search Sites & Directories 

A number of sites offer podcast search or function as directories that index podcasts 
usually by topic. 



Podcast Directories 
iPodder 

Podcast Directory 
Podfeed 

Podcasting Station 
Podcast Shuffle 

Other Podcast Search Sites 

Blinkx 

Podcast Alley 



http://www.ipodder.Org/directorv/4/podcasts 

http://www.podcastdirectory.com/ 

http://www.podfeed.net/ 

http://www.podcastinq-station.com/ 

http://www.podcastshuffle.com/ 

http://www.blinkx.tv/ 
http://www.podcastalley.com/ 



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Special Topics — News, Blogs, & 
Technology Search 

Newsgroups, Forums, & Mailing Lists 

News is one of the types of information most amenable to the Internet: both are fast 
moving, worldwide, and in high demand. Along with the proliferation of news sources 
on the Internet have come an even greater number of ways to share opinions on 
every subject, limited only by the scope of the human imagination. In this article, I 
am going to discuss several different ways of accessing both news and opinions on 
the Internet: newsgroups, message boards or forums, and mailing lists. I discuss 
weblogs in the next section because they require special software and thus demand 
a separate discussion. 



Newsgroups in general and Usenet 
in particular have lost a great deal of 
their prominence in recent years as 
more outlets for sharing information 
and communicating on the Internet 
have appeared. Usenet is a system 
that allows individuals to post 
messages and have them read 
around the world within about three 
hours. One of the drawbacks of 
Usenet is that it requires special 
software (a newsreader) configured 
to send and receive data via a user's 
Internet Service Provider's news 
server. Microsoft embeds its 
newsreader into software such as 
Outlook and Outlook Express. 

Usenet newsgroups are noted for being chaotic, notoriously unreliable (lots of 
gossip), and confusing. So why would anyone look at them? Because occasionally 
there is valuable and unique information posted to newsgroups. 

By August 2000, there was only one Usenet search engine remaining: Deja 
(formerly Dejanews). Fortunately, Google acquired Deja in 2001 and made available 
the entire Deja archive consisting of over 700 million posts from 1981 to today. 



Usenet Warning 

This is a place on the 

Internet I recommend 

exercising great caution 

and skepticism because 

anyone with Internet 

access can literally post 

anything to a newsgroup, 

and often do. 




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Google Groups indexes more than 1 billion Usenet postings, and new postings 
normally appear in Google Groups within 10 minutes. 

Google Groups put forward a new look in 2004 (out of Beta in early 2007) while 
retaining all the old postings in its index. 



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Groups C-? . 



Web Images Video News Mags more 



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Discuss online or over Create rich, cuslom Customize your look and 
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While Google Groups has many options and features that require an account, many 
of the most valuable features do not: 



ACTIVITIES THAT DON'T REQUIRE A GOOGLE ACCOUNT: 

♦ Reading posts in public groups 

♦ Searching for groups, posts, or authors 

♦ Posting to groups via email if they are unrestricted or you're already a member 

♦ Joining a public Google Group via email 

ACTIVITIES THAT DO REQUIRE A GOOGLE ACCOUNT: 

♦ Creating and managing your own Google Group 

♦ Posting to groups via our web interface 

♦ Creating pages and uploading files 

♦ Subscribing to a Usenet newsgroup and receiving posts via email 

♦ Joining a Google Group via our web interface 

♦ Changing your subscription type (No Email, Abridged Email...) 

♦ Reading a restricted group's posts online 

Google Groups has an advanced search that lets you limit your search by 
language, subject, forum, author, message ID, and/or date. It also has a feature 
known as "author profile." When you are viewing a posting, click on "More options" 
(next to the date); then select "View profile" next the author's From address. By 
clicking on a "Show options" next to an author's name, Google will present the option 



350 



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to "Find messages by this author" and automatically search for every posting from a 
particular address. Google Groups no longer shows the author's entire email 
address for privacy reasons, but many addresses are guessable. 



Google Grouf>s 



Help I Sign in 



deadline-online 



'm®M 



Deadline ZM 



i me-s$ar;e - Collapse jlj 



Home 
Discussions 



Hide options Mar 3, 3:29 am 



lonut Alex. Chitu 
From "lonut Alex. Chitu" <ionijtjlexch. i .(tf;gmail.com> -/ view profile ' 
Date. Thu, 02 Mar 2006 23:29:23 -0800 
Local: Fri, Mar 3 2006 3:29 am 
Subject: DeadLtne 2.30 

Rsiily to author | Forward | Print | Individual message | Show original | Report ihig message | Find messages 
by this author 

Check the latest version of DeadLine at http://cieadHne 3x vo . 
DeadLine 2.30 Includes support for Czech language, previews graphs In 
DeadLine Wizard, has a bigger project window and more consistent error 
messages. 

Reply to author Forward, 



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Google Groups' Option to "Find messages by this author" 

Google Groups is also one of the most valuable sources of information on technical 
and computer-related problems. Someone has probably encountered that same 
complex and mysterious error message that has you flummoxed. Simply by copying 
and pasting the error message into Google Groups, you have a very good change of 
finding out what it means and, even better, how to fix the problem. Despite what the 
site says, Google Groups no longer limits the query to 10 words, but to 32 as 
Google Search does. Also, the Google wildcard (*) does not work in Google Groups. 



Google Groups 



http://qroups.gooqle.com/ 



Yahoo Groups is also a huge source of newsgroups on virtually every topic. Yahoo 
Groups is very easy to use because it is arranged like the Yahoo general subject 
guide, i.e., it is browsable by topic and keyword searchable. Some groups require 
membership (registration), but many are publicly accessible. 

Yahoo Groups does not offer a search by "author's profile," but it does link directly to 
its Member Directory. You may be able to view the member profile, which may 
provide the user's real name, location, age, occupation, and email address. 



Yahoo Member Directory 



http://members.yahoo.com/ 



However, the popularity of newsgroups has declined with the rise of forums, also 
known as message boards. One of the main advantages of forums as a means of 
communicating via the Internet is that they do not require software other than a web 
browser for users to read and post to them. Forums usually are focused on a 
specific topic, anything from computer games to politics. "In terms of countable 



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posts, Japan is far in the lead with over two million posts per day on their largest 
forum, 2ch. The United States does not have any one large forum, but instead 
several hundred thousand smaller forums... China, the Netherlands, and France are 
also home to hundreds of independent forums." 129 

There are several major search engines specifically designed to index and search 
forums, message boards, and discussion groups. BoardTracker, Lycos Discussions 
and BoardReader make it possible for users to search many more online discussion 
communities than ever before. 

BoardReader, which was offline for most of 2005, is back and improved. The site 
has several software partners, including Vivisimo, the clustering metasearch engine 
behind Gusty , and Thunderstone to search and group information from Internet 
forums and message boards. There is an option to limit searches by date, site, and 
language. The sources indexed by BoardReader still tend to be very different from 
those accessed by Lycos Discussion, Google Groups, or Yahoo Groups, making it a 
valuable addition to "hidden web" search. BoardReader does recognize non-Latin 
character sets. The biggest change to BoardReader is the addition of a Domain 
Profile option, which uses data BoardReader gathers by indexing forums to create a 
detailed picture of a domain, including number and sources of inbound links, the 
pages in a domain with the most active inbound links. 

BoardReader http://www.boardreader.com/ 

BoardTracker searches only for the content of message boards/forums and can be 
used as a traditional keyword search engine or a browsable directory of message 
boards by topic. BoardTracker has an "instant alerts system" whereby it "will notify 
you in a number of ways (email, Jabber, ICQ) as soon as a thread matching your 
search term is posted on any of the thousands of forums we track." While 
BroadTracker does not require registration to use, its alert service obviously must 
require registration, which in turn requires a valid email address. Nonetheless, 
BoardTracker's registration does not ask for your name or address, so users can 
employ a free email service such as Hotmail or Yahoo Mail for BoardTracker alerts. 

Notice the search options BoardTracker offers, including the search for Threads or 
by Author, to sort by Relevancy or by Date, and to search in All Categories, your 
own selected threads, or in a specific category, which often has more subcategories 
within it, e.g., World & Regional includes specific continents, General, Middle East, 
and Warfare. I am also happy to report that BoardTracker searches equally well 
in non-Latin character sets as it does in English. I am also intrigued that it will 
search for results from the "past 6142 years." 



129 



Internet Forum," Wikipedia, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/lnternet forum > (14 November 2006). 



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Home 



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Search My Alerts Browse My Threads Setup 



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Data Transformation 

Rapid, visual data transformation, Replace ETL and EAI with 

XML. 

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(Title 



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^SlgnedXml class is supposed to reside in the $ystem.secur[ty.cryptojjraphy.xml namespace, but I havenl got that 
! namespace available. I have the system security.ciyptoyi.ipliy namespace ... more 




Cryptomapliv Research Ideas 



i Jason isom 



© 



901 18:02 15-Feb-05 



Can anyone suggest a good topic to research on Cryptography? In my Information Security course, we have to get 
a paper published by a popular website or journal such as http://www.ebcv ... more 



I Research paper/Cryptography 



JaWiB 



© 



133! 06:05 5-Sep-05; 



2*JM™ ,B **!- jthinking about researching computer security-specifically ciypto<ii<iphy I dont really know much about 
kiyptoyi.ipliy, so I'm wondering how good an idea this would be tor a research p ...more 



BoardTracker 



http://www.boardtracker.com/ 



OMGILI is a new vertical search engine that only searches the content of web 
forums. Why would anyone want to limit a search to discussion forums? "The 
information contained in online forums is typically presented in a 'question and 
answer' or debate style format. How is this significant? Many times you will have a 
question that has already been answered. Using Omgili, you can avoid posting 
already asked questions and quickly find your answer... Unlike ordinary search 
engines that prioritize articles and edited web pages, Omgili only indexes discussion 
forums. Using Omgili's advanced search capabilities you can choose to 
independently search titles, topics or just the replies of a discussion. 



«130 



Think how many times you have needed to find the answer to a question— for 
example, about trojan horse removal— and had to struggle through typical search 
engine results that were littered with useless advertisements. Now look at the results 
for that query using Omgili: 



130 "About Omgili," Omgili.com, < http://www.omqili.com/about.html > (31 October 2006). 



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The Omgili crawler analyzes a forum differently from a webpage, recognizing and 
assigning different weights to the topic, title, and replies. One thing to keep in mind is 
that you will have to register at forums where registration is required, i.e., Omgili 
does not offer a cached option. I would recommend adding Omgili to your forum 
search bookmarks. Oh, in case you're interested, Omgili stands for "oh my God I 
love it!" 

Omgili http://www.omqili.com/ 

Finding News Groups and Mailing Lists 

In contrast to searching newsgroup content, Tile.net will help you find newsgroups 
or mailing lists of interest. Tile.net offers an alphabetical listing of all Usenet 
newsgroups by description or newsgroup hierarchy. Don't worry if you don't 
understand the hierarchy because Tile.net has a search engine that will find the 
appropriate newsgroups to match your keywords. Tile.net also provides a 
searchable listing of mailing lists and discussion groups. 

CataList is the official source to "browse any of the 58,638 public LISTSERV lists on 
the Internet, search for mailing lists of interest, and get information about LISTSERV 
host sites." LISTSERV is one of the most useful and now venerable Internet 



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programs (dating from 1986), scanning email messages for the words "subscribe" 
and "unsubscribe" to automatically update mailing list subscriptions. At the CataList 
site, users can get the following public List and Site information: 

List information 

> Search for a mailing list of interest 

> View lists by host country 

> View lists with 10,000 subscribers or more 

> View lists with 1 ,000 subscribers or more 
Site information 

> Search for a LISTSERV site of interest 

> View sites by country 

Finally, both Google and Yahoo Groups allow users to search or browse groups by 
topic. 



Google Groups 
Yahoo Groups 
Tile.net 
CataList 



http://qrou ps.google.com/ 

http://groups.yahoo.com/ 

http://www.tile.net/ 

http://www.lsoft.com/lists/listref.html 



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Weblogs & RSS Feeds 



Weblogs (more often known simply as blogs) are web pages that are usually 
defined as online journals or diaries but can be many things. "Blog posts are like 
instant messages to the web. Many blogs are personal, 'what's on my mind' type 
musings. Others are collaborative efforts based on a specific topic or area of mutual 
interest. Some blogs are for play. Some are for work. Some are both." 131 Blogs can 
be wonderful sources of news and information, or they can be absolute schlock. I 
find blogs most useful as sources of rumors and opinions on particular topics or 
breaking news stories. Making blogs useful is tricky, but some of the best ways to 
access them are via specialty blog search tools because many search engines do 
not offer blog-specific searches. The first major blog search tool was Daypop , an 
excellent news search engine that lets users limit a search to blogs or RSS feeds. 
Google has a separate blog search engine, Yahoo subsumes blog searches under 
its news search, and Live has a "feed" search. 

Many — in fact probably most — blogs make their content available in RSS. What is 
RSS? RSS stands either for Rich Site Summary or RDF Site Summary (there is 
some dispute about this). "RSS is an XML format for syndicating web content. A 
website that wants to allow other sites to publish some of its content creates an RSS 
document and registers the document with an RSS publisher. A user that can read 
RSS-distributed content can use the content on a different site. Syndicated content 
includes such data as news feeds, events listings. ..excerpts from discussion forums 
or even corporate information." 132 Look for the RSS/Atom feed icon S at websites to 
subscribe to a feed. 

To add to the confusion, RSS is not the only format used for blogging and 
newsfeeds. The other major format is Atom, Here's a good explanation of the 
difference: 

RSS/XML/Atom are technologies, but syndication is a process. RSS and 
Atom are two flavors of what is more or less the same thing: a 'feed' which is 
a wrapper for pieces of regularly and sequentially-updated content, be they 
news articles, weblog posts, a series of photographs, and more. For the 
purposes of this article, consider the terms interchangeable. XML is the 
base technology both are built on, but that's almost totally irrelevant; the 



131 "About Blogger," Blogger.com, < http://www.bloqqer.com/about.pyra > (14 November 2006). 

132 » RSSi « webopedia, < http://www.webopedia.eom/TERM/R/RSS.html > (14 November 2006). 

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orange buttons are mislabeled, and should read 'RSS' or 'Atom' instead. 
Strange, but true. 133 

News aggregators (sometimes referred to as RSS aggregators) are programs 
designed to read XML formatted content, which is very popular in the blogging 
community. News aggregators retrieve RSS/Atom feeds and present these feeds in 
an easy to read format. Bloggers and many news websites use RSS/Atom feeds in 
XML format to publish information. Most news aggregators are downloadable 
programs that need to be installed on your computer, but some are implemented on 
websites. 

There are now a number of RSS and blog search engines. Unfortunately, the 
relationship between RSS feeds and blogs is not as clean and clear as one might 
hope. While RSS search engines get their content from RSS feeds and not from 
crawling the web, any type of website can distribute content using RSS. This means 
RSS search engines are searching more than just blogs. On the flip side, not every 
blog uses RSS to distribute its content, so some blogs are not searched by RSS 
search engines. 

So what exactly do blog search engines provide that traditional news search engines 
do not? What users often get from blogs are biased insights and opinions. For good 
or for ill, blogs are somewhere between newsgroups/chat rooms and true journalistic 
sites. Why use blog search engines? First, remember that traditional search engines 
are the least useful for news or date-sensitive information. News search tools are 
best for timely objective reporting. What blog search adds is diversified opinion 
(sometimes useful, sometimes not) on virtually every topic imaginable. Also, even 
good news search sites may index a limited number of sources whereas a good blog 
site may get news out faster and more efficiently. However, for a number of reasons, 
blog search engines' algorithms are not as good as general search engines' 
algorithms at weeding out spam, so you will probably have to wade through a lot 
of inappropriate and useless sites when using a blog search tool. 

The list of blog search engines seems to be growing weekly, but I expect some will 
fall by the wayside as others become more popular. I recommend trying several of 
these tools because you will probably get very different results. In late 2006 Google 
Bloqsearch overtook Technorati as the most popular blog search site. Technorati 
offers a somewhat different approach. The concept behind Technorati is that it 
"watches" over 63 million weblogs, analyzing who is linking to a blog, website, or 
news article. By entering the url of any blog, website, or news article, users can see 
how many blogs link to it, which bloggers are linking to that page, and what they are 
saying about it. In essence, Technorati is a very simple website analysis tool that 



133 "What is RSS/XML/Atom Syndication?" Mezzoblue.com, 
< http://www.mezzoblue.com/archives/2004/05/19/what is rssx/ > (14 November 2006). 



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lets users see what others are saying about almost any site of interest. Technorati 
also offers a keyword search of all the weblogs it tracks. 

Technorati and the Associated Press "initiated a service to connect bloggers to more 
than 440 AP member newspapers nationwide.. .Increasingly, what the blogosphere 
says about a news story becomes part of a more complete story, lending diverse 
perspectives and often expert commentary. The new service will bring blogger 
commentary about AP news stories to communities large and small throughout the 
USA, giving bloggers a voice in trusted local papers throughout the nation... When 
readers visit an AP member Web site that uses AP Hosted Custom News, they will 
see a module featuring the Top Five Most Blogged About' AP articles right next to 
the article text, dynamically powered by Technorati. Additionally, when readers click 
on an AP article, Technorati will deliver 'Who's Blogging About' that article." 134 

At the participating sites you will see the "Blog Roundup" from Technorati: 



>>Vlt7H*r^ 



Politics 



Washington 

Offbeat 

Poclcasts 

Blogs 

Weather 



Raw Hews 



SEARCH 



| |Search 



Archive Search ! 

Multimedia Gallery j 
News Summary 
(AUDIO) ! 

AP Video Network \ 



Today 

in History 

Photo Gallery 

Photo Week 

SportsWeek 

U.S. Census 

Database 



Defense: Duke Accuser Changes 
Story 

DURHAM, IM.C. (AP) -- The accuser in 
the Duke lacrosse sexual assault case 
told prosecutors in December that one of 
the three players charged did not commit 
any sex act on her during the alleged 
attack, according to papers filed Thursday 
by the defense.... 

Snow Latest Weather Woes for 
Seattle 

SEATTLE (AP) -- A cold snap swept 
through Seattle and surrounding areas 
Thursday on the heels of the season's 
second snowstorm, closing schools for 
more than 350,000 students, snarling 
traffic and causing at least one 
traffic- related death.... 



I 4 Hurt in Ind. Workplace Shooting 

-| INDIANAPOLIS (AP) -- A man shot and 

~i wounded four co-workers Thursday 

H morning at a manufacturing business that 

| employs disabled people through Easter 

| Seals, telling police he shot them over 

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Blog Roundup 

Associ-ar^d Pr^Si ztt'idzz: 

Congress Divided Over 
Bush War Plan 
25 new links 

U.S. -Led Forces Detain 6 
Iranian Workers 
IS new links 

al-Qaida Suspects Still 
Alive in Somalia 
11 new links 

Cisco Sues Apple Over Use 
of iPhone Name 
10 new links 

Nicaraguan Revolutionary 
Back in Power 
7 new links 

powered ev i Technorati 



134 Peter Hirshberg, "Technorati Teams With The Associated Press to Connect Bloggers to More 
Than 440 Newspapers Nationwide/' Technorati Weblog, 23 May 2006, 
< http://technorati.com/weblog/2006/05/107.html > (31 October 2006). 



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Clicking on the headline links you to the article; clicking on the "Links to this article" 
takes you to Technorati to read blog entries about the story. I think this development 
is further evidence that the definition of "journalism" is fuzzier than ever. 

The Diarist Registry indexes more than 7100 blog sites, is fully searchable, and 
lists blogs by country. Bloogz permits searches in four European languages plus 
English and Blogwise offers an option to list blogs by country. IceRocket has a 

"trend tool" that shows keyword trends for the last one to three months as well as 
other information to allow users to get a broad sense of a topic's popularity. 




Search: Blogs Web MySpace News Images 



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ICEROCKET. Blogs Trend Tool: Iran 



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Also, don't forget Waypath , which lets you see blogs that link to specific websites 
almost in real time. Waypath also searches the full text of blogs as well as by 
keyword. 

Of course, we now have Google Bloqsearch , which offers many search features and 
options but contains only fairly recent content. Also, keep in mind that Google Blog 
Search only indexes the site feed, not the full content at the website that 
originated the feed. 



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All the blog search engines permit sort by date in addition to sort by relevance. 
Date sorting works perfectly well with weblogs, which (unlike webpages) have 
date/time tags. 

Blogdigger http://www.blogdiQger.com/ 
Blog Search Engine http://www.blogsearchenqine.com/ 

Blogwise http://www.bloqwise.com/ 

Bloogz http://www.bloogz.com/ 

Clusty Blog Metasearch http://bloqs.clusty.com/ 

Daypop http://www.daypop.com/ 

Feedster http://www.feedster.com/ 

Google Blogsearch http://bloqsearch.google.com/ 

Ice Rocket http://blogs. icerocket.com/ 

Sphere http://www.sphere.com/ 

The Diarist Registry http://www.diarist.net/reqistrv/ 

Technorati http://www.technorati.com/ 

There are as many potential blogs as there are people willing to create and maintain 
them. Quite honestly, most are as dull as ditchwater. However, there is a type of 
blog— or perhaps it's more accurate to say, a type of blogger— that is inherently 
interesting: the insider. For example, there are several hundred Microsoft employees 
who are blogging, and a lot of what they are talking about is directly related to 
Microsoft products that are still in the planning stages. "Prolific Microsoft blogger 
Robert Scoble mentioned Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005 (and complained that 
the real name was far less interesting than the codename Lone Star)." 135 A few days 
after his blog entry appeared, Microsoft officially announced that the service pack 
Tablet PC is tied to wouldn't be out as planned by June (the last month of the 
Microsoft fiscal year) but was being delayed until at the earliest July 2005, when 
Microsoft's 2005 fiscal year begins. Other Microsoft bloggers have discussed such 
things as technical details of work with the latest developer tools, Longhorn (which 
became Vista, the current Windows OS for desktop PCs) architecture, and how 
features are developed for Microsoft products like Word. 

Microsoft has definitely taken a "if you can't beat 'em, join "em" attitude towards 
blogs (so far). In 2004 the company went so far as to launch Channel 9, a website 
that combines blogs, discussion forums and other technology to improve 
communications with developers. Channel 9 refers to the audio channel many 



135 "Inside Track," The Guardian, 20 May 2004, 
< http://technology.quardian.co.uk/online/storv/0,3605,1 220085, OO.html > (14 November 2006). 

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airlines use to let passengers listen in on crew conversations, and, according to the 
welcome message at the site, "We think developers need their own channel 9, a way 
to listen in to the cockpit at Microsoft, an opportunity to learn how we fly, a chance to 
get to know our pilots. ..Five of us in Redmond are crazy enough to think we just 
might learn something from getting to know each other.. Join in, and have a look 
inside our cockpit and help us fly the plane." 

Channel 9 http://channel9.msdn.com/ 

Companies walk a fine line between encouraging people to share information and 
protecting their proprietary "crown jewels." In fact, Microsoft fired a long-time 
temporary employee for posting photographs of Apple G5 Macs being delivered to 
the Microsoft campus. The employee originally posted the photo on his own site and 
intended it mainly for friends and family (he even cropped the photo so that the 
Microsoft campus wouldn't be visible). Nonetheless, the photo was quickly 
discovered and widely discussed across the web, leading Microsoft to dismiss him 
for "violating company security policy." Given the wide-open nature of the Internet, 
the ease of blogging, and the fact that people love to share information for whatever 
reason, blogging will undoubtedly become a bigger problem for companies and 
organizations. Employees may innocently or inadvertently post inside information 
that could be harmful to their organization. And it's not hard to imagine what damage 
a disgruntled employee could do. 



General News Sources 



Finding news sources around the globe has become fairly easy. All of the following 
are very good sources of different types of news sources: newspapers, magazines, 
wire services, etc. Many have links to online publications and news sources, and 
many of these publications are available free over the Internet. 

ABYZ Newslinks http://www.abyznewslinks.com/ 

Guardian's World News Guide http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldnewsquide/ 

HeadlineSpot http://www.headlinespot.com/ 

Kiosken http://www.esperanto.se/kiosk/enqindex.html 

Metagrid (newspapers & magazines) http://www.metaqrid.com/ 

NewsCentral (online newspaper links) http://www.all-links.com/newscentral/ 

NewsDirectory http://newsdirectorv.com/ 

Newslink http://newslink.org/ 

Online Newspapers http://www.onlinenewspapers.eom//index.htm 

RefDesk (My Virtual Newspaper) http://www.refdesk.com/papmain.html 



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News Sites & Search Engines 



In addition to the sites above that help you locate news sources, there are also a 
growing number of excellent search services dedicated to delivering and searching 
the news. In fact, so many people all over the world are relying on the Internet for 
their news that "old media" sources continue to lose revenue as they compete for 
readers and viewers. It turns out that some of the "new media" Internet news 
services such as Google and Yahoo now compensate old media sources such as 
AP on a pay-per-click basis. "Major Internet portals such as Yahoo and America 
Online have been paying for content since their creation in the mid-1990s... Earlier 
this year [2006], Google signed a deal with the Associated Press, one of more than 
50 agreements AP Chief Executive Tom Curley has obtained from Internet players" 
since 2003. 136 

Google News and Yahoo News are among the very best news search tools. Both 
have superb advanced search options that include the ability to limit searches to 
specific publications, dates, etc. Both let you sort the results by relevance or by date 
and time. News searching is one area in which it makes sense to sort results 
by date because news stories, unlike webpages, have meaningful date/time 
"stamps" or tags. 

Because of partnerships between many news websites and news providers, readers 
often have access to subscription news stories without having to register (e.g., The 
New York Times) or give personal information at a news website. Occasionally, you 
may even discover you can access an article requiring payment because of a 
partnership arrangement. For example, this article is only available by paid 
subscription at its website, but by using Google News to find it, a reader can access 
the full article for free and without registering. 

The Patent Office: Getting Wiki With It 

Lavrf.com ^ubscri(itiou), CA - Jan 12, 2007| 

In August, when the Patent and Trademark Office acknowledged that it had taken Wikipedi.i off its list of 

acceptable research sources, the suiprise was not ... 



136 Elise Ackerman, "New media making deals with old' news providers," Mercury News, 30 July 
2006, < http.7/www.mercurvnews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/15157800.htm > (14 November 2006). 



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LAW.COM 



■ ■ j ■-■)] Law.com Sites _Jlr- 




Free E-Dtscovery Webcast 



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The Patent Office: Getting Wiki With It 

Alan Cohen 

IP Law & Business 

January 16, 2007 

3 Printerfrie ndly _:"■ Email this Article y R«pHofcs ft Permissions 

In August, when the Patent and Trademark Office 
acknowledged that it had taken Wikipedia off its list 
of acceptable research sources, the surprise was 
not that the Web site had been banished, but that 
examiners had been using it at all. To its fans, 
Wikioedia is a remarkable collaboration: a gigantic, 
up-to-the-minute encyclopedia to which any user, 
anywhere, can contribute. To its detractors, it's the 
online version of the old "Saturday Night Live" 
game show, "Common Knowledge," where answers 
were determined by a nationwide survey of high 
school seniors. The joke was that every answer 
was wrong. 

No doubt, Wikipedia's anyone-can-be-an-expert nature means that it, too, 
can get things wrong. The site also gets its share of pranksters. Recent 
entries have noted that a popular computer game was written by Mr. T, of 
television's "The A-Team" (not), and that one of the prime suspects in the 
assassination of John F, Kennedy was John Seigenlhaler, Sr., the founding 
editorial director of USA Today (beyond not), 



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However, finding and understanding how to use these services can be confusing 
because most sites that permit unimpeded access to subscription news do not do a 
good job of advertising how to do it. 

Some of the major news sources that require registration or personal information to 
access some or all of their news, but which are accessible via news search sites 
include: 

The New York Times 

The Washington Post 

The LA Times 

BusinessWeek 

Forbes 

The Guardian (UK) 

The Times of London 

I have included some ways to access subscription news without providing personal 
information in the discussion of news search engines below. 



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Google News http://news.qoogle.com/ 

Google News headlines are entirely generated using a computer algorithm that 
scours over 10,000 worldwide news sources. 137 Google News also offers 
international editions for France, Germany, India, Italy, Spain, and several other 
countries. 

Google News lets users: 

> Sort results by date or relevance . 

> Search on a title or headline using the syntax intitle: [intitleiiraq]. 

> Use both the intitle: and inurl: or source: commands together to find a 
specific topic in a specific publication. 

> Limit a search to a specific U.S. state or a country [location:ny] or 
[location :germany]. 

> Limit a search to a specific news site using the syntax inurl: or source: 
[inurl :washingtonpost.com]. 

Google also permits users to limit their search by news source in both simple and 
advanced news search. The source: command must be used with a keyword. The 
syntax in simple news search is source: and the query is: 

[source:news_source_name keyword] 

For example: [source:new_york_times iraq] 

The source: syntax can be tricky to use. Here's a partial list I've come up with which 
works (as of now) in simple search: 3 

source:bbc_news 

source:intemational_herald_tribune 

source:united_press_international 

source:guardian 

source:christian_science_monitor 

source:cbs_news 

source:abc news 



137 Philipp Lenssen's research during 2006 indicated at least 10.584 unique sources for Google 
News. "Which sources does Google News index?" Google Blogoscoped, < http://bloq.outer- 
court.com/qooglenews/ > (14 November 2006). 



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source:washington_post 

source:reuters 

source:cnn 

source:msnbc 

source:forbes 

Another option is to use the Advanced Google News Search that includes these 
options: 

> Find results— all words, exact phrase, at least one word, without the word(s). 

> Sort by relevance or date. 

> Location by country or state. 

> Occurrences of terms — anywhere or in headline, body, or url of article. 

> Date — anytime, last hour, last day, past week, past month, or range of dates 
within past month. 

> Source by simple name, e.g., CNN, New York Times. 

The source option in advanced search is an improvement over having to use the 
source: syntax that required such entries as [source:united_press_international]. 
However, there are still two problems with the source: option. Google doesn't list its 
sources anywhere that I can find (it merely says there are about 4500 of them), and 
you still have to write out the full name of the source, so UPI or Fox will not work but 
United Press International or Fox News will. Google News now offers a Google 
Blogsearch link from the News homepage. 

Google News Advanced Search http://news.qoogle.com/advanced news search 

Google News also offers customization features that let you add or remove news 
categories, decrease or increase the number of headlines you see, select from 
numerous regional editions of Google News from around the world, and more. For 
example, you could customize your Google News page to show only the World, 
Sci/Tech, Business, and U.S. pages, then add standard sections for German 
Business and another for France in general. Google News also permits adding a 
custom section in which you enter keywords (all must be in the story for it to appear 
in your section, so choose carefully). You can even use the "Advanced" option under 
custom section to limit your keyword search to a specific topic, e.g., "internet 
security" only in the Sci/Tech section. You can change the language of the stories in 
your custom section by clicking on "Advanced" and selecting a language in the 
pulldown menu. While these new customization options may sound a little 
complicated, they are fairly intuitive, and Google News is very forgiving. If you make 
a mess of your customization, there is an option to "Reset page to default" link to 
return your page to its default settings (i.e., the standard version without any 



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customizations). This will, however, obliterate any customization you ever made, so 
you might want to delete unwanted sections one at a time instead. 

Google News now permits users to get any Google News page, section, search, or 
customized page via RSS or Atom feeds. Google News provides detailed 
information on how to set up and access these feeds. 

Google News Feeds http://news.qooqle.com/intl/en us/news feed terms.html 

Google News keeps news stories in its database for about 30 days. This might be a 
bit misleading since much of the freely available news on the Internet is only 
available for less than 30 days (usually somewhere between 1 and 2 weeks). Unlike 
the Google search engine, Google News does not offer cached (stored) copies of 
these news stories. However, some news articles that cannot be accessed via the 
original site's archives because they require registration were indeed accessible 
using Google. So if you cannot get to a news article that is less than 30 days old via 
the original source, try searching for it in Google News and linking directly to the 
page. 

Google News Archive http://news.qooqle.com/archivesearch 

Google News unveiled a new service that, from the looks of it, will be very popular 
and useful— and potentially highly addictive. It's Google News Archive Search, which 
links from the Google News homepage. Here are the results for the search [ronald 
reagan]. On the right are the results listed by relevance, though they are a bit odd, 
considering that the third result is from CNN but dated 1952 (the article actually 
dates from Reagan's death in 2004 and is about his life in the 1950's). On the left 
you can limit the search by date range or by publication. 



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Se.irch -tiTicJt* Sfc?w timeline 



V><li Date? 

XQz Nation bids final farewell to Rcanan . closing \ir ^i American story 

)3%M93' &w C'!>'^ Usm?» ftilwrif! - Jun 1 1 . 7CG4 

i222 __ "Wo losr Ron.iM Rt.iy.in onty toys aga few we J»av& mis$«<J him '.'or a hnq time," Bush ... 

1333-1937 'Ronald Re^g.iH belongs to the ages nrw. but we prefe^ecl i; sthen he ... 

ifh 1 • 1332 CnMoma burial n-iarkg end ol Reagan jan-Tiey - H^usigft Chronicle 

I^ik HrJgq Sife lin^ecin^ goodbye lo Re-mau - Himsw*i .Ch< Qnicle 

>AH PuWicst'i'oiw . ™" 

vSS^^ i ^ckonmq with Reaflan Tte wri&n f acoiti 

Phtaddutiia ; M • ■ •J m 5 - SB* 

Si bjutt Post ^ ^Cannon's tfo-s^i •»? e"ss5Ai(il raiding or RoiiaM R^.hjjh - hts \9&2 ... Th= Ronald 

A&>sii JOoifsatTh R**yan depicted by Csnnon is « lslenled, but unoiawniionai, ... 

Tributes jo Raa.gjft cro^s political hues ■ ffrtsmatreRit Herald... - ttghSesm Research (Subscription) 

FcfineyPiesi'denl R on aUl Re.igan die^ at 93 - US-, loday 

.^SJL'i'P ' - : ■' vC C jj ' ar --i c i £ - 3m Die - "una - Aii *£3 ?«h;»g - FjeijUa w^ twj2g 

(fne Rra cidn^ loader, on frai Souin gw CaiiorniiTaricfl 

■?5>!'-. ! Mai J, 1952 

tn i967-. «ftoft ftoiuM Re.i^.iii look office as governor «' Califon;i3 afler 3 sutprisiii^ly ... And 

in Ronald Ro-iqjii's shining cisy, WanCj -«SiS .tfwoyi (here, ... 

A iancfefida mak^s ii Pf^sfdenr Reagan 

Oua^lAjyiMttl- Hot 5, 1S6G 

Rortold Rea9.n1 will-be the nett Preside of the '.'wled Sole*. ... M Roiuild. Reagan cart 



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This is where the Google News Archive search is irresistible to researchers (not to 
mention to history and news buffs). Take a look at the results from the 1950s: 



Goodie I 



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Archives 



Ail Dy,o«, 
1.35*- i 353 
1952 

\m 

>Aii Public moi'i* 
Travis City... 
CkiQn Evening.. 
P^snTeteqrafrh 

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IMffea ^ns tocjjMLM ^' r SQUfeQ Calif ornia raiKh- 

■ MaiJl. 1S52 
In '$957. ^90'ftqiiiiM Reagan took -office as goveinct of California after 3 stKjjtismgty 
in RnuaM R$,nj.Mi'u shining ci'y. N^ncy y/as always lbere„ ,„ 



And 



Ronald Reagart Bock, Wooing His Fii-si Low 

^ (INS) Ronald Reatpii, ytha bss clavoted mote line la IV in Ibe past few year* lhan he hss 
lo films, turns again Id hi? disl love in s dssljust signed win ... 



wod Award 

iisf*. TKst'ffic -Feb 36.1951 
Master of Ceremonies Ronald Reagan, pygsjetent of 1 fee Screen Actor? GuBtf, , 
thought ib?l Ran.iiil Reagan -.was ««*lner a vet/ bwve mon™>o/ a ^ery ,..- 



HgH/wtod 



Tn/j Now Picture 

f)t?-Twvs?^.-KVf3. 3933 
Apse sled 10 try r»ej son (Ronald R«arj.m|, she sets out to make amende and. ,,. Ronald 
Re.1y.u1 and Rotlf Hussey have i&llte It ste sxcefl a^cfiim sbout.Jha way ... 

'Hie New Pictures 

T|:V.&' MHUIHM ■■ "Tiros tac. ■ Jy^ '14. 1952 

The v &wj*i»| Te^in {Warmer} is a blester biography Qf baseball's, laie fjtest Gf§*er- Cte^laswi 

Ates^nrjer (Ronald Reagan} Like The Pride of Si, Loui's- (TIME. ... 

Ignore the first result, which we know isn't really from 1952. Most of the oldest news 
appears to come either from Time (if it's free) or from the Newspaper Archive. The 
Newspaper Archive is "the single largest historical newspaper database online, 
containing more newspaper pages from 1759 to present than any other service." It is 
subscription based, but free to public libraries and K-12 schools, so if you need a 
copy of the full sized newspaper image, you can get it at your public library. 

The good news is that Google News Archive searches the Newspaper Archive and 
returns the results in a window. For example: 



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NEwsPAPERflRCHIVE#com 



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Home \ Register , Advanced Beared ) Browse Available Papers 1 Support 



Over 45 Million Newspaper Pages Online! Search 



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Search results for ronatd reaqan w< 

316,358 newspaper pages including The Dixon 

Telegraph. 



Here is your result preview from The 
Dixon Telegraph on Tuesday. 
August 15. 1950(Dixon.lllinois) 

maiBBmsBBEBEaiamaaamt j 

"ThMext abare wss extracted from Ihe image using 
Optic-ai Charac I er Recognita?! sechna c-gy snd mav appear 
disorganize^. Member enjoy accass !o fuM siae 
newspaper -jrsges as l*i=y were prinied and ifceieior* in 
most cases eapeiience *D0% reaoabihty 







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The Otxon Telegraph 
Tuesday, August 15, 1950 



ry Another Search 



Although you cannot get the full size image using Google New Archive search, the 
complete article is here. You can scroll down, read, and even copy the entire 
newspaper article from the August 15, 1950, Dixon Telegraph using Google News 
Archive search, whereas even viewing results at the Newspaper Archive is 
unavailable to users unless they are paid members of the Newspaper Archive. You 
can limit your Google News Archive searches to the Newspaper Archive by adding 
[source:"newspaperarchive"]. Many of the results in the Google News Archive 
search come from subscription services, and these are clearly marked as such. The 
advanced search contains an option to "Return articles with the following price," 
including articles with ,l no price," meaning "free," not "priceless." 

You can also limit your search to a specific news source, e.g., [source:"daily herald"], 
and Google News Archive will show the possible publications if more than one fits 
that query: 



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Google 



)££§k image? V;de& News Maps yvjiej* 
|yourc6."d8ity herald* Search AtchiwBs 



News 
Archives 



>,*JJ Dales 
2 O01-5QOE 

1 997-1999 

|&j; 




Ths kg/ NBA Frnals matchup Jazz's offensg vs Bulls' 

iJ »■. - Doily M«rii>M - h-eixst am, - Jgrj I , 139? 
II will pit the Bulls-' impenetrable defense against impeccable offensive e 
Jaz? Mo matter wtitVs -matched up agarnst whom, ... 
Wi lUfrsBuljs mnbel helast? - Doity Heiald - NswsBsnk ($2 95) 
^llril^ B JJ^ia5J5ILl • Dai'V HewW - MewsBanfc (52 95) 
O.iiiy HomM * P.nUH<:t.jlil - £|i 537 tet-Xod * RoU'.d v.ob <i^1Q-- 

"T he Peace maker" Daly Her aid 

fJ ^ - tMily Het«>M - L^-X:w - Sep 23, 1997 

Wmien by Michael Schiffei.. Produced by Walter Psrkes and Branko L 

Ledei. A DreamWorks Picluies release. Raled R fviolenCeV ... 



You may have noticed the option to "view timeline" above. When you select this, 
Google News Archive puts all the search results into a date ordered timeline that 
may make complex historical events and news stories easier to research: 



Google 



"V/ato ledges Vidgg Ns** Maps riioie_? 



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News 



Archives > Timeline: am oh-m ? Befo-e 1991 



€B6-P7--) T»MF Maqarmo A:r,i-ivo Aiadg - ■- On 7. 1906 
in ^^i.-'-b- i' = ■■■. -Oct;. t%6 

Manpn P'Stts impression ot Roiiatd R* jrj.ni msy sn;<e joiie peop.'e •£ a 51 ysu'hkl 
looking — lik& lliaf fellow sr> Th© )94£b movies ... 



.If; fig-? 3. i ■_ Pooi Ronald Reagan 

P . . '■>)< ^i^' ' '■ ^ iiif.<j"v* F * h- • : '■.' 1 ■'-;' 1st- . ■ • May ?0. 1971 

Roit.-ild RtkAyan'* potoonal lin,irtsoi srlualion As o^eiyrnc tjruws by now, Go* Re^jan had 

such had linarutsl reverses last ysarthat hr 1 ftidn* Iiajp to pay ... 

■£_.L-i_lti.i ' P- v'<.Z , »^b \>MIK>* 

Ronald Reagan. Levho the frroundwofr for '76 

r-i;-''i'-t-'. ■••*. .^"\\M'f.0-\V- • ■■' -f ■'' ■«■-; -;r hu.v • JuR J?. 19".? 

Ron.ild R«.ii|-m has p^jafic ly dowigfaded :hs W^isigsl* scandal srtri urriKervedly daffrtdee 

P«sfc!sr,l !Mix.on. his lop adwters sra pjnvalely uigmcj cool deiachmem ... 



Tfmelirrt! for «mald leafjan (0.09 wcchnds) 
Search article* Show timeline 



*$7A 75w Reagan 13. Fere) 

\r i;.'W.--'lu--. - .■•:.!nfi-f-JHi- - : I - [- " . ->'i r'?C ?>.<: f ■ Apt 20. 1975 

'Uf>d£f today's ccndi.tr**, Ronald R«nga» way c 5w?*p dbl^git^ irt»m the 13 southern *rid 
border tlale-,- asjomti Gersid R Foitf.' ... 
U/i:s'->t)niiona' Wiodorn TIME MaQarina ■ Tlmo Inc 



1976" "PmE M_aaar tie A:cl ive Arucle -- j-iawf or d Wgfi and Reagan Lost..., 
"i;-i?^' n ■" * " r "" ■ f »^f 51 1976 

A; RoitiiM ftesij.iir'* headquarter? in Concord's clingy NV/* 1 H.imp6)i;fe Highway Hotel, 
coiifid^n: aides hsi eti lied sei-erai bonnes tf AJmaden hlair de Carres ... 
TIME ^3J'iJJE_Ai.chit , e_.' a Jlic|?_ = M^er u ndg reslima - TIME Ma^iime- Ttnte Inc 
•; .i_- .' J - ■ P ".I" ->-fb pvy - . 

"m^ RnjKino Wiirn'fjfl**; f^mft 



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The oldest newspaper articles I saw are from the Public Register or Freeman's 
Journal (dating back to 1763), Edinburgh Advertiser ( to 1772), the Times of London 
(to 1788), and the Daily Universal Register of London (to 1786). You can read 
articles in British newspapers about the upstart American colonials and follow the 
war news up to a report on November 30, 1781, in the Edinburgh Advertiser that 
news "arrived off Cape Charles [Virginia] on the 24th [of October], when we had the 
mortification to hear that Lord Cornwallis had proposed terms of capitulation to the 
enemy on the 19th. This intelligence was brought us by the pilot of the Charon, and 
some other persons Who came off from the shore." If that doesn't make you salivate, 
nothing will. 



Yahoo News http://news.yahoo.com/ 

Yahoo Advanced News Search http://news.search.yahoo.com/news/advanced 

Yahoo News is one of the most impressive news sites on the Internet. In fact, it is 
my favorite news search site. Yahoo News crawls over 7,000 news sources in 35 
languages. In each topical section, Yahoo News offers the option of viewing all 
articles from a specific source and access to the full-text articles. The news sources 
include major news sources that require registration or personal information to 
access some or all of their news, but which are accessible via Yahoo News, 
including but not limited to: 

The New York Times 

The Washington Post 

The Los Angeles Times 

Baltimore Sun 

Chicago Tribune 

Agence France-Presse (AFP) 

The Guardian (UK) 

Canadian Press (CP) 

BusinessWeek 

Forbes 

Motley Fool 

The Deal 

News from the wire services, Reuters and the Associated Press, is stored for two 
weeks. News from other sources is usually stored for one month, although for some 
providers it could be as little as seven days. 

Yahoo News search now includes results from bloqs as well as from traditional news 
sources. When you search using Yahoo News you get results from blogs, the Flickr 
photograph sharing site, and links from My Web 2.0 Beta , a Yahoo "social search" 



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property that encourages grassroots "reporting." Traditional news source results 
appear on the left side of the screen and the new blog results on the right. 






■ ■ ■;■•.■ : i - 



ftufr iw pflflB A Mim&JL&Mxh ^farscifta* 



Mew? Results 



Also trv: hag constitution . ira< [ election , iraq war More... 

Full Coverage: * World >..li.a<i,Ai.e.hivft * World > liaq » Worlds Ma/tfar.Mfl.vs.ment 



<£ot f^edb^ck? | Stiggftst -a Sit-a 



siwUlOKB Res'. ■=■ I ■■ *S !>f ^irt.«^,474^t «•*%$, Sort Results byi Retevancfi | £j£tg s'SCO'CS^BCt^- ' : : ' . ^T"oM'3|fe' 



i. Rice defends policy on Iraq ^ 
Reutc-rB vis Yalioo) News * 42 niinutes 390 

Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice sought to reassure critical lawmakers on 
Wednesday that the Bush administration had a strategy in U«iq that would "assure 
victory." 
Sgye to Mj Web 

2. Rice worn sav if US troops will quit Iraq in 1 G years %> 

AFP via Ysh&ol Maws -.29 miiHJtas age 

US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice refused to speculate on whether US hoops 

would be out of haq in -five or even 10 years. 

3. Rice Wants to Follow Afghan Model in Iraq ^ 
A.P vi*! Yahoo! New$ - 2 hours, H minutes ago- 

Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on Wednesday outlined a strategy (or helping 
Iraqis, clear out insurgents and buiid durable, national institutions as she sought to 
leassure jittery members of Congress about the pain to peace in liaq. 



10/19/2005: Soldier Killed: 

Jiaq QpekiIu 

American Fores 5 information 
Service - Mew; Article? 
I hour, JG minutes 390 
Washington, Oct 19, 200S - A 
U.S.sofdie... 

Quarter of hag Vets Have 
Health Problem:.. 
Outbids The Beltway 
1 hour, 34 minutes ago 

A new survey reveals that 
more than a qu... 

S3 Ajgsi; ei -. s^is 



strategy of "clea... 
Free Mew Mexican 
2 hours, 47 minutes ago 

WASHINGTON - Secretary of 
State Condoiee... 



Yahoo Advanced News Search offers many options, including date, location, 
language, and source limits. To limit your search to a specific source using 
Advanced News Search, scroll down to Source and enter the source, e.g., [Los 
Angeles Times]. Users can also search by source" or site in the simple search 
screen as follows: 

> Limit a search to a specific news source using the syntax url: inurl:, or 
source: 

[url:nytimes.com] or [inurknytimes.com] or [source:new_york_times] 

Yahoo News also lets users: 

> Sort results by date or relevance. 

> Search on headline: or title word to see exact title (headline) matches 
[headline:iraq]. 



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> Search on headline: before each of multiple keywords to search for titles that 
must contain all selected words. 

[headline:mideast headline:peace] 

> Use parentheses to search for headlines that contain at least one of your 
selected words. 

[(headline:mideast headline:peace)] 

> Enter phrases to search for titles that contain a specific terms. 
[headline:"mideast peace"] 

> Limit a search to a specific U.S. state or a country: [location:ny] or 
[location:germany] 

These queries can be used in combination as well as alone or with keywords. 



Pandia Newsfinder http://www.pandia.com/news/ 

Pandia's newsfeed is powered by Moreover, which means the number of sources 
queried is huge and includes the usual — The New York Times, AP, Reuters, BBC, 
the Washington Post, ABC, MSNBC — as well as the uncommon— Financial Times, 
Stratfor, Wikinews, and more. Use the Pandia News Extended Search on the pull- 
down menu for a greater number of news sources. Pandia Newsfinder is like 
everything else at this excellent Internet search site: easy to use, well organized, 
and high quality. 



In addition to news search engines, there are some excellent sites that offer one 
interface to many news search sources. These are some of the best. 

HavenWorks http://havenworks.com/news/search/ 

Don't give up on this resource just ^because HavenWorks has one of the ugliest, 
most cluttered webpages you'll ever see. HavenWorks lets you use some of the best 
news search engines from one page: AltaVista and AlltheWeb News (both use 
Yahoo News sources), Google News, Daypop (news and blog search), and 
Rocketinfo (only five days worth). Unfortunately, Moreover no longer permits 
individual users to search from its home page, so the HavenWorks' Moreover search 
is no longer operational. Havenworks also has some excellent news search tips and 
specialized news searches if you can find your way through the maze of clashing 
colors and general untidiness. 

JournalismNet http://www.iournalismnet.com/ 

As its name implies, JournalismNet is designed primarily as a tool for journalists. 

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uNci_AssiFiED //ron ornc i AL use o n ly 



Journalism Net's international newsfeed is powered by Moreover, but it's not 
designed for searching. Jnet provides links by country and region — North America, 
Europe, and Africa — to the respective newspapers, news archives, television, radio, 
etc. There are also links to search tools, people finders, fact finders, newspapers, 
magazines, TV, radio, etc. The site is very heavily oriented towards tutorials — lots of 
"how to" pages, which are very useful. 



News Now 



http://www.newsnow.co.uk/ 



NewsNow offers a newsfeed -that automatically updates itself every five minutes 
from news sources around the world. NewsNow is a UK resource that provides 
constant news monitoring of nearly 22000 worldwide sources on a large variety of 
topics. From the home page users can select a specific newsfeed from top-level 
subjects that include hot topics, business & finance, industry sectors, IT, Internet, 
current affairs, and regions. The newsfeeds are listed by "new in the last 5 minutes," 
"10 to 15 minutes old," "15 to 30 minutes old," and earlier articles. Although earlier 
articles from the same or previous days are available, NewsNow is primarily a 
current news source, not an archive. NewsNow also offers a free simple search 
that is quite good. 

All sources are clearly indicated both by the name of the media outlet and by a 
national flag of the source's home country. Almost all the articles are in English, 
though I have seen a few non-English language articles on occasion. NewsNow is a 
great resource and is one of the best "breaking news" sources because of the 
automatic updates, the number and quality of news sources, the fact it does not 
require registration/payment, and because it has no ads. NewsNow will not display 
properly in older versions of Netscape. 



i [eg Beckham [>] 

| *■ -sU articles C this newsfeed 

! Phnst milling »nd full i*xt 
! s«ircl) onlv iviihbl* through our 
j bucintis icrvicti. 



i .;.„ih ' i.[ | *j i L ,,w, [>i 



Hot Topics CIS) "Tf \>] 

Business » Finance (Tij zj [>| 

Industry Sectors (44) "^j [T] 

IX (49) ^J \B 

internet (£1) f] \>} 

Current Affair; (92) ^j [>] 

Regions (102) ^J [>] 

Sport (17) Zl OD 
10 

zJE 



', .IPll". ■-■■;.:;. ,»!'■% :»■=( 



I Japan announces olan to tackle birdflu outbreak d15epikaglob4i.com i i-.zi 
E3 Bush in Asia: He'll push China on human rights and trade issues rhe 

Salt Uikt Tribune, Ulon 17:13 
fS China reports new outbreak Of bird flu Billings Gazette. Montana 17:13 



Football (170) 



US Sports (134) 



Entertainment (37] 



miimmmmBmM&± 




93 Show Axed After Bird Flu Warning ?ciith Tyna^do Shield: Gazette 17:0.2 
83 Revealed: Ireland's plans for coping with bird ftu The rime* U..-.Y.8 
83 Popeyes, KFC forge clans in case of bird flu outbreak ?R*ttV. i<i,:Si 
S3 Tyson's Chicken Weighs in on Avian flu Threat WTVP. CBS 6, 

V/i>grni>b 16:56 
e= Medical International Technology Inc. Announces: Sale to Chinese 

Distributor to... rrim«one f'-editi Metwork {Firiss Rde-ase; 16:55 

II Pall reveals faster vaccine production method for avian flu r^vli 16:43 

gg Avant Stock Climbs on Bfd Flu Initiative CNBC i6;37 

Ǥ= Vietnam study shows bird flu virus mutating Reuterc 16:35 



BaOMBHWaWll 



■- ^ 



MulUple issues to greet president on Asia trip Son Di<i(jo Ufn.}r>-Tr)t.ur:e, 

California icr-iS 

Climate Change Could Spread Plague: Scientists Common Drc*™ 16:26 



E3 H5N1 mutation appears closer 

Hr>ng Kor.g Standard 00i07 l-i-Noi-05 

g=| Masks as flu defense draw scorn 

Tri« CUkUrd T-ibun«, C*llT?ir.la 15:50 VZ-Ho-j- 

33 Mammals at greater risk as bird flu strain 

mutates 

G'jird'm Unlirr,it*4 CiO:H H-Nov-O^ 
C5 Bird flu mutating, study indicates 

MSrJtC HtJ' 13-now-05 
se= A Flu Pandemic? 

Sleshdot ii.'Si U-Hov-05 
MB Bird flu in China now up to 8 in... 
H.-s-Mi! Jk^f.Ntt 2i:3? 13-Mov-05 

SS Bangkok has first human case of bird flu 

n«ui-Mcdiol.M<3t 2n?0 Ij-Hw05 
QjJ Sauerkraut could fight bird flu, saj scientists 

Ttl^grApft.W.'JJ-. GJi 26 17-Kci-rjS 

■a Preparing the public for a major disaster like 

pandemic... 

U.S.Nev* iJ;0t> i:-Kct-05 
era Ten provinces and cities report bird flu 

outbreaks 

'-'i c ^ H*rri ll*w f-gtn-if 17:13 13-rtov-05 

Q3 Human Bird Flu cases and Deaths So Far, 
Country... 

M<sjJ;c*I r itw* Ted*? 14ru} 17 fifrt-0,5 

gs» China investigates another possible case of 
human bird flu 

Sp»<:aP.llly ;3i57 13-H-H'-05 

35 WHO set to investigate possible bird flu death 



intwiat'.iv* irw*iUu li.li 13-Ngu-OS 



NewsNow's Bird Flu News Page 



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Topix.net http://www.topix.net/ 

Topix gained a lot of attention and new users during the past year. Here are some of 
its features: 

> It indexes more than 10,000 news sources (mostly US, but not all). 

> It has more than 360,000 topically based pages (including world news pages 
on virtually every country). 

> It offers a "live" newsfeed of the news stories Topix is indexing at the moment. 

> It has a large searchable database. 

> It offers perhaps the best local US news aggregation and search available 
(I've not seen better). 

Topix tweaked its news ranking algorithm during 2006, producing much better 
results for top stories than in the past. Topix also added two new features during 
2006 that have elevated it at least in one regard. You are supposed to be able to 
search using capitalization, which has sadly become a rare search feature. The only 
problem is that Topix's new feature is not working properly or consistently. I tried a 
number of variations and the results were inconsistent. For example, a search on 
[ICon] contrasted with [icon] or [Icon] worked, but searches on [ZIP] [zip] [Zip] were 
unpredictable. This feature needs more work. 

However, the archive function works just fine. Here is a search for Hurricane 
Katrina, and you can clearly see by the blue graph the peaks and valleys of news 
stories on Katrina. In order to see the news from earlier times, users simply need to 
click anywhere along the timeline: 



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ii topix.net 



News Search: hurricane katrina 



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The archive feature is very significant because finding and accessing news older 
than the past 30 days is usually both hard and/or costly (until Google News Archive 
Search showed up). Most news sources require at least registration and often 
payment to get their archived news. Topix will find news from up to one year ago, 
but what you can actually read for free and without registration is hit or miss. For 
example, I had very good luck with Washington Post stories, but not so much with 
the New York Times. CNN was perfect: I was able to find and read all the CNN 
stories I tried from last year, something you cannot do at CNN itself. However, I 
found that the "Restrict to Source" [enn] option did not work well whereas the 
"Restrict to Url" [cnn.com] option worked perfectly. Also, I recommend selecting "No 
Blogs" if you only want to search news sources. 



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(to* $*wb over » V«« ot «eeult«i 



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use url instead of source 



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Despite the fact that the capitalization search is not (yet) working properly, the fact 
that the archive search is working makes these Topix upgrades important and 
valuable to researchers. 

In short, Topix is a good entry into the news aggregation, archive search, and email 
alerts arena. For those who can use email news alerts, Topix makes it very easy. 
Just click the "email alert" link on any topical page to get related results delivered 
either daily or weekly. In case you're interested, Google News has an "as it 
happens" option for news delivery < http://www.qooqle.com/alerts >, something Topic 
needs to add. 

Daypop http://www.daypop.com/ 

Don't forget that Daypop is also a news search site and draws from a large number 
of international news sources. Daypop's Advanced Search lets you limit your search 
by time (from three hours to two weeks), by language (all or one of a dozen), and by 
country. Daypop is one of the few news search sites that caches news stories, so 
you have the option of viewing the stored copy. 

Worldnews http://www.wn.com/ 

Worldnews is one of the best international news sources, offering the option of 
searching in English or one of 20+ other languages. Worldnews also presents 
separate home pages for many world regions, e.g., "Arab World News" as well as 
specialty news searches by topics such as business, politics, and science. 



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Technology News Sources 



There are many fine telecommunication news sources on the web, so I will limit my 
discussion to a few of the best. Users can now subscribe to the all of the 
following publications' technology feeds and blogs without registering at the 
various websites. Look for the RSS / Atom feed icon S3 at the news websites. 

TechNews.com http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dvn/technology/ 

The Washington Post absorbed Newsbytes to create TechNews, which offers 
current headlines, technology news by topic (biotech, telecom, software, Internet, 
etc.), and breaking technology news off the wire from Reuters. The site now 
requires free registration, but both Yahoo News and Google News let you read 
full-text TechNews articles without registering. For both Yahoo News and 
Google News, the search syntax is: 

[source:washington_post keyword] 

Because of the way the Post names its links, I have not been able to come up with a 
unique keyword to limit the query to TechNews articles only. The best way to find 
them is to use the author's name or a word from the title. 

TechWeb http://www.techweb.com/ 

TechWeb is part of the CMP Technology Network, a huge enterprise that publishes 
InformationWeek, EE Times, and Windows Developer magazines. TechWeb does 
not do original reporting; instead, it compiles the latest technology news from around 
the world and updates the website continuously. TechWeb is one of the single best 
sources of technology news on the web; it and all other parts of the CMP network 
are fully searchable. 

Wired News http://www.wired.com/ 

Wired News, part of the Terra Lycos family, has always been known as a slightly 
"edgy" site, and there is no doubt their original tech news features are among the 
most popular and sometimes controversial on the web. Wired doesn't only cover 
technology but brings in all aspects of our "wired" world: culture, business, and 
politics as well as technology. Wired also receives breaking news from AP and 
Reuters. 

New York Times Technology News 

http://www.nytimes.com/pages/technology/index.html 



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Consistently a leader in technology news, The New York Times' feature writers 
include John Markoff and David Pogue. The Times also publishes the best tech 
stories from the wire services. I consider the Times technology section a "must read" 
to stay abreast of significant developments and to find in-depth articles on topics 
others deal with superficially. 

The Register http://theregister.co.uk/ 

If you like irascible journalism, check out The Register from the UK. Their slogan- 
siting the hand that feeds IT"-says a great deal about the tone of the site. However, 
The Register is known for gutsy original reporting and is unafraid to take on 
controversial topics in a straightforward way. They are often cited and quoted by 
other sources. One of my favorites. 

ZDNet News http://news.zdnet.com/ 

One of Wired's major competitors is ZDNet News, part of the vast CNET network. In 
addition to original reporting and features, ZDNet News offers news by section: 
wired and wireless, security, IT management web technology, personal tech, etc. 

Newsfactor Network http://www.newsfactor.com/ 

The Newsfactor Network does both original reporting and compilations of technology 
news from many sources. Newsfactor has many special sections, such as a superb 
Enterprise Security section, data management, tech trends, Internet life, among 
others. 



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Telecommunications on the Web 



PTTs and Private Telecommunication Providers 

Researching Public Telephone and Telegraph organizations (PTTs) and major 
private telecommunication providers, both national and international, is at the heart 
of much telecommunications research, and most providers, as well as the growing 
field of private telecom companies, are coming on line with websites. The hard part 
can be finding them. Fortunately, several fine websites have compiled lists of links to 
both public and private telecommunication companies. 

Bandwidth Market Telecom Links 

http://www.bandwidthmarket.CQm/component/option.com weblinks/ltemid,4/ 

BWM's links pages offer an exceptionally fine collection of telecommunications- 
related information. The site includes a hyperlinked list of telecom operators 
alphabetically by country. This page makes it extremely easy to see which telecom 
companies operate in which country and go directly to the company pages. The site 
also has an impressive hyperlinked list of over 200 telecom manufacturers from 
around the world listed alphabetically. These are the categories and number of links 
at BWM's site: 

8 Analysts and Consultant.? (57) 

8 Association.? and Orgnniz prions (32) 

B General (&') 

• Government .Sires 06) 

• Interne r Exchanges {H> 
H Internet Telephony 0*? 

« Mips (165) 

'» Satellite. Telecom (26) 

■ Telecom Maiuifncf.urei's (*o;j> 

■ Telecom Operators (IHa) 

• Telecom Publications (1ST) 

■ Telecom StMMtonl? (if>) 



ITU's Global Directory of Regulators (select Regulators for PTTs) 

http://wwwjtuJnt/cgi-bin/htsh/mm/scripts/mm.search 

The ITU's Global Directory may be the most authoritative source of PTT's available. 
The site lists all members and can be searched by country, company, or 
organization. The site may load slowly. 



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ADMIN RELATED /REGULATOR 



World Wide Web Telecommunication Resource Center 

http://home.planet.nl/-wvhwvh/teletop.htm 

Country Index for Major PTTs, PTOs, and Major Service Providers 

http://home.planet.nl/-wvhwvh/countidx.htm 

The World Wide Web Telecommunication Resource Center has a separate listing of 
over 300 links to PTTs and major service providers in 120 countries. This site was 
last updated in 2004, but much of this information has not changed. 

Goodman's International Telecom Companies 

http://www.qbmarks.com/html/international.html 

Another excellent source is Goodman's International Telecom Companies, which 
lists and links to telecom and telephone providers and authorities for each country 
alphabetically. 

Finally, I suggest you stop by a website maintained by the American University's 
Management of Global Information Technology program. Each semester students 
prepare descriptive and analytical reports on all aspects of one country's information 
technology. Be aware the reports vary in quality, but every report is worth reading if 
only for the bibliography and links to other websites. The best reports (as judged by 



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the instructor) on IT Landscape in Nations Around the World are indicated with 
stars. 



Information Technology Landscape in Nations Around the World 



w January 2006: a new crop of 
reports is now complete. 

*-* ... and the Best& Reports 
(with a red star) are listed 
below. 

"' To see what this class is 
about, take a look at the 
syllabus 



The best reports In the respective 
semesters are listed below and 
ore marked by one Wor two stars 

-' Spring 2006; One star to 
Singapore and Israel 

* Foil 2004: Two stars to the White 
Paper on Associations. One star 
to Bulgaria. 

* Spring 200*1: Two stars to 
Botswana. One star to Iraq, 

'* Fall 2003: One star to Sweden 
Syria, South Africa, Panama and 
the White Paper on Offshore 
Outsourcing. 

* Spring 2003: Vret Warn. One star 
to Mexico. 

''■ 2002: Two stars to Costd Rica & 
Finland. One star to Guatemala, 
Hong Kong, Korea, Poland 

* 2001: Two Stars to Latvia, 
Argentina, Technology Parks. 
One star to Estonia, Cyber 
Cities. 

'' 2000: Two stars to Ecuador. One 
star to Cuba, UAE. 

'■* 1999: Two stars to Egypt & 
Phil:ppines. One star to 
Romania. 

" Fall 1998: One star to Columbia. 

* Spr.ng 1998; One star to Ghana, 



Welcome to the database of Information & Communication 
Technologies (ICT) in nations. The site now encompasses 
ICT reports covering more Chan 80 nations plus several 
white papers on special International ICT topics, 

=Sv-.,. 'vr ? V' ■'•' 'V.-;... 



National Landscapes of 

Information Technology 

I T E C . 6 5 4 

The reports were created by students in the course "NaVpn , ;. Policy and 
Information Technology .* This is a 2nd y«9r MBA course offered within the , IT 
Department, in the Kogod School of Business, at American University, 
Washington D.C. USA. Pi-ofefsar Erran Cyme-I teaches this course. 



*-» ( £ZL 



j; Mid East fc |[ , ,. 

J Africa |[;.-, *marica 



Completed 03/06 Completed 03/05 Competed Q3/Q6 Completed 12/04 



Completed 12/04 Completed 03/06 Completed 03/06 Completed 03/04 



Completed 12/04 Completed 12/04 Completed 03/06 Completed 12/03 



Completed 12/04 Completed 03/04 Completed 12/04 Completed 0V03 
Completed 03/04 Completed 03/03 Completed 12/04 Completed 12/03 
Completed 03/04 Completed 03/03 Completed 03/04 Completed 03/03 



Other Topici/White Papers 



•:.aivn>Ui*«l 12/04 

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tilttrtltl iijim HI n.>j-?lll' 

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of tochricloqy companies hiva 



.#* 



CompTtted 12/01 

■;.. J- 1\ ■;.■:'- * 

Completed 12/01 



Completed 12/03 
OffiNjf-; rt-?tw ir-i cj'.i c-UKiuy 
h»$ corns t<? b^ seftn a* an 
5'j*r,u« for cemponiti in 
Advanced, "fiiqh-cos'.'' economic; 
to conduct c-ut lov-i.^oi, labor 
intensive soft'iJAie devftiopmerit 
wotk to companies in "lo-.-^oil" 
developing nation*. 



Completed 12/03 
?ftir,3 if ■ihfro.nd (it lo^fltir.g of 
fitill'v (wliiti. cm 1,-v ft*D. 
M[.riuf f.cl'JJi'iq pi jnv riippoibrig 
»ct»v'ti* ii>' e- cat! «-t«0 
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pirftpit rtmpinv location. 

Completed' 12/C>3 
DuJ^lopihg i-iiti^r.i iicw ifcieive 
nd ipW.r.-.ll? for ICT... *hj- 
rf-atiy p^opte do r.t-t malli-:- ii 
t^fi* nori-ItT pioj*^.'! oft*f» 
need, ci could p'eatly benefit 
fiom, ojwmunicvilion, 
^ompulori, databases and clho; 
ICT-mlitod corrvponnnlr. . 



IT Landscape in Nations Around the World 
http://www.american.edu/academic.depts/ksb/moqit/country.html 



Telecommunications Directories 

Analysys Telecoms Virtual Library http://www.analvsvs.com/vlib 

Analysys Telecom Virtual Library has over 8000 links to international telecom sites. 
The links can be browsed by topic or searched by keyword. This site is one of the 
best for finding international telecom providers of all types. 

LIDO Telecom Web Central http://www.telecomwebcentral.com/secure/links/ 

One of the best directories of telecommunications information on the web, LIDO 
offers an easy to use directory or internal search for full range of telecom topics. - 
LIDO Telecom Web Central is a searchable web directory covering such tele- 
communications topics as applications, IT technology, companies, regulations, and 



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research resources. The impressive directory is kept fairly current and contains 
thousands of links. 




Computer and Communication Entry Page http://www.cmpcmm.com/cc 

The Computer and Communications Entry Page has great links to companies, 
mostly in the US but some international. It's also an excellent source for standards 
as well as for programs and projects. The site is internally searchable and once 
again appears to be up to date. 

Goodman's Bookmarks http://www.qbmarks.com/ 

Goodman's Bookmarks have also been around for years and has undergone a 
major makeover. Goodman covers such topics as wireless, IP telephony, vendors, 
and international telecommunications providers. In fact, his list of international 
telecom operators is one of the best on the web, providing links to the websites of 
almost all international telephone and telecom companies and organizations. 



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Radio, Television, and Satellite Broadcast Information 

Other useful sources of telecommunications information include sites devoted to 
broadcast radio and TV stations and to satellites. Many radio stations around the 
world now have audio feeds to permit users to listen to them over the Internet, and 
television is also making more and more of its content accessible over the Internet. 
There are a number of excellent sites that will help you locate these stations and find 
out which ones have Internet feeds. Communications satellites are often the primary 
source in many parts of the world that lack the infrastructure for terrestrial 
communications. 

I have included a link to the Union of Concerned Scientists' satellite database, which 
includes information not only on communications but also other types of satellites: 
"the UCS Satellite Database is a listing of operational satellites currently in orbit 
around Earth. It... contains only the official name of the satellite in the case of 
government and military satellites, and the most commonly used name in the case of 
commercial and civil satellites." 



Radio Locator 

Radio, TV, and Satellite Links 

Live Radio 

Radio Station World 

Mike's Radio World 

vTuner 



http://www.radio-locator.com/ 

http://www.liensutiles.org/sat.htm 

http://www.live-radio.net/info.shtml 

htt p://radiostationworld.com/default.asp 

http://www.mikesradioworld.com/ 

http://www.vtuner.com/ 



USC Satellite Database 

http://www.ucsusa.org/qlobal security/space weapons/satellite database.html 

Heaven's Above Satellite Database http://www.heavens-above.com/selectsat.asp 

SatcoDX Satellite Chart http://www.satcodx.com/eng/ 

NASA's J-Track Satellite Tracking http://science.nasa.gov/RealTime/JTrack/ 

Small Satellites Home Page http://centaur.sstl.co.uk/SSHP/ 



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Research How-Tos 



Finding People 

While searching for people remains one of the most popular and important Internet 
research projects, it also continues to be one of the most frustrating. It is also one of 
the most lucrative for businesses — legitimate, shady, or simply incompetent. Sites 
that claim "you can find anyone, anywhere!" are all over the web. Try running a 
search for the phrase "search for people" and you are likely to find these categories 
of results, each of which has its drawbacks and most of which are so limited in some 
way as to be useless except under special circumstances: 

> pay services provided by individuals or companies (everything from sleazy to 
legitimate PI services) 

> for-fee software ("net detective"-type software) 

> free software (this probably is a case of "you get what you pay for") 

> links to a gazillion "people finder" websites 

It all boils down to this: there are three basic types of information on the Internet 
useful in searching for people: 

1 . information you must pay for 

2. information you must register to get 

3. information that is free 

While it is true you may have to pay for help and/or information either to find a 
person or to retrieve information about a person, it isn't always a case of "you get 
what you pay for" with people searches. People are actually selling books with 
bloated claims and largely useless tips on looking for people. Most of this so-called 
"expert" advice is worthless. If you have searched for people on the Internet, you've 
probably encountered some or all of the suggestions, claims, offers, and outright 
scams from people claiming to help you find someone using the Internet. Many sites 
will gladly take your money to search for people. Some of these are legitimate 
companies with access to huge databases containing a great deal of personal 
information. Some of these for-profit companies give you nothing more than a list of 
web links that in turn may only lead you to a 404 error. In many, many cases, you 
end up paying for information that was freely available elsewhere on the web! 



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Internet researchers agree: searching for information about a person is one of the 
hardest, most frustrating types of research to perform, especially when you're limited 
to using free resources that do not require registration. The major reasons this is so 
difficult are: 

1 . The decentralized nature of the Internet . Despite what some people may fear, 
there is no giant database "out there" where everyone's names and 
addresses are stored. There are many, many databases all independent of 
each other spread around the world. Also, there are as yet no reliable publicly 
available mobile telephone directories. 

2. How quickly the Internet changes . Web pages come and go, individuals 
frequently change email addresses and/or service providers, networks go up 
and down, etc. 

3. Data about people is often found in the deep web . In most cases, the 
information is in databases that search engine spiders cannot crawl and 
index. This means that, in addition to traditional search engines, we have to 
use other resources to search for people. 

4. People have become much more conscious of and careful about their 
personal information . In the early days of the Internet, people thought nothing 
of putting their contact information on their webpages, using de-obfuscated 
email addresses in newsgroups, the finger utility was still in use, etc. Today, 
people are much more likely to hide personal information to protect their 
privacy and their computers from malicious hackers. 

The Usual Suspects Round-up: Debunking People Finder Lists 

I get really irritated at sites and people who proclaim how fast and easy it is to find 
people using the Internet. Because you are going to encounter lots of bogus claims 
about how simple it is to find people via the Internet, I thought it would be a good 
idea to go down the list of the usual types of sites recommended for people 
searches and discuss their advantages (few) and drawbacks (many). What follows is 
an overview of the usual sources cited as ways to find people and the problems with 
and benefits of each. 

> Sites that claim "you can find anyone, anywhere!" 

These are all over the web. The bigger the hype, the smaller the likelihood 
they are worth anything. Approach with care and skepticism or, better yet, 
avoid altogether. 

> Big Directories 

Number one on virtually all "search for people" lists are large directories 
(telephone and/or email). They are usually disappointing. What's the 



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problem? The big residential telephone directories on the web often come 
from printed directories that have been scanned in by companies who then 
make them searchable via the Internet. Email directories are almost entirely 
made up of addressed culled from USENET newsgroups, voluntary 
registration, ICQ users, and (sometimes) web pages. Other limitations to big 
phone and email directories are: 

o they generally focus on the US (maybe Canada, too) 

o their sources of information are very limited (people registering 

themselves or from trolling newsgroups) 
o they require you already know details about the person you're seeking 
o they are woefully out of date, and/or 
o their data is inaccurate 

> Public Databases 

Public databases are similarly frustrating. Almost invariably, the public 
databases listed on "people finder" sites are US-based and many of the best 
ones require at least registration and even a justification of use if not 
payment. I recommend you look for public databases in the country you're 
researching, but expect to encounter similar problems. In general, public 
databases suffer from many of the same problems as big directories as well 
as having drawbacks of their own. Public databases are wonderful sources of 
information if you are seeking such public records as real estate transactions, 
lawsuits, liens, judgments, bankruptcies, fire arm transactions, sex offenders, 
motor vehicle registrations, corporate records, etc. However, this kind of 
research simply is beyond the purview of this book. Other drawbacks of public 
databases are: 

o they generally focus on the US (maybe Canada, too) 

o they often require registration and/or payment 

o they tend to be restricted to specific types of data (e.g., sex offenders 

or property records in a specific state) 

o they require you already know details about the person you're seeking 

o they are out of date, and/or 

o their data is inaccurate 

> Private or Internal Directories 

These are not inherently bad, but they are by their very nature extremely 
limited. Many private directories belong to universities, government agencies, 
corporations, and organizations. If, however, you are looking for someone 
whom you know works for an organization or attends (or is even an alumnus 
of) a specific university, these directories can be gold! See below for details. 



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> Genealogy Sites 

Genealogy sites always pop up on "search for people" lists — nice for 
generating your family tree, but not usually pertinent for current research. 

> Biographical Directories 

The big biographical directories are fine for one thing: finding information 
about well-known and/or successful people living and dead. Otherwise, they 
are useless. People search lists always include links to "celebrity searches." 
However, a few specialized biographical directories might prove useful. 

> The US Census 

Census data for a number of different years is now online and searchable. 
Again, a great genealogy tool, but probably not very useful for your research. 

> Fee for Service Sites 

There are a myriad for-profit people finder websites on the Internet. They may 
or may not be good, but I am only discussing free products, services, and 
sites. 

> Finger 

Finger is a UNIX utility that uses an email address to return information about 
the owner of the address. Even today finger always seems to appear on 
people finder webpages, but the fact is that the vast majority of sites disabled 
the finger command years ago for privacy and security reasons, so it's 
basically useless. 

> The MIT interface to the USENET Address Database 

USENET is still accessible via the old MIT interface. I mention the MIT 
interface (which contains over 4 million email addresses collected from 
USENET newsgroup postings between July 1991 and February 1996 only) 
because it continues to show up on "people finder" lists. However, it's almost 
a decade old, which may as well be a century in Internet time. Instead of 
wasting time on the MIT USENET interface, why not go directly to Google 
Groups? One reason: MIT does not obfuscate email addresses : Google now 
does, so you might find an older but full email address in the MIT USENET 
database that is obscured in Google Groups. 



MIT USENET Address Database (1991-1996) 



http://usenet-addresses.mit.edu/ 



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Recommended People Search Techniques 

Now that you have a pretty good idea of sites to avoid or at least not waste a lot of 
time on, what kinds of resources are available to help you find people? How do you 
find information about a person? Here are some recommended steps to use in 
searching for people, keeping in mind that there is no one way to do this and 
certainly no guarantee of success. 

1. Start a search for a person by name, address, email address, phone number 
or any other uniquely identifying information using not one but several good 
search engines (Google, Yahoo, and several foreign search engines as 
appropriate). Common names will return too many hits to be useful, so you 
must find some limiting query term to narrow down the search. 

2. Try to find the person in Google and Yahoo Groups, weblogs, and news 
stories using several high-quality news search engines. 

3. Try telephone, email, address, and other lookups at a variety of online 
directories. The quality of these directories varies greatly. Be sure to look for 
directories specific to a city or country. 

4. If you know the person's profession, you might find additional information 
about him in a database that contains such things as licensing information. 
The US is very good about licensing all types of professions; check other 
countries for similar information. 

5. Property ownership and transactions are carefully recorded in the US and 
many such records are publicly accessible. This may also be true in other 
countries. Look for such public databases of these records and transactions. 

6. If a person has other interests, such as hobbies, you may find more 
information about him at a site devoted to that sport or hobby, especially if it's 
an unusual one. 

7. If you know where a person works, that organization (be it government, 
academic, or corporate) may have a publicly accessible directory of its 
employees, faculty, students, alumni, or members. 

8. Check the ICQ directory. Instant Messaging (IM) is popular worldwide. 

9. Whois databases contain information about thousands of people associated 
with the Internet. It's worth a look. The Whois databases maintained by ARIN, 
APNIC, AfriNIC, LACNIC, and RIPE are all searchable by name using their 
advanced search forms. 

10. Famous dead people are not the only ones listed in biographical directories. If 
the person you're seeking is at all well known, he might have an entry. 



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Recommended People Search Resources 

There is no Internet equivalent to the Rosetta Stone for finding people. Searchers 
need a good set of bookmarks that include at least the following sites. 

ICQ User Directory http://people.icQ.com/whitepaqes/ 

Unlike AOUs AIM instant messaging system directory, ICQ's phone and email 
directory is publicly available, listing more than 120 million users in over 245 
countries. The ICQ User Directory's Advanced People Search is impressive. You 
can search on as few or as many fields — including first/last name, nickname, email 
address, language, phone number, country, occupation, etc. — as you wish. While 
there are several interfaces to ICQ search (depending on whether you want to 
search by email address or phone number, for example), I recommend starting with 
the main People Search page and then going to the Advanced People Search for 
more options. 



Google Groups 



http://qroups.gQoqle.com/ 



Not only is Google Groups much more user friendly than the MIT USENET interface, 
it is also current, including postings in almost real time. Google Groups can be 
searched in many ways, but for the purpose of locating people, the Author search is 
exceptionally valuable. However, keep in mind that anyone can make up an alias, 
change addresses, and use other people's email, so USENET postings are of real 
but limited value. Also remember that USENET postings are one of the places where 
a sort by date works and makes sense because all newsgroup postings are 
date/time stamped. There are three basic ways to run an Author search (important 
note: Google Groups now obscures the userid in email addresses by inserting 
an ellipsis (...) for privacy reasons, however, many obscured addresses can be 
easily guessed). However, if you know the author's full email address, you can 
use search syntax in the main Groups & Groups Beta query screen — [author:email 
address]. This will return all the postings associated with that email address. 

Even if you do not know the full email address, you can still see all the posting 
associated with one email address (these instructions apply to Google Groups Beta): 

o While viewing a specific posting, click on "More options" (next to the 
date); 

o Select "View profile" next the author's From address; 

o Google will automatically search for and display every posting from a 
particular address. 



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Yahoo Member Directory 

Similar to Google Groups, Yahoo's Member Directory lets you view information 
about the registered members of its groups. Some people provide a lot of personal 
data, including their real name, location, age, occupation, and email address (and 
sometimes even a photograph). I am skeptical that you will find anyone of great 
interest unwise enough to provide this kind of data, but it is worth a look. 

Specialized Biographical Directories 

While the big biographical directories are virtually useless, there are a few specialty 
directories that include the less than famous that you might want to know more 
about. The Forbes People Lists include: 400 Richest Americans, Best Paid CEOs, 
World's Richest People, and the Midas List of the top investors in information 
technology and life sciences. The Biography Center lists nearly 25,000 biographies 
total, with almost 11,000 in English, 6,000 in French, 7,000 in German, and 2,000 in 
Spanish. The search form requires you to search in one of these languages; there is 
no way to search in all at one time and the results are different for each. There is 
also a Chinese Biographical Database containing 3500 biographies, all in English. 
Wolfram's Science World Biography includes famous and not so famous scientists 
living and dead. 



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Forbes People Lists http://www.forbes.com/lists/ 

Biography Center http://www.bioqraphy-center.com/ 

Biography Reference Center from MacGill University 

http://www.librarv.mcqill.ca/refshelf/bioqraph.htm 

Chinese Biographical Database http://www.lcsc.edu/cbiouser/ 

ISI Highly Cited Researchers http://www.isihiqhlycited.com/ 

Wolfram's Science World Biography http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/bioqraphy/ 

Edgar Online Database 

There are several free search tools of SEC filings that allow you to search by a 
person's name or by a specific company name. As of mid-November 2006, the users 
can "search the contents of the disclosure documents filed electronically with the 
SEC using a new full-text search tool on the Commission's website. The newly 
searchable information includes registration statements, annual and quarterly 
reports, and other filings by companies and mutual funds filed during the past four 
years on the Commission's EDGAR database." 138 This means users can search on 
names of people as well as companies. 

SurfWax offers a wonderful tool using its "LookAhead" ( AJAX ) technology to search 
the SEC EDGAR filings for 2004-2006. This is a very flexible and powerful search 
tool, and it permits searches on the names of individuals. 

The Price Waterhouse Coopers' website now offers free full-text search of EDGAR 
filings, which means it can search on names. Even though others have said this 
query tool is slow, my trial searches ran fairly quickly. My impression is this is a 
remarkably powerful tool, especially given it is free and does not require registration. 
Make sure you use the link below to access the advanced search of the free service. 

Search the SEC's Edgar Database 

http://searchwww.sec.gov/EDGARFSCIient/isp/EDGAR MainAccess.jsp 

SurfWax SEC Search http://lookahead.surfwax.com/edqar/ 

EdgarScan Advanced Search 

http://edqarscan.pwcqlobal.com/servlets/advancedsearch 



138 »5EQ Enhances Online Search Capabilities for Investors," SEC Press Release, US Security and 
Exchange Commission, 14 November 2006, < http://www.sec.gov/news/press/2006/2006-190.htm > 
(20 November 2006). 



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University and other organizational phonebook directories 

Such directories are usually very good sources of current information about 
personnel at a specific university, in an entire university system, employed by a 
company, or working for a government agency. Many universities use the PH 
system or WebPH, which is a web interface PH. PH is a UNIX-based Internet utility 
that lets you search for someone's email address if their email provider has a Ph 
server program. The problem with these PH systems is that there is no reliable way 
to locate them even if you know the domain name of the institution. However, as with 
most things on the Internet there are lists of publicly accessible PH servers available 
in several places. There are about 330 PH servers around the world currently on the 
PH server list, which is accessible at various locations such as: 

Queen's University (Canada) http://www.queensu.ca/cqi-bin/ph/lookup?Query= : . 

Drake University http://alpha9.drake.edu/cgi-bin/WebPh7other ph servers 

University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey 

http://www2.umdni.edu/~webph/cqi-bin/WebPh?do=show others 

Your best bet for using some sort of internal directory successfully is to identify the 
university, company, or other organization (including government agencies) and 
locate the directory at that website. Directory services are generally very popular, so 
most sites will have a link to theirs prominently displayed on their home page. If you 
don't see a link on the home page, try browsing the site map. 

Whois Lookups 

These should never be overlooked as a source of information about people. All five 
of the Regional Internet Registries (ARIN, APNIC, AfriNIC, LACNIC, and RIPE) have 
Whois access that permits users to search on any of the database fields, including 
the person object, i.e., the technical or administrative contact responsible for the 
registration. However, keep in mind people lie all the time when registering in Whois 
databases, so all information obtained from Whois entries must be validated using 
other sources. To learn how to search the three identically formatted Whois 
databases, see the instructions (RIPE's documentation is the most thorough, 
APNIC's the easiest to follow). 

APNIC Whois Database Query Option 

http://www.apnicnet/db/search/all-options.html 

ARIN Whois Database Search Help http://www.arin.net/tools/whois help.html 

AfriNIC Database User Manual 

http://www.afrinic.net/docs/db/afsup-dbqs200501.htm 

RIPE Database Reference Manual 

http://wwwripe.net/ripe/docs/databaseref-manual.html 



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Weblogs 

Blogs may indeed mention people that traditional sources miss. Blogs are better 
than traditional search engines for finding people whose names just surfaced in the 
news. See the bloqsearch section for the best blog search engines. 

News Search Engines 

These are great for timely searching, which means they may be the best source of 
information on someone who has recently gained his/her fifteen minutes of fame. As 
with USENET groups, news searching is amenable to date/time order because news 
stories, unlike web pages, have dates and times associated with them. They are not 
generally good for historical research, i.e., more than one to three months old. There 
are numerous excellent news search engines detailed in the News Search Section . 

Online Telephone Directories 

Telephone directories may be useful or merely frustrating. Despite the drawbacks of 
many telephone directories, some are quite good. More and more cities and even 
whole countries are putting their white and yellow pages on line, often with flexible 
lookups, including reverse lookup. Check a country's search engines and directories 
for listings of telephone directories. Information on finding and using telephone 
directories on the web is available in the Telephone and Fax Directories section. 

Email Directories 

While these remain spotty and often unreliable, do not overlook this potential source 
of information that is growing and improving all the time. Information on finding and 
using email directories on the web is available in the Email Lookups section. 

Recommended People Finder Websites 

I have tried to give you some idea of the types of information and links you will 
encounter at people finder websites so you won't be surprised or become 
discouraged if they do not turn out to be all they claim. Still, you will have to sift 
through a lot of silt and sand to find the nuggets, but they are there. I think these are 
the best general sites for getting started looking for people. 

Pandia People Search http://www.pandia.com/people/ 

/ would start here. One of the best web search sites for locating people, Pandia 
Search has a terrific section on people search that includes both metasearch 
interfaces as well as many links to the best people finder resources. 



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3C<nm iuuit>. 

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Below we have categorized various people search oriented sites according to theme and 
interests. Find sites focusing on genealogy, biographies, public records, home pages, 
email addresses, phone numbers and more. We have included resources for the US and 
North America as well as for Europe and the UK. 



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The Virtual Chase People Finder Guides 

http://www.virtualchase. com/topics/people finder index.shtml 

Another excellent web search site, the Virtual Chase is devoted to legal research 
and, as such, its people finder guide focuses on US public records but includes 
reverse lookups, white pages, email directories, and non-US phone books. The first 
link will help you find online sources of public records and other people search tools. 
The second link is to an "annotated research guide to find sources of information 
about people" as well as articles on people research. 

Searchbug People Finder http://www.searchbuq.com/peoplefinder/ 

Searchbug is a metasearch site with links to many resources, but as with most such 
resources, the most potentially lucrative are not free or at least require registration. 
You are probably going to be disappointed when you discover that most of the links 
are to for-fee services. Also, the focus is distinctly US. 

People Search Engines http://www.people-search-enqines.com/ 

This is a good metasearch site that searches some or all of multiple sources by 
name, email, phone, or address. This site typifies a respectable people metasearch 



394 



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site. Unlike most people search sites, this one also has an "international" page 
where you can query resources that are not limited to the US and Canada: 



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PeopleSearch.net http://peoplesearch.net/peoplesearch/peoplesearch deluxe.html 

This site is almost identical in the search engines it queries to People Search 
Engines, but without the international option. 

Zoomlnfo http://www.zoominfo.com/ 

Zoomlnfo is a "web summarization" site that contains over 27 million summaries of 
people on the web. According to its FAQ, "Zoomlnfo automatically and continuously 
grows its base of Web Summaries from corporate and personal websites, 
government filings, press releases and other public sources. All information found by 
Zoomlnfo and used to create your Web Summary comes from public sources and 
can be found by anyone by using most major search engines like Yahoo and 
Google." Zoomlnfo does summarizes that data and presents it in easy to handle 
small packages. Zoomlnfo is integrated into A9 search; see that section for details. 

The Virtual Gumshoe http://www.virtualqumshoe.com/ 

The Virtual Gumshoe provides lots of links to all sorts of investigative resources. The 
site contains many interesting categories, including gangs, terrorists, cults, criminal 



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histories, etc. According to the site, "We provide links to every information source 
known to us that can be obtained on the Internet for free. Some categories may list a 
professional company as a source for information, which is not free. This is merely 
an option when there is no legitimate source online (known to us) that provides the 
information for free." And there are plenty of categories of information you are not 
going to get (legitimately) for free. 

Search Systems Free Public Records Database http://www.searchsystems.net 

With links to nearly 30,000 mostly free databases, this is one of the most impressive 
of the people finder megasites. What makes this site especially valuable is the large 
Worldwide section, which is further divided into continents and regions. Here is a 
snapshot of the Africa page and, as you can see, the vast majority of resources 
really are free: 



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Langenberg.com Person Finder 



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This is an easy to use megasearch site that lets you query individual search tools 
from one page. Resources include the Lycos' WhoWhere phone book, Yahoo 



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members search, Google Groups search, ICQ, and Live Spaces (still labeled as 
MSN Member Directory), among others. 

Public Record Finder Outside the US 

http://www.publicrecordfinder.com/outside usa.html 

Notable for its unusual nature, this site lists a moderate number of international 
public records' resources. 

Power Reporting People Finders 

http://powerreporting.com/cateqorv/People finders 

A site devoted to helping journalists, this is a no-nonsense guide to realistic people 
searching. No ads! 

People Search Sites http://www.nettrace.com.au/resource/search/people.html 

This Australian site will try to sell you people search products but has an impressive 
list of free resources as well. There are also many more non-US resources at this 

site for obvious reasons. 

Deadline Online's People Finders 

http://www.deadlineonline.com/peoplefinders.html 

Another good megasite with no ads! A very clean interface and many useful people 
finder tools neatly organized by topic. 

People Search Links http://www.peoplesearchlinks.com/ 

This site is actually a directory with categories that include international search, 
criminal searches, phone & address search, public records searches, vocations, 
etc. 

By this time you are going to start seeing the same resources again and again, 
which should tell you that you're exhausting the free resources. 

Miscellaneous People Finder Websites 

These are sources for finding people that do not easily fit into any category. 

The Virtual Chase Criminal Records 

http://www.virtualchase.com/topics/criminal records.shtml 

This site has many links to Federal, State, and international online criminal 
resources, including US government lists of blocked, debarred, or denied persons. 
The Federal Bureau of Prisons inmate locator, which contains records about federal 
inmates dating back to 1982, is now online and free. Many state prison systems now 
have online searches for current and former inmates. 



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Crime Net http://www.crimenet.com.au/ 

This Australian site provides information on criminals, missing persons, wanted 
persons, and unsolved crimes in Australia. 

The Black Book Online http://www.blackbookonline.info/ 

Designed for use in legal investigations, this resource has links to some potentially 
lucrative US databases. From Crimetime.com, the Black Book includes unusual links 
such as a mail drop search form (to find out if a legitimate looking suite number is in 
fact a PO box). Many of the resources listed require payment. 

Landings Certified Pilots Database 

http://www.landinqs.com/ landings/paqes/search/certs-pilot.html 

A database of about 600,000 pilots registered with the FAA who have a current 
medical certificate. Updated monthly. 

NameBase http://www.namebase.org/ 

A review describes NameBase as "an index of people influential in politics, the 
military, intelligence, crime, business, and the media since WWII. It started in the 
late 1960's when New Left activist Daniel Brandt began clipping magazine and 
newspaper articles and collecting investigative books about the power 
structure... NameBase includes close to 100,000 names from approximately 260,000 
citations. The names are drawn from over 700 books and serials... most books and 
articles come from a leftist perspective." Many of the resources require payment, but 
a basic search does not. The site is worth a look because of the extensive cross- 
referencing of names from various sources and the "Social Network Diagram" 
available for each name mentioned. 

Final Thoughts on Finding People 

Do not overlook search engines. They may still be your best way of finding people 
on the Internet because they crawl the web almost constantly, index vast amounts of 
data, index everything on a website (including names, addresses, phone numbers, 
email addresses, etc.), and they are fast and easy to use. Also keep in mind there is 
a remarkable lack of overlap among search engine results, so use a number of 
different ones or several metasearch engines in your search. 



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f Web Tip 
Look for information in 
unconventional sources. 

Sometimes calling codes and dialing 
information can come from unusual 
sources. For example, one of the best 
explanations of the arcane dialing rules 
and list of up-to-date calling codes for the 
CIS countries is located, of all places, at 
the "Russian Bride" website. And why 
not? After all, these folks are running a 
business and must provide accurate 
information about how to contact their 
clients. 



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Using the Internet to Research Companies 



One of the main issues researchers face when looking for information about 
companies is there either seems to be too much or too little available data. How is it 
possible to have both a superfluity and a paucity of information at the same time? 
When it comes to businesses, there is too much data that is not useful 
(advertisements, sale's pitches, etc.) and too little of the kinds of data most 
researchers need (details about ownership, personnel, products, contracts, etc.). 
However, there are some good starting points for researching companies on the 
Internet, and I have put together a set of tips and techniques to address this 
challenging topic. 

But what about using free Internet resources to research companies? Yes, it can be 
done with success and sometimes there is information on the Internet that is not 
available anywhere else. What follows are some of the steps I recommend for 
researching companies on the Internet using only free and non-subscription 
resources. Those that require payment and/or registration are not discussed here. 

Company Research Guides & Tutorials 

Several sites have excellent online tutorials and guides for how to research 
businesses. 

Researching Businesses and Non-Profits on the Web 

http://www.oir.org/oir/technologv/1028068074.php 

From the University of Southern California's Online Journalism Review; heavily US- 
oriented. 

Researching Companies Online http://www.learnwebskills.com/company/ 

Excellent tutorial that includes separate section on identifying international business 
resources. 

Virtual Business Information Center http://www.vbic.umd.edu/ 

From the University of Maryland School of Business; offers a segment devoted to 
international business and specific countries. 

Virtual International Business and Economic Sources 

http://library.uncc.ed u/displav/?dept=reference&format=open&paqe=68 

From the University of North Carolina, Charlotte; the site's emphasis is entirely 
international. 



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Free Company Research Websites 

Two well-known company research tools have been available on the Internet since 
2004, but both have severe limitations. In the past the excellent Thomas Register's 
search tool ThomasNet was restricted to US and Canadian companies. Thankfully, 
in 2006 Thomas Register combined its search products into ThomasGlobal, which 
still does not require either registration or payment to use. ThomasGlobal is a search 
tool for international products/services or company names and includes an option to 
limit a search by location and to browse by product/service category. 

ThomasGlobal http://www.thomasqlobal.com/ 

ThomasGlobal provides a brief company profile (including links to any website), 
contact and location information, other headings under which a company is listed, 
and a link to a product catalog where available. 





X 


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^^*-*"""" v/Yfw:iPi&#*tutK^ls*MJi coi n 




V. ThomasGlobal 






Logfoi to My ThomM Global | Sign-Up for My Thorn** G)«b*l 


1 '■-- Cnglich t Douterh | francai-: | Ecpanol | Italian"? | Moda^aitifi. | Po»H 


tunuat I B*S | <*>& 


Search >> Detectors 3c Sensors; Microwave 




•El Contact «ni wmowv 


~ »,„„.,...„.,„ .„ 



Emerson & Cuming Microwave Products NV 

Nljverheidsstraot 7 A 

2260 Westerlo 

Belgium 

TEL : +32(0) (14) 562500 

FAX : +32 (0) (14) 562501 

Contact person: Mevr. Katelijne Berghs 

^S W*f'.¥.gl(, gVjrb.lOU 



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&CUMING 



Engineered materials mfr., microwave absorbers, EMI shielding caulks, 
elastomers & coatings. Low loss dielectric rod & sheet products. Absorber, 
dielectric & shielding products to customer specs. 



Employees: 50-99 
Year Established: 1996 



-,! 

Also Listed Under: 

• Absorbers: Microwave 


• 


Antennas: 


Aircraft 


• 


Antennas; 


Communication 


• 
• 


Antennas^ 
Antennas: 


Micro wave 
Radar 


♦ 


Antennas: 


Satellite 


• 


Automotive Electronics 


• 


Chambers: 


Anechoic 


• 


Chambers: 


..EMJifiO 



This is a very well designed tool and its global reach makes it extremely powerful 
and, in fact, invaluable for company research. 

Virtual Chase Company Information Guide 

http://www.virtualchase.com/topics/companv information index. shtml 

Virtual Chase provides an annotated research guide to sources of information about 
companies, executives, court records, SEC filings, news and even public opinion 
about companies. The site also includes a number of articles on how to research 

companies. 



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Kompass http://www.kompass.com/ 

Kompass business-to-business search is among the best international company 
search sites. Users can search the huge Kompass database of over 2 million 
companies in 70 countries by products/services or company name, and limit the 
search to any combination of countries or world regions. While users must pay for 
full company profiles, searches are free and provide full company names, 
addresses, telephone/FAX numbers, website addresses, and a full list of companies' 
products and services. Here are the results of a search for "integrated circuit" in the 
Russian Federation, which produced 97 hits: 

KOMPASS 

The Business to Business Search Engine 




Members ?iqn in | mm I | w^'t units 



Search far: <• Products/Services f Companies Russian Federation jj More s-^rcli criteria 



(integrated circuit Search | 



Advanced search 

Guided search 



Company reSUit llSt dretHay *our s«arrt. tr,ier.a 

w full company proflla *3 a-rriail '" wob link \ showcase -? Catalogue *" map 

Horn* > Cateaoi-v list , . 2Q companies f rom a tota | f 97, p dge 1 2 ; 4 5 > 

Premium suppliers (full company profiles available) Address 

"Angstrem- IP" O ^ Yaroslavl 150049 Yaroslavl Region [Russian Federation] 
Other suppliers (full company profiles only available to paying members) 

'F'j^'" Petard! and Production Enteiprise-a) Moscow 105187 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

Institute of' Control Sciences of the RASiJ Moscow 117997 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

"Don-Service".^ Moscow 127521 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

AnipsfrenvJ Zelenograd 124460 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

Kmnovokr radioftl»k f .i-cm*khaniche>kv ;avod (KFEMZ)i=J Kimovsk 301723 Tula Region [Russian Federation] 

"MilandrMJ Moscow 123162 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

"F J hy-;ics" Reseoirh and Production AsiOCiariijri.il) Moscow 117587 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

'"Padioprom" Moscow 105062 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

'S-pektr' Laboratonya pechatnilh ol-at.:^ Penza 440001 Penaa Region [Russian Federation] 

WatCcm_J Moscow 107120 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

Lebedtv Institute cf Fine MechanfM and Camguter £n<jine?ring,^J Moscow 1 19991 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

Research Institute of Molecular Electronics and "Micron" Pljnt ("'Mikron-Jrl Zelenograd 124460 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

r Vo*khou" Kalugi Radio Tub* Planted Kaluga 248009 Kaluga Region [Russian Federation] 

"Frast-M'cJ Zelenograd 121527 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

"Mil-roBIS" Zelenograd 124575 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

Moscow State Institute o? Electronic Tichnolcgv '.Technical Umvervitr j^il 2elenograd 124498 Moscow [Russian Federation] 

'Pe-.-hdtnye pidt;" Design and Production Assouttion-JJ Saint Petersburg 190103 Leningrad (St Petersburg) [Russian Federation] 

"lzmstAtsi" Plants) Smolensk 214020 Smolensk Region [Russian Federation] 

"Astron" jroup of enterpnses_J Moscow 125461 Moscow [Russian Federation] 



d 



Advertise I Subscribe | Order credit units I Products | Languages [ News [ Contact us ( About Kompass 

©2007 Kompass | Kompasji Lt-jil ttimi C-cnidilloris: | Ad-i/UoiMt: voui comi-^n-J I A«I<: i-Jk kwwisv nor.;t, to yiur lit* ' 



The Scannery http://www.thescannery.com/ 

The second tool is much harder to use, or at least that is my experience. Called "The 
Scannery," it is a database of more than 12,000 public companies around the world 
organized by country and sector. The database contains many types of documents, 
including HTML, PDF, PowerPoint, Word, and more. The Scannery also offers many 
search options, including boolean operators, wildcards, "fuzzy" matches, synonym 
searching, etc. Sounds great, doesn't it? The only problem is, it's royally confusing 
and the results are often completely puzzling. For example, an unlimited search on 
IBM brings up as the top three hits, QLOGIC, Cable & Wireless, and Synopsys, but 



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not IBM. Why? Because according to Joseph Pols, the developer of The Scannery, 
"not all companies allow their websites to be indexed... Therefore, the only results 
would be those documents on other websites which contain the search phrase." 

However, even given this limitation, The Scannery is a very useful tool. Most 
companies do permit indexing, so chances are the ones you are researching will be 
accessible via The Scannery. The problem usually isn't too little information but too 
much. For example, an unrestricted search on [alcatel] brings back more than 3100 
hits! When I limit my Alcatel search to France, I get a more manageable 74 hits. 
Keep in mind that what you are seeing is any mention of your query term in any 
document indexed by The Scannery, so my search for Alcatel will return not only 
documents from the Alcatel sites but also documents at other company websites 
that mention Alcatel. 

The Scannery has a related site with the oh-so-clever name TimBuckOne. 
TimBuckOne will permit users to choose a country, then choose a specific company 
in that country, and then search that company's website. However, TimBuckOne 
requires free registration in order to use. 

SEC's Edgar Database 

Search the SEC's Edgar Database 

http://searchwww.sec.gov/EDGARFSCIient/isp/EDGAR MainAccess.jsp 

SurfWax SEC Search http://lookahead.surfwax.com/edqar/ 

EdgarScan Advanced Search 

http://edgarscan.pwcqlobaLcom/servlets/advancedsearch 

There are several free search tools of SEC filings that allow you to search by a 
person's name or by a specific company name. As of mid-November 2006, the users 
can "search the contents of the disclosure documents filed electronically with the 
SEC using a new full-text search tool on the Commission's website. The newly 
searchable information includes registration statements, annual and quarterly 
reports, and other filings by companies and mutual funds filed during the past four 
years on the Commission's EDGAR database." 139 This means users can search on 
names of people and companies. 

SurfWax now offers a wonderful tool using its "LookAhead" (MAX) technology to 
search the SEC EDGAR filings for 2004-2006. This is a very flexible and powerful 
search tool, and it permits searches on the names of individuals. 



139 «g EC Enhances Online Search Capabilities for Investors," SEC Press Release, US Security and 
Exchange Commission, 14 November 2006, < http://www.sec.gov/news/press/20Q6/2006-190.htm > 
(20 November 2006). 



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The Price Waterhouse Coopers' website now offers free full-text search of EDGAR 
filings. Even though others have said this query tool is slow, my trial searches ran 
fairly quickly. My impression is this is a remarkably powerful tool, especially given it 
is free and does not require registration. Make sure you use the link above to access 
the advanced search of the free service. 

More Company Research Sites 

Keep in mind that even those sites that do require payment and/or registration for full 
access often provide some information for non-subscribers. Try these sites: 

Annual Reports from Report Gallery http://www.reportgallery.com/ 

Free annual reports searchable by company name, stock ticker, or sector. Reports 
may be in PDF or HTML formats. 

Arab Data Net http://www.arabdatanet.com/ 

Large amounts of information about business in the Arab world; be sure to check the 
Directory for data on companies. 

Business.com http://www.business.com/ 

Excellent business-related search engine/directory; not limited to US companies 

Business Information on the Internet http://www.rba.co.uk/sources/index.htm 

Great UK site with huge number of resources for researching businesses not only in 
the UK but around the world. Working through this site is like taking a research 
tutorial. 

Corporate Information http://www.corporateinformation.com/ 

Reports by Wright Investors' Service; full access requires registration; the available 
free information is good. 

Free Reports for Top 20 European Companies 

http://amadeus.bvdep.com/amadeus/top20/ top20.htm 

Only 20 companies, but if you are researching of them, you have hit the jackpot with 
this site. These are full financial reports for free. 

Global Edge International Business Research (Michigan State University) 

http://qlobaledqe.msu.edu/ibrd/ibrd.asp 

The Center for International Business Education and Research at Michigan State 
University maintains Global Edge, a site of international country studies and 
business information with links to over 5000 resources. The site includes current 
information on the business climate, economic landscape, and relevant statistical 
data for 197 countries. "Powerful features such as comparing countries using 



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multiple statistical indicators and ranking countries based on a selected statistical 
indicator are available. A rich collection of country-specific international business 
links adds to the vast collection of information." 

Hoovers http://www.hoovers.com/ 

Hoovers is one of the best and most comprehensive company, industry, and market 
research resources. However, full access requires subscription. Even so, the 
information at Hoovers' free site is fairly extensive. 

Irasia Investor Relations Asia http://www.irasia.com/listco/ 

Asian Company Reports; excellent data on Asian companies by name or sector. 

MacRae's Blue Book http://www.macraesbluebook.com/ 

MacRae's EuroPages Search 

http://www.europaqes.net/co brandinq/macraesbluebook/home-en.html 

MacRae's Blue Book is a guide to more than a half a million US and Canadian 
industries and over 2 million product listings; search by product or company. 
MacRae's now offers a EuroPages search of European companies at a separate 
link. 

Market Access and Compliance http://www.mac.doc.gov/ 

US Department of Commerce site that is packed with information about trade and 
development around the world. 

MSN Money's Key Developments 

http://news.monevcentral.msn.com/ticker/siqdev.asp 

Major milestones for publicly traded US companies; search by name or ticker symbol 
and see all developments, earnings, or product announcements. 

PRNewswire http://www.prnewswire.com/ 

A great source for press releases; search by company, keyword, or limit your search 
by country. 

SEDAR http://www.sedar.com/ 

Canadian securities-related information. 

Yahoo Finance Press Releases http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/ 

Easily searchable source of PRNewswire press releases. 

Company Websites 

Look at a company's own websites, but don't limit your search to the official home 
page. Be sure to check out country-specific sites (most international companies 



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have sites specific to a country or region) and alternative domain names. Many 
companies have more than one domain name associated with them. For example, 
the Russian firm Kaspersky Labs has sites in multiple countries. In addition to the 
.com and .net domains, I counted 20 country top-level domains associated with the 
domain name kaspersky. I explored these names using Yahoo's Site Explorer and 
Google's info: command. 

Google's Info: Command 

This is a valuable tool for getting a fast overview of a website. Simply by inserting an 
address — kaspersky.com — into the Google search box, you will see the following 
options: 



• view Google's cache of kaspersky.com 

• find other pages similar kaspersky.com 

• find external pages linking to kaspersky.com 

• find pages containing kaspersky.com 



Google 



Web Image? VidfcQ Mews Maps Desktop moie m 



info:kaspersky.com 



; Search. 






Web 

Kaspersky Lab: Antivirus software 

Antivirus software for home or business. The world's fastest antivirus updates. Free virus scan 

and antivirus trial downloads. 

i a\v>v. kasfipr sky. corn/ 

Google can show you the following information for this URL; 

♦ Show Goo gle's cache of kaspersky.com 

♦ Find web pages that are similar to kaspersky.com 

♦ Find web pages that link to kaspersky.com 

♦ Find web pages frormjTejjte kaspersky.com 

♦ Find web pages that contain the term "kaspersky.com" 



Showing web page information for kaspeisky.com 



Whois Lookups 

While people can and do lie about the information they enter into domain registration 
forms, the Whois databases remain an excellent source of information about 
companies and people (addresses, phone/fax numbers, email addresses, ISPs, mail 
servers, etc.). However, I strongly caution you to double-check these data with other 
sources to validate them. 



ARIN (North America and some Caribbean) 
RIPE (Europe, Middle East, North Africa) 
APNIC (Asian-Pacific) 
AfriNIC (Africa) 



http://www.arin.net/whois/index.html 

http://www.ripe.net/perl/whois 

http://www.apnic.net/apnic-bin/whois.pl 

http://www.afrinic.net/cgi-bin/whois 



LACNIC (Latin America and some Caribbean) http://lacnic.net/cgi-bin/lacnic/whois 



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Look for Additional Domains in Whois Database 

As an example, Kaspersky Labs owns and operates websites under the domain 
names kaspersky-labs and avp (for Anti-Virus Protection) for many country top-level 
domains as well as the .com and .net domains. How did I find these alternate 
domain names and websites? By investigating Whois data on Kaspersky Labs and 
noting email addresses @avp.ru and other server names (kaspersky.com, 
kasperskylabs.net, kaspersky-labs.com). 

Correlate Whois Data 

For example, when you find a person's name (the person object is the technical or 
administrative contact for a Whois entry), I suggest you search on that name in all 
the major Whois databases to see if his/her name shows up anywhere else, thus 
providing possible leads to relationships between seemingly unrelated companies or 
organizations. To see how this works, search on the name [vladimir] in the RIPE, 
ARIN, and APNIC databases at IP-Plus: 



iP-PklS^fmcniet Service* 



SERVICES OPTIONS OUR NETWORK TECHNtCAUNFO ffPI ^^CUS TQMER CARE 

■ ;^^.^^lJJ^■l«M;^■^J^^■J^u^■^^■m^h^^l^J^wvo^^ua^A^l^Jlu^»JUuawJ^^l■^wacB^^ 



solution* 



♦ Secondary DNS 
+ Check ./oyi DNS 

+ Trace route server? 

• Looking Glass 
servers 

" VVhoi 5 queries 



[LVjiTitHH BBS8S 


Search striny 

Server 

Output options 

Query type 

IP networks options 




| vladimir 


|AR1N 13 

G Do not recurse into objects Q Template only 


|Any_ JEj 


| IP networks oplions |f| 


Submit | 



Vladimir Aniaimon (VLADI) 

VLADIMIR GUSIWSKI (VLADI-1) 

Vladimir Kats (VLADIH) 

Vladimir Romanenko (VLADIH-2) 

Vladimir Sinyakov (VLADIH-1) 

Karpenkov CKARPE-ARIH) vladimiE6dacaq30ft.com +1-949-290-8125 

Hompoint, Vladimir (VH213-ARIN) VladimirQdeci3iondigital.com +1-404-303-0330 

Romanenko, Vladimir (VR49-AR1M) vladimir0syan.com +1-213-216-6416 

Vasic, Vladimir (WA6-ARIN) Vladimirgschaf £eldevelopment. coo +1-816-767-2771 

Vladimir Anisimon ADN-VLADANISIMON-NETBLK (NET-209-216-233-128-1) 209. 216. 233. 12B - 209.216. 

VLADIMIR GUSINSKI VLADIMIR58-170-136 (NET-12-109-170-136-1) 12.109.170.136 - 12.109.170.143 

Vladimir Kats PBI-CUSTHET-1B91 (NET-207-213-209-32-1) 207.213.209.32 - 207.213.209.63 

VlsrtSmir Knrji PRT-nnSTNTTT-Znqn fWlTT-Sm-?! 1-?1 1 -H- 1 1 307.713.711.0 - ?I\7 , 7)1.2) ] .7.55, 



IP-Plus 



http://www.ip-plus.ch/tQols/whois set.en.html 



Also, search on the name using search engines, phone directories, email lookup 
tools, etc. 



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Wildcard Whois Search Tools 

One of the best ways to find other domains registered to a company is to use a 
wildcard Whois lookup tool. There are a number of these available on the Internet 
and they are detailed in a later section of this book. Wildcard searches work best 
with unusual or distinctive domain names. 

Domain Surfer http://www.domainsurfer.com/ 

Domain Tools Whois Source http://whois.domaintools.com/ 

Namedroppers.com http://www.namedroppers.com/ 

Netcraft http://www.netcraft.com/ 

Whois.net http://www.whois.net/ 

Whoix? http://www.whoix.com/ 
Whoix? Advanced Search http://www.whoix.com/advdomsearch.html 



Explore the Site 

There are any number of things you can learn from looking at the various pages at a 
company website. Fortunately, it is easy to display all the pages at a website (at 
least all the pages indexed by a specific search engine); unfortunately, for a large 
website, finding useful information within all these can be a daunting task. The best 
tools for site exploration are Yahoo's Site Explorer and the various site: and link: 
commands available at major search engines. 

In addition to Yahoo's Site Explorer, here is a summary of the various "site 
exploring" syntax available in Yahoo, Google, and Live Search: 

Yahoo Search : 

> site/domain: restricts results to a specific website or domain, including a 
specific top-level domain. May be used with or without keywords. 
[site:fr] returns all the pages Yahoo has indexed in the French top-level 
domain 

[site:who.int sars] finds all the pages at the WHO website that contain the 
keyword SARS; will find pages at wpro.who.int as well as www.who.int. 

Google Search : 

> site: restricts results to websites in a given domain. May be used with or 
without keywords. 

[siteiin] returns all the pages Google has indexed in the Indian top-level 
domain 



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[site:who.int "avian flu"] finds all the pages at the WHO website that contain 

the phrase "avian flu" 

[site:who.int "avian flu" -inurkspeeches] finds all the pages at the WHO 

website that contain the phrase "avian flu" and exclude any page with a url 

containing the keyword "speeches." 

[cirrus -site:mastercard.com] finds pages containing the keyword cirrus that 

are not on the Mastercard website 

Live Search : 

> site/domain: restricts results to a specific website or domain, including a 
specific top-level domain. May be used with or without keywords. 
[site:gov.it] returns all the pages Live Search has indexed in the Italian 
Government's domain 

[site:gov.it language:en] finds all the pages in the Italian Government's 
domain that are in English 

[site:gov.it -filetypeihtml] finds all the pages in the Italian Government's 
domain that are not in HTML format 

Link: Command at Major Search Engines 

It is always worthwhile to see who is linking to a site. Best bets for running the link 
command are the biggest search engines because, you guessed it, they have the 
biggest databases! If you get too many hits, try limiting the search by restricting the 
results to a specific domain or adding a keyword when permitted (Google does not 
permit the use of keywords with its link: command). All these search engines use the 
same syntax for link searching, i.e., link:, but remember, Yahoo has two link 
commands. 

Also, the Yahoo Site Explorer is extremely good at showing "inlinks" to an entire 
domain or just a specific url. Unlike Google, Yahoo Site Explorer provides all the 
links to a site (which Yahoo calls "inlinks") instead of a limited subset of links. 

Yahoo Search : 

> link: restricts results to pages containing links to a specific url. Yahoo 
requires users to enter the full url including the http:// for the link: 
command. May be used with or without additional keywords and syntax. 

[link:http://www.who.int] finds all the incoming links to this specific page 

[link:http://www.who.int "avian flu"] finds all the incoming links to this specific 
page that also contain the phrase "avian flu" 

[link:http://www.who.int "avian flu" inurl:h5n1] finds all the incoming links to 



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this specific page that also contain the phrase "avian flu" and have H5N1 
anywhere in the linking page's url. 

> linkdomain: restricts results to all incoming links to an entire domain, not a 
specific page or url. 

[Iinkdomain:who.int] finds all the incoming links to this entire domain 

[linkdomain:who.int "avian flu"] finds all the incoming links to this entire 
domain that contain the phrase "avian flu" 

[linkdomain:who.int "avian flu" inurl:h5n1] finds all the incoming links to this 
entire domain that contain the phrase "avian flu" and have H5N1 anywhere in 
the linking page's url. 

Google Search : 

> link: restricts results to documents that link to a specific url, but excludes 
many inlinks as a Google policy to try to reduce webpage or keyword 
spamming. No other syntax or keywords can be used with the Google link: 
command 

Live Search : 

> link: restricts results to documents that link to a specific url. May be used with 
or without additional keywords and/or additional syntax. 

[link.who.int locde geflugelpest] finds all the incoming links to this domain that 
are in the German (de) domain and contain the keyword Geflugelpest. 

Link Harvester : http://www.linkhounds.com/link-harvester/ 

> Link search on steroids. This incredibly powerful tool shows where all the links 
come from in groups and by common Class C IP Address blocks. Link 
Harvester also links to the Internet Archives, two types of Whols Source data, 
and several variations of Google cache. Data can be exported as a CSV file 
and imported into a spreadsheet or database for additional analysis. 

Google http://www.qooqle.com/ 

Live Search (beta) http://www.live.com/ 

Yahoo http://search.vahoo.com/ 

Also remember that you can use Factan Finder's URLinfo page to run the link 
queries from all these search engines one at a time. 

Fagan Finder's URLinfo http://www.faqanfinder.com/urlinfo/ 



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Newspapers, Magazines, Journals, Newsgroups, Blogs 

There is a lot of hard news, opinion, and old-fashioned gossip on the Internet about 
companies and their goings-on... new products, new partnerships, contracts, 
lawsuits, you name it. Disgruntled employees may post to newsgroups or publish 
blogs . In fact, people have been fired for leaking company secrets in blogs. 
Obviously, the validity of this information ranges from very high to scandalously 
poor, but in many cases researchers are piecing together a monochrome jigsaw 
puzzle, so any bit of information may help. 

Press Releases 

These can be a great source of cutting edge information about companies. They 
want to make money and, if they are public, sell stock, so they love to tell the world 
of their successes. The two best ways to find press releases is using PRNewswire or 
going to the horse's mouth (the company website— look for the magic words press 
releases on the home page). PRNewswire has improved its search and I especially 
recommend using the advanced search option. The PRNewswire site also lets you 
select a specific region or country, so it's easier to find international information here 
than at Yahoo. 

PRNewswire http://www.prnewswire.com/ 

Yahoo Press Releases via PR Newswire http://biz.yahoo.com/pmews/ 



How to Research a Specific Country 



In order to perform in-depth research on a particular country, it is a good idea to 
have numerous sites bookmarked as general starting places for country-specific 
Internet research. Some countries have a large web presence while others, for all 
intents and purposes, are absent or have a very limited presence. For the latter 
category (countries such as North Korea or Burma) you will have to rely largely on 
"third party" sites, that is, webpages about the country. Be aware that expatriates, 
exiles, or dissidents with large axes to grind created many of these. Third party 
country pages are usually most useful as sources for links to other webpages, and 
some are impressive in their size and complexity. 

My best advice in beginning to research a specific country is to try to find the most 
comprehensive country metasites, and this is not always easy. Good starting places 
are university area studies departments. Many of these have country or regional 



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webpages with links to other metasites. For example, the University of Texas's 
Russia and Eastern Europe Network Information Center (REENIC) has compiled an 
impressive set of links for this part of the world and makes a good starting place, as 
do Bucknell University's Russian Studies Department, Columbia University's Middle 
East and Jewish Studies. 

Russia and Eastern Europe Network Information Center (REENIC) 

http://reenic.utexas.edu/ 

Bucknell University's Russian Studies http://www.departments.bucknell.edu/russian/ 

Middle East and Jewish Studies 

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/indiv/mideast/cuvlm/ 

Occasionally for-profit enterprises will provide excellent free resources, such as 
Aardvark: Asian Resources for Librarians. Aardvark has two sections: Literature and 
Recommended resources and sites. I especially like the Asian Databases section, 
which currently lists over 650 databases. Thompson Gale published an excellent 
overview of Aardvark by Professor Peter Jacso. 140 

Aardvark: Asian Resources for Librarians 

http://www.aardvarknet.info/user/aardvarkwelcome/ 



Also, do not overlook non-profit organizations as a resource. Friends and Partners 
is probably the most famous non-profit organization on the Internet devoted to 
improving Russian-American relations and, as a result has become a tremendous 
source of information about Russia — everything from current news to 
telecommunications to downloading Cyrillic character sets. 

Friends and Partners http://www.friends-partners.org/friends/ 

Try to find webpages that claim to index "all" the sites in a country. Even though 
that claim is undoubtedly exaggerated, these sites are still good starting places. 
Another type of excellent country resource is a commercially operated country 
website that attempts to create an overarching subject directory of a particular 
country or region. Every world region and most countries have such guides or 
directories, but the quality can range from poor to excellent. A good test is to look at 
categories such as "governments" or "technology." If these are sparsely populated, 
chances are the directory is oriented more to entertainment, travel, shopping, etc., 
than to research. 



140 Peter Jacso, "Aardvark," Peter's Digital Reference Shelf, Thompson Gale, October 2006, 



< 



http://www.qaleqroup.com/reference/peter/aardvark.htm > (26 October 2006). 



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^ Music ^ Email ^ 
^ Slogs ^J Forums jQ& 



E-Carils 



© 



iH>^ 



Webgulde 



Algeria Bahrain Cyprus ' Egypt 



Iran 



Iraq ' Jordan ! Kuwait {Lebanon 



Morocco Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia; Sudan , Syria I Tunisia I Turkey 



Libya , Mauritania ' Search J Albawaba ▼J 
UAE Yemen i 



Main 

News 

Entertainment 

Business 

Kids 

Travel 

Forums 

E-cards 

Albauiaba's Email 

Blogs 

Music 

Webguide 



Tell Us What You 
Think 

Do you think that 
the recent terror 
attacks in Amman 
were a result of the 
US invasion of Iraq? 

<~ Yes 
C No 
<"" Don't know 



i; r y, i i<i iIf^Ik.u 



Amman suicide bomber was former US 
detainee released from custody 

A US military spokesman revealed on Sunday that one 
of the suspects in Wednesday's attack on three of 
Amman's luxury hotels was a detainee who was 
released last year by the US after determining that he 
was not a security threat. The attack, for which Al 
Qaeda claimed responsibility, killed 57 people and 
injured at least 100, 

Iraq: Roadside bomb kills three as 37 resistance fighters die in clashes 
Israeli troops kill two Palestinians, including senior Hamas activist 
Progress made on Gaza Strip matters at Rice-Abbas meeting 
Iranian FM arrives in Damascus: Regional action needed to face US, 
Israel cooperation 





Actor Bruce Willis offers 
$1 ... 




Palestinian boy's organs 
donated .., 





The Simpsons" debuts 

in the ,,, 



Albawaba.com launches the first Arabic/Engfish 
<$? w£-# language 'blogging' service 



Report: Egypt's mobile connections outstrip their fixed-line 

counterparts 

Palestine: Inflation up 1.93% during October 

Asteco welcomes ceiling on Dubai rents 

National Bank of Dubai establishes US$ 1 billion Euro Medium Term 

Note Program 



Al Bawaba: The Middle East Gateway 



http://www.albawaba.com/ 



Yahoo Countries 



http://dir.vahoo.com/regional/countries/index.html 



If I am looking for information about a country with whose Internet presence I am 
unfamiliar, I often start with Yahoo's Country index. A simple alphabetic list of the 
nations of the world leads you to individual pages within Yahoo for each country, 
ranging in quality and quantity from the vast (the UK with nearly 222,000 entries) to 
the tiny (Kiribati with 20). Most Yahoo country pages, however, are fairly robust, with 
subject headings such as "business and finance," "computers and Internet," 
"government," "education," "news and media," etc. However, never assume the 
Yahoo country lists and links are thorough or even adequate representations of a 
country's Internet presence because they are not. Yahoo is nonetheless a very fine 
starting place for researching a country on the web. 



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Library of Congress Country Studies http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html 

The Library of Congress website "contains online versions of books previously 
published in hard copy by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress 
under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the US 
Department of the Army. Because the original intent of the Series' sponsor was to 
focus primarily on lesser known areas of the world or regions in which US forces 
might be deployed, the series is not all-inclusive. At present, 101 countries and 
regions are covered. Notable omissions include Canada, France, the United 
Kingdom, and other Western nations, as well as a number of African nations. The 
date of information for each country appears on the title page of each country and at 
the end of each section of text." Each country study presents historical, political, 
economic, social, and military analyses and descriptions. Users may search across 
all countries or any combination of countries or browse an alphabetical list of 
countries. 

The Economist Country Briefings http://www.economist.com/countries/ 

The Economist is a well-respected publication that has made a huge contribution to 
the Internet with its website. Specifically, the Economist Intelligence Unit has a 
resource known as "Country Briefings" that looks at about 60 countries and provides 
superb profiles, forecasts, statistics, and more about each. All the content at the site 
is original with the Economist and not merely a compilation of information from other 
sources. Some of the material is "premium content," meaning users must pay to 
view it. However, there is more than enough free information to make the site very 
valuable. 

BBC Country Profiles http://news.bbc.co.Uk/1/hi/country profiles/ 

Similar to its counterparts at the Library of Congress and The Economist, the BBC 
offers Country Profiles at its website. The profiles not only include information on the 
history, politics, and economy of most of the world's nations, they also offer audio 
and video clips from the BBC's extensive archives. The main Country Profiles' page 
presents six drop-down menus for world regions with countries in each region listed 
alphabetically and one menu for International Organizations. Once users select a 
specific country to profile, they are offered an overview, a set of basic facts, 
information on current leadership, and details about the country's media. The BBC 
profiles are not quite as detailed as those from the Library of Congress or The 
Economist, but the BBC does provide a very good and user-friendly overview of 
most nations. 

Northwestern University Library Foreign Governments 

http://www.librarv.northwestern.edu/qovpub/resQurce/internat/foreiqn.html 

Northwestern University Library International Governmental Organizations 

http://www.library.northwestern.edu/qovpub/resource/internat/iqo.html 

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) http://www.unpo.org/ 



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The Northwestern University Library has a superb collection of documents related to 
governments, international organizations, and unrepresented nations and peoples. 
The governments' page has links to websites of countries from Afghanistan to 
Zambia. Even better, the page is kept up to date. Obviously, every website for every 
government is not listed, but the resource focuses on the major sites, such as 
president/prime minister, MFA, central bank, parliament, etc. 

The international governmental organizations page lists intergovernmental 
organizations (IGOs) that have webpages. Most are in English and generally the list 
links only to the main page, though there are exceptions. Organizations cover a wide 
range of topics, from the African Development Bank to the Chemical Weapons 
Convention to the International Criminal Court. 

Finally, the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) page, which 
resides at a separate website, lists both current and former members. UNPO 
members comprise nations and peoples inadequately represented at the UN. 
Among the UNPO current members are Australian Aboriginals, Assyrians, 
Chechens, Iraqi Turkoman, etc. For each group, the site links to a UNPO page 
containing information about the people and their homeland, including geographical, 
economic, and historical information as well as links to UNPO documents relating to 
the nation/people. 



Academic Info 



http://www.academicinfo.net/ 



I am somewhat hesitant to recommend this site only because I can't find out much 
about who is running it (Mark Madin and a group of "volunteer subject matter 
experts"). However, many reputable sources link to and recommend Academic Info, 
including the superb University of California, Berkeley, library, which describes it as 
a "Rich selection of about 25,000 pages, selected as 'college and research level 
Internet resources' aimed at "at the undergraduate level or above." And it does 
contain a lot of useful information. The information appears to be fairly high-level and 
most of it is collected elsewhere. However, this is a good general starting place and 
has the advantage of having been updated frequently. Because of the currency, 
quality, and amount of information throughout the website, I would recommend 
bookmarking and using the site as a good starting place for research on a number of 
topics. 

Google Directory Country Index 

http://directorv.qooqle.com/Top/Regional/Countries/ 

Google Directory uses the Open Directory Project listings as a basis but adds to 
them and includes more links. 



Admi.net 



http://admi.net/world/ 



Admi.net is a French website that attempts to be "the cyber-documentation center 
delivering general information about government authorities and public services." 
Admi. net's scope, therefore, is more limited than some others, but may thereby be 



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more useful under some circumstances. The site is very well organized: General 
Information/Regions/Countries. Within each subheading are the same subject 
headings, from "political organizations" to "law" to "companies" to "telecom" and 
much more in between. Obviously, much more information is indexed about some 
countries than others and not every heading has an entry for each country. 

BUBL Country List http://bubl.ac.uk/link/world/index.html 

Carefully researched and annotated web directory by information professionals. 

WWW Virtual Library Regional Studies http://vlib.org/Regional 

Links to African, Asian, Indigenous, Latin American, Middle Eastern, Russian, 
Eastern European, Western European, and Pacific studies. The Virtual Library was 
established in 1993 and is still kept up to date. 

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 

http://www.oecd.org/ 

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has 
launched webpages for each member country. The main features for each country 
website are: 

> What's new: News, recent and forthcoming events or conferences, latest 
publications. 

> Statistics: OECD statistical profile, OECD free access databases by country, 
and more. 

> Country and the OECD: ratification of the convention, role and activities of the 
delegation, financial contribution to the budget, etc. 

> Publications & documents: documentation listed in chronological order, by 
topic or document categories. 

> Information by topic: every topic from the ageing society to transportation. 

> Don't Miss: Country profile including over 100 indicators, how to obtain OECD 
publications, list of translations, useful links and contact us. 

What countries are included in the OECD project? All thirty member nations have 
country webpages and most of those country's also have a separate statistical 
profile page. OECD also has active relationships with 70 non-member countries. The 
OECD site includes numerous publications and documents, such as an Economic 
Survey of Russia (July 2004), Main Economic Indicators: Non-Member Countries, 
April 2005 (PDF), as well as information about co-operation operation between 
OECD member and non-member nations by country . The OECD site also permits 



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users to browse the site by topics, including biotechnology, corruption, energy, 
finance, money laundering — 32 topics in all. 

NationMaster http://www.nationmaster.com/ 

NationMaster takes the data from the CIA World Factbook, the UN, and OECD and 
mines it for statistics, then makes all that information easily accessible. Also, users 
can easily generate maps and graphs on all kinds of statistics. One of 
NationMaster's nicest features is the easy ability to view profiles of individual 
countries, which includes many details about a country beyond just statistical data. 
There is no original data at NationMaster, but it is the single best source for pulling 
together, organizing, searching, and displaying data about every country on earth. 

Finally, look for directories and country-specific search engines within the 
country itself. In my experience, the quality of such sites varies greatly, so do not 
give up if the first few you look at are not impressive. Once you have identified the 
major ISPs in a country , look to see if they have subject directories; many ISPs are 
creating both national and local guides for Internet users. The best will provide 
internal search engines and maybe even a translation feature. For example, one of 
Greece's major telecommunications and Internet companies, FORTHNet, offers a 
directory of more than 32,000 Greek websites. 

FORTHNet Directory http://dir.forthnet.gr/index-Q-en.html 

How do you find these sites? There is no one way of detecting the best websites in 
or about a country but try this: once you find a good website in or about a country, 
run a "link" command in Yahoo, Google, Live Search, and Gigablast to see 
webpages with links to the page of interest. You can quickly scan these for 
interesting-looking new websites. 



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How To Research a Country 

There is no sure-fire methodology for 
researching a specific country on the Internet. 
Try these sources: 

1. University area studies departments 

2. Non-profit organizations or foundations 

3. Country -specific subject directories 

4. In-country guides, portals, directories (check 
big ISPs) 

5. Search engines' "link" command 



w 



■ 



418 



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Finding Political Sites on the Web 



If a country has a parliamentary form of government (and most do by the broad 
definition used by this organization), be sure to check out the Interparliamentary 
Union's web page. Established in 1889, the IPU is an organization of parliaments of 
sovereign states. The IPE site has its own superb PARLINE database of country 
parliaments, which includes all relevant details about the form and structure of 
governments. In addition, the IPU provides links to official parliament web pages. Of 
the more than 200 countries listed, not all have official parliamentary web pages, but 
a surprising number do. 



Interparliamentary Union 



http://www.ipu.org/english/home.htm 



Northwestern University's Foreign Governments 

http://www.librarv.northwestern.edu/qovpub/resource/internat/foreign.html 

Northwestern University's International Governmental Organizations 

http://www.librarv.northwestern.edu/govpub/resource/internat/iqo.html 

Also be sure to look at Northwestern University's Foreign Governments list as well 
as its International Governmental Organizations. Currently up to date. 

Global Edge http://qlobaledqe.msu.edu/ 

The Center for International Business Education and Research at Michigan State 
University maintains Global Edge, a site of international country studies and 
business information with links to over 5000 resources. Much of the information 
comes from the CIA's Country Studies and the Department of State's Country 
Background Notes, but the site adds a tremendous amount of value to this data. 

Foreign Government Resources on the Web 

http://www.lib.umich.edu/qovdocs/foreign.html 

The University of Michigan also maintains Foreign Government Resources on the 
Web, a site with links to many types of foreign government sites, including official 
sites, embassies, constitutions, laws, etc. Last updated in July 2006. 

Political Resources on the Net http://www.politicalresources.net/ 

Political Resources on the Net: Unrepresented People 

http://www.politicalresources.net/int6.htm 



Political Database of the Americas 



http://www.georgetown.edu/pdba 



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One of the best political websites is Political Resources on the Net. This is a superb 
site for locating websites for governments, political parties (mainstream and fringe), 
NGOs, institutes, and "unrepresented" peoples or areas, such as Kosovo, East 
Timor, Hmong, etc. The topics are arranged from global to regional to country- 
specific. For anything political, this is a very good first stop. However, the internal 
search does not work. For political information on the Americas, try Georgetown 
University's Political Database of the Americas; the site contains both original 
information as well as links to reference sources. 

European Countries http://europa.eu/abc/european countries/index en. htm 

At the EU's Europa site, each of the European Union member states has a link from 
this page. The newly redesigned site has far less information about member nations' 
government site and now only provides a link to each country's official website. 
Europa still provides information about and links to EU candidate countries and to 
other European nations. 

Council of the Baltic Sea States http://www.cbss.st/ 

The Council of Baltic Sea States also offers a website with information including 
news, history, the structure of the Council, lots of documents, contact lists, etc. The 
site is completely in English, though external links to member states are usually in 
the appropriate national language. The homepage includes a map with links to the 
foreign ministries of each country. 

East & Southeast Asia: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources 

http://newton.uor.edu/Departments&Proqrams/AsianStudiesDept/index.html 

The East & Southeast Asia annotated directory of Internet resources from the 
University of Redlands (in California) is an excellent portal for information specific to 
Asian nations as well as Asian resources in general as well as "hot topics" such as 
the avian flu, the North Korean nuclear crisis, and the tsunami of 2004. 

Current Rulers Worldwide http://www.terra.es/personal2/monolith/ 

Rulers of the World http://rulers.org/ 

For information on world leaders, be sure to see Zarate's Political Collections, which 
includes Current Rulers Worldwide. The site is updated regularly. Rulers of the 
World is also kept current but has an accent on history: "This site contains lists of 
heads of state and heads of government (and, in certain cases, de facto leaders not 
occupying either of those formal positions) of all countries and territories, going back 
to about 1700 in most cases." Current rulers are also included. 



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Finding Ministries of Foreign Affairs 

To track down ministries of foreign affairs, you can try directories such as Google's, 
Yahoo's, and the Open Directory Project, or you can go directly to one of these 
resources that provide links to MFAs. Please keep in mind that no resource has 
everything. Just because the MFA you seek isn't listed by any of these sources 
does not mean it's not on the Web. Sometimes url guessing will work, e.g., 
www.mfa.gov.yu for the former Yugoslavia; sometimes it won't, e.g., www.ud.se for 
Sweden. 

US Institute of Peace Library Foreign Affairs Ministries on the Web 

http://www.usip.org/librarv/formin.html 

The site has about 140 links to most MFAs and a few other international agencies. 
Current information. 

Library of Congress: Portals to the World 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/international/portals.html 

First-rate alphabetical list of countries, with links to government sites. For most, 
finding the MFA is a simple click to the Government, Politics, and Law link. 

Stefano Baldi's Ministries of Foreign Affairs Online 

http://hostings.diplomacv.edu/baldi/mofa.htm 

Hosted by Diplo Directory site, this is a superb resource, with 110 links listed. 

Ministries of Foreign Affairs from Lawresearch 

http://www.lawresearch.com/v10/global/ciministries.htm 

Links to about 100 countries' MFA websites. 



Finding Embassies 

One task the Internet has certainly made much easier is locating information about 
embassies, including their addresses, phone/fax numbers, names of individuals 
associated with them, and even email addresses and, sometimes, websites. Even 
more fortunately, there are several websites that specialize in providing information 
about and links to foreign ministries on the web. 

Also keep in mind that ministries of foreign affairs (MFAs) are usually in the business 
of providing information rather than protecting it, so they are often great resources 
for learning a wide range of details about a country. / strongly recommend that 
you always check out a country's MFA Web site for the most current 
information about its missions. For example, a country such as Afghanistan has 



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gone through many changes in the past few years both in terms of representation 
from and within the country. Never assume any site is absolutely current; it's best to 
go directly to the source when possible. Here is the Afghani MFA's list of its 
embassies and consulates from its website. 




■ 



AlgfcanHtAn't Fornitjn Policy 
>1pdia Rotations 



Otpkmwtli Mission: 



&Sr»rni /ifgh»n diptomitk rnittioni 

I II I — 




Alphabetical list of Afghan Embassies and Consulates 

*|B|C|U|E|F|G|HiI|3|KU|n|N|Q|Pfg|ll|S|nU|V|W|X|r|Z J 



. ; 



RECONSTRUOION AND DEVELOPMENT 
df AFGHANISTAN 

After twenty-five years of various 
conflicts, and parafle! to the rebuJdtmj of 
political and societal institutions of the 
state, Afghanistan is h the process of 
rebukDng physical Infrastructures and 
economic foundations of the country. 
There have been remarkable 
achievements in the fields of 
reconstruction and development. 
However, since to many media outlets 
"good news" do not necessarily constitute 



ARMENIA 

(SEE RUSSIAN FEDERATION) 



AUSTRALIA 

Embassy of Afghanistan ii Canberra 

POBox 155 

Deakin West ACT 2600 

Td: (+61-2) 6282 7311 

Fax: (+61 -2) 6282 7322 

Email: adminS&afghariembassy.net 

Website: http://www. afghanembassy.net/ 

Ambassador: H.E Mr.Anwar ANWARZAI 

Non-resident envoy to: Brunei Dar-EI-Salam and New Zealand 



AUSTRIA 

Embassy of Afghanistan in Vienna 

Ladierergasse 8 Top 9 

1090 Vienna 

Tel: (+43-1)524 7806 

Fax: (+43-1) 524 7907 

E-mail: afg.emb.vie@chelo.at 

Amh;v:<;;v4fw ■ H.F 7\n NF7AM 



The following are sites helpful in finding embassies: 

Embassy World http://www.embassyworld.com/ 

Embassy World is a commercial site that has improved dramatically over the last few 
years. Today, it is probably the single best resource for finding embassies and 
consulates. The home page offers users the option to search for a specific country's 
mission in any or a single location. You can also use the alphabetical list by country 
to find a country's missions in other countries or other countries' missions in a 
specific country. I recommend searching both ways because the results are not 
always identical. Embassy World also includes UN Missions and an international 
telephone directory that varies in quality depending on the country of interest (poor 
for Palau, great for France... you get the idea). 



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Library of Congress: Portals to the World 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/international/portals.html 

First-class alphabetical list of countries, with links to government sites. Virtually all 
include a link to Embassies. 

Embassies & Consulates Worldwide http://www.mypaqe.bluewin.ch/caccia/ 

Search by country in which embassy or consulate is located. This site is current and 
contains other useful information about countries, generally geared toward visitors. 

Yahoo Embassies and Consulates 

http://dir.yahoo.com/Government/Embassies and Consulates/ 

An always-reliable if incomplete source; countries listed alphabetically with both 
embassies of and embassies in each country. 

Tagish Worldwide Embassies http://www2.taqish.co.uk/Links/embassv1b.nsf/ 

Tagish has hosted the European Union's Ethos site for some years and has a 
separate page devoted to diplomatic missions derived from the Ethos data, which 
now appears to be a couple of years out of date. Specifically, the Tagish site also 
includes a separate list of embassy Web sites and embassy email addresses 
(both sorted by either host country or country of origin). 

Embassy.org http://www.embassy.org/ 

Embassy.org is the source for information about any embassy in Washington, D.C. 



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Research Round-up: 

The Best Research Tips & Techniques 



Tip 1; Use the Right Tool 

I am repeating Rule #1 because it is so important. The single biggest mistake 
researchers make is using the wrong search tool. For example, search engines are 
generally not useful for finding current news (use a specialized news search 
service). Wikis, custom search engines, and directories are generally better when 
researching a broad topic because they have a select group of sites (but watch out 
for paid placement; for a directory that contains no paid placement, use Open 
Directory ). There are also many specialized or vertical search services that cover a 
huge variety of topics, everything from chemistry to message boards. 

Tip 2: Search for the Most Obscure Term 

I needed to find the url for an article at CNET's News.com. Sounds easy. I knew the 
date and title, but the internal CNET search tool wouldn't let me search by date and 
the title words returned nothing. Solution? I picked an obscure word from the 
article — in this case, the last name of the Microsoft executive interviewed for the 
article, ("wallent") and searched on that term. Bingo. Only one hit and it was the 
article I wanted. 

Tip 3: Put the Most Important Search Term First 

While it's not always true, search engines usually give more weight to the first term 
you list because the search software assumes it's the most important term 
(otherwise, why would you list it first)? Try these two queries in Google one after the 
other: [gardening roses] then [roses gardening]. The results are similar but not 
identical. 

Tip 4: Search on the Singular Form First 

While it is not always the case that search engines automatically search for plural 
forms of search terms, many (including Yahoo and Google) do. The converse, 
however, is not true, i.e., a search on [rose] will find roses, but a search on [roses] 
will not find rose. Therefore, it makes sense to search first on the singular form of a 
term. 



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Tip 5: Use Regional Search Services, Directories, and Databases 

It's so easy to fall into the trap of using US-based search engines (and, it's true, their 
databases are the biggest in the world). But I believe it is critical to use search 
engines, directories, and databases that are country- and region-specific, or 
language-specific. These international sites focus on collecting data from a particular 
part of the world and also offer more language options than US-based services. 
Don't just think in terms of search engines — local phone and email directories can be 
invaluable. 

Tip 6: Search in the Native Language 

If you really want to exploit the power of an international search engine, directory, or 
database, you need to search in the native language. Doing so will vastly improve 
your chances for finding what you seek. Also, remember that many if not most 
international databases — for example, phone directories — only list information in the 
native language, so searching the online Moscow phone book for a name in English 
will produce zero results because all the listings are in Russian Cyrillic. 

Look at the difference between searching using Google in English and in Russian 
[Emercom Russia] with 32K hits vs. [MHC Poccmm] with 1.25M hits and, more 
importantly, the Emercom site as the top result: 



Weh Images Groups News Frooqle 
[Emercom Russia 




Local"** 
I Search- 



Desktop more » 

Advanced Seaich 
Pfefeiences 




Web 



Results 1 -10Dofab 



700 for Emercom Russia with Saftsearch on. (0.30 seconds) 



Foreign Military Studies Office Publications - EMERCOM^ftttSfelAiS 



EMERCOM divides Russia into nine regions, supporting 89 oblasts. ... "EMERCOM of 

Russia," publication of the Ministry of Extraordinary Situations, p 13. ... 

VvWvV. fa s . o rg/n u k e/g u i d e/i'i is si a/a g e n c y/i u s e rt . hi m - 28k - Cach ed - S isfiila i pacjas 

Ministry for Extraordinary Situations [EMERCOM! - Russian and ... 

The Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and ... 
of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM of Russia - also called the Ministry for ... 
'jwAiv.fas.ar9/nuke/guide/nissi.i/&gency/emercom.htiTi - 6k - Cached - Similar paci&s 

EXPODESIGN MOSCOW 

P. Nenashev. Head of State Fire Inspection at EMERCOM Russia ... Chairman: NP 
Kopylov- Head of FGU VNIIPO EMERCOM of Russia, Dr. of technical sciences. ... 
w^M\expo-desiyn.ru"005/FlRE_KXl/intX_p!Tjgr_en3.htm - 8k - Cached - Similai pages 



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Google 



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Web Images Groups News Frooqle Local " j Desktop more » 




Web Results 1 - 100 o{aboui 2,790,000 for MMC Pocchh with ]>afesearch on. (0.60 seconds) 

MHC POCCHH 

l4e.HH, 3 a^aMM, cipyicrypa h npoeicrbi MMi-mcTepcTBa. Hobocth. nepeseHb yneGHbix 3aBe£eHMH 
MMC 

vw-w.mchs.rjov.ru/ - 40k - Nov 7. 2005 - Cached - Sirmlgo^es 

MHC POCCHH 

1 HoaSpfl b AKafleMMM rpa>KA3HCK0H 3au^MTbi MMC Pocchh coCTOHTca TopwecTBeHHaa uepeMOHHfl 
OTKpbiTHa YHHBepcajibHoro cnopTMBHoro KowiruieKca, KOTopbiti npeflCTaB^neT ... 

ww.mchs.gQv.ru/article.html?id=5512 - 35k - Nov 7, 2005 - £sched - .Sjni[!.a.LP^nee 
[ iV1 f Ji^ res'Jilfc from wvw. snchs. gov, m ] 

MHCbopMa'uMQHHaR ra3eTa "CnacaTerib" MHC Pocchh 
A3poMoGn^bHbiii rocnmajib MMC Pocchh 3aBepujnji cbohd pa6oTy b ropofle ... ^Mpeiaop 
flenapTaMema pa3BHTna HH^pacTpyiaypbi MHC Poccun Hafle>Kfla TepacMMOBa dajia ... 
vwvv.vspasatel.ri/ - 39k - Nov 7 , 2005 - Cached - Sm^Lll^cs 

Tip 7: Follow Those Links 

Whenever you find a good website, always check its links. While in theory links at a 
web page that is indexed by a search engine should also have been indexed, the 
reality is often different. "Links" pages are often a gold mine of sites with similar 
information. 

Tip 8: Learn Two Words in Any Non-English Language in Which 
You are Searching 

Those two words are search and links. You need to be able to push the search or 
find button on a non-English web page, and you need to be able to find the links 
page. 

Tip 9: Search on the LINK Field 

Every time you find a good website, go to a search engine, such as Yahoo 141 , 
Gigablast, the new Live Search, or Google 142 that permits link: command searches 
and find the pages that link to your newly discovered web page. Any page that is 
really interesting to you is also interesting to others interested in the same 
subject Check the search syntax of each site: some search engines, such as 
Yahoo, require a full address, including the http://. 



141 Yahoo and Live Search have two different link commands ( link: and linkdomain:) that serve 
different purposes. Linkdomain: is a broader, more comprehensive search option. 

142 The Google link: command is not showing all links as it once did because of Google's efforts to try 
to limit webspam. 

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Here's an interesting twist on link searching, that is, finding sites that link to a 
specific address. This search, which works with Yahoo and (to a lesser extent) 
Windows Live Search, finds pages that link to a specific domain or domains but 
not to another specific domain or domains. An example would help. Let's say I 
start by finding the sites that link to the Iranian Ministry of Defense. Here is the query 
I would use: 

[linkdomain:mod.ir] 

In Yahoo this query returns 545 hits. Now, suppose I want to see which sites link to 
both the Iranian MOD and the Iranian Electronics Industries. I can do that easily with 
this query: 

[linkdomain:mod.ir linkdomain:ieimil.com] 

However, I see lots of sites that also link to the ever-present CIA World Factbook, 
which, while a wonderful resource, isn't want I'want. I would really like to see the 
sites that link to both the Iranian MOD and IEI sites but not to the CIA Factbook. Can 
I do this? Sure: 

[linkdomain:mod.ir linkdomain:ieimil.com -linkdomain:cia.gov] 

While this technique has obvious applicability for search engine optimization ("who is 
linking to my competitors but not linking to me?"), I think it is worth knowing about 
because you may come up with some creative ways to use it. Just as an interesting 
example, try these two queries in both Live Search and Yahoo. It's interesting to see 
what drops from the results' list on the second query. 

[linkdomain:cia.gov linkdomain:nsa.gov] 

[linkdomain:cia.gov linkdomain:nsa.gov -linkdomain:fbi.gov] 

I believe you will consistently find that Yahoo! provides more results than Live 
Search for the linkdomain: searches. However, the results will vary, so it's worth 
using both search engines. Google does not offer a linkdomain: search, and its link: 
search has been hobbled. 

Yahoo Search http://search.yahoo.com/ 

Windows Live Search http://www.live.com/ 

Tip 10: Look Beyond Search Engines and the Web 

Search engines and directories index only a tiny portion of the Internet. With some 
notable exceptions, they are basically designed to index web pages. A vast amount 
of data is stored, for example, in online databases, many of which are free and open 
to the public. They often contain information useful to researchers — phone 



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directories, Whois databases, NIH PubMed, SEC Edgar , Amazon's "Search Inside 
the Book" feature , digital library collections. The Domain Name System/Service 
(DNS) itself is the largest distributed database ever created and freely accessible to 
any user via a simple query ( NSLookup ). Also, don't overlook mailing lists, 
newsgroups, and other non-web segments of the Internet. 

Tip 11: Configure and Use Two Browsers 

If you spend much time on the Internet, especially viewing non-US sites, you will 
probably encounter certain webpages that will not display at all, will not display 
properly, and/or will not print in the browser you're using. However, if you open the 
page in the other browser, it may be fine. So don't despair if a page isn't displaying 
or printing as it should. Chances are there are simply problems with the way the 
page was created and it will look fine in the other browser. 

Tip 12: Try URL Guessing 

It works more frequently than you would imagine. For example, I found the Iranian 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs by guessing www.mfa.gov.ir. And guess what the address 
for the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) is? Yes, it's www.mvd.ru. No 
search engine indexed either of these sites at the time I first found them. 

Tip 13: Change URLs to Find "Hidden" Webpages 

Sometimes a simple change inside a long url will disclose interesting pages deep 
within a website. For example, look at these two pages from the Federal Trade 
Commission: 

http://www.ftc.qov/opa/2006/02/ 

http://www.ftc.qov/opa/2007/02/ 

Simply by changing the portion of the url that indicates year and month, you can 
view the FTC News Releases for a specific date. This is a simple example of a 
technique that can be used to uncover "hidden" webpages. It's especially useful on 
sites that update on a regular schedule, e.g., sites for press releases or news. 

Tip 14: Be on the Lookout for URL Errors 

Not surprisingly, many urls listed on webpages are incorrect. Among the most 
common mistakes are misspellings, putting a backslash (\) where a slash (/) should 
be, including or excluding the L in HTML, e.g.: 

http://www examIpexom/pathnainiie\bigmistake.htmI 



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Reload ' j/^^r^TnnH^^ nanM^X ~~~ I Print -_ 




Completed Projects 

Beyond A. L. has extensive experience in working with multinational companies and a proven track record of 
successfully managing and completing projects on time and with i n budget. 



Project List 



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which total spaces is more than 12,000 sq. m2. 

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Beyond designed and built 1500 sq. m2 new office at20/F, Majesty Tower. 



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Beyond designed and built 2000 sq. rn2 new office atWaigaoqiao area. 

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Beyond designed and constructed 500 sq. m2 new office at 3/F, Dynasty Tower. 

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Beyond designed and built 800 sq. m2 totally new office at 5/F, Dynasty Tower. 



"English" is often 
misspelled as "Enlgish" 



Correct the spelling or use the tried and true method of "backward hacking" 
(backspace deleting) file and path names and retrying the link (you'll be amazed how 
often this works!). 

Tip 15: Take a Look at the "Site Map" 

Most large, well-organized websites have maps of what is on their web server. 
These site maps can be extremely useful and revealing, often showing pathways to 
more topics than were revealed on the home page. Also, internal search tools are 
notoriously unreliable; a site map may be much more useful at digging down inside a 
website. 

Tip 16: Try Using the "Mouseover" 

For non-English sites where you don't know the language, try the "mouseover" trick, 
i.e., move your mouse over hyperlinks. Often, the link information is in English or, if it 
isn't, quite often the url that appears in the toolbar at the bottom of the browser is 
revealing because it is likely to be written in English. 



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Tip 17: Try Alternative Spellings, Especially of Non-English Names 
or Terms, or Even Purposeful Misspellings 

This hint especially applies to searching for non-English websites. For example, the 
Arabic word khalifah (usually written as Caliph in English) generally refers to the 
person who is the successor to Muhammed for leadership of the Islamic community. 
This term is transliterated as kalifa, kalifah, califah, or some other variant. However, 
there is a related term khilafah, which is the office itself, i.e., Caliphate in English. 
This term is often associated with some of the most radical Islamic websites. I found 
I had to search on many variations of these terms or I would have missed a number 
of important sites. Even though many of the websites are in Arabic, the addresses 
for the sites are still written in the Latin alphabet, and searching for these key words 
using syntax as inurl:, site:, domain: revealed many useful links. 

The same is true for commonly misspelled words, e.g., http referrer is usually 
misspelled http referer and genealogy is often misspelled geneology. A wildcard 
makes it possible to find both correctly and incorrectly spelled terms. 

As you can see from the following example, a search on ["ministry of foregin affairs 
islamic republic of iran"] elicits 918 hits while a search with foreign spelled correctly 
returned only 38 results. 



Web Image*. , Groups Ne "" ! News Frooqle more » 
ministry^jf foregin affWs of islamic republic !j pSejrehj 



|Q||^ ("ministrytfjj ; foregin affo 



Advanced Search 
Ptefeier>ces 



Web Results 1 - 100 of afout 918 for " fltinistrv of foregin affairs of islamic republic of iran ". (0.31 seconds) 

Did you mean: "ministry of foreign affairs of islamic republic of iran" 
Ministry of Foregin Affairs of Islamic Republic of Iran 

Documents Archive ... 

WiW^.nifa.gov.jr/output/engli^h/ docijrnents%5Ccntnr34_2004 iO.hfm - 9k - Car lied - Similar p^qt-s 

Ministry of Foregin Affairs of Islamic Republic of Iran 

LATEST NEWS : Thursday, 2. Dec, 2004 7:27 Local Time. ECO Secretary General 
Meets Dr. Kharrazi. Nov 29,2004 November 28, 2004 Visiting ... 
www. mfa . ci ov. i r/'o utp ut/e n g li s I i/m a in . as p - i 7 k - C ■ a c h etl - Sim il a 1 1 rj;ac; es 

Ministry of Foregin Affairs of Islamic Republic of Iran 

Privious Page, Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Meets Dr. Kharrazi Aug 29,2004, Iranian 

foreign minister, Dr Kamal Kharrazi on Sunday emphasized ... 

www. mfa. gov, ir/out put/English/do cumenTs/do c4G05.htm - 9 k - Ca iched . - Qw[*}_S!3JA*l 

Ministry of Foregin Affairs of Islamic Republic of iran 

Privious Page, Dr. KharrazPs Statements at the Ministerial Conference of 
Iraq's Neighbors in Cairo Jul 21 ,2004. Iranian foreign minister ... 

Tip 18: Always Look at a Website's Native Language Version 

Usually, the native language version of a website will differ from the English version, 
sometimes a little, sometimes a great deal. To illustrate this point, check out the 
differences between the Al Jazeera Arabic and English home pages. You will see a 
different set of stories with different emphases on each. 



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^ 



ALJAZEERA.NbVT Updated on: Monday 14 November 2005, 16:44 Makka Time, 13:44 GMT 



4&BBBBi 




AUDIENCE 
PAHEL 



*&""*£ «*ti«*»i*» 



Special Reports 
Weather "^ 



Pall* 



Your feedback 
Contact Uf " 



Gaza border deal near, 
Abbas says 



Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas 
said an Israeli-Palestinian deal on 
J reopening the Gaza-Egypt border was 



About AjjjgeaggjJ imminent, after talks with US Secretary 



Code of Ethics 



Frequencies 



isformueb, i 
net ; 



of Scate Candoleezza Rice, full story 
• Rice pays surprise visit to Iraq 
. Middle East reform talks collapse 

Arab World 




Failed bomber confesses on Jordan TV • Four killed Kashmir separatist attack 
Sudan rejects US peace initiative • Three arrested over New Delhi blasts 

Another journalist assaulted in Egypt • Azeri opposition calls for poll rerun 
Syria official rejects Lebanon hearings * Bomb kills two judges in Bangladesh 



"The bomb was 



Economy 



S Africa mines attract black partners 
Airbus A38Q completes Asia test flight 
Workers doubt Mubarak job pledge 
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Culture 



Science S Tec hnology 

• UN summit to debate internet control 

* Conservationists warn of new dams 

• Australia headed for hottest year ever 

♦ HIV man claims body cured itself 

Special Reports 




Notice the completely different set of articles and even the way the pages are 
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Tip 19: Use Wildcards to Maximize Effectiveness 

I love to use wildcards in searching. Unfortunately, few search engines permit 
wildcard searches, which means the researcher must enter the term in a variety of 
forms for a thorough search. Here is how the major search engines handle 
wildcards. 

Google : one limited wildcard (*); can only replace any single term with white 
space on either side (e.g., ["what a * web"] will find "what a tangled web" and 
"what a coiled web"). Cannot be used within or at the end of a search term (for 
example, to pluralize a term). 

Yahoo : Yahoo does not support wildcard searching. The old cheat of using a 
"small" word, such as a, no longer works in Yahoo. 

Live Search : no truncation, no wildcard. A search for [cat] finds cat, not cats. 

Exalead : a search on [child*] return pages with children highlighted as a search 
result. The wildcard also can be used inside a search term , e.g., [kazak*stan]. 
This search accurately finds kazakhstan, kazakh, and kazak as well as kazakstan. 

Tip 20: Examine Page Source Code 

In addition to often revealing the webpage's language encoding, page source can 
provide other helpful details, including names, dates, email addresses, type of 
software used to create the page, etc. However, experienced webpage designers 
have learned by now that putting these sorts of details into the source code is an 
open invitation to spammers to harvest them, so finding useful bits of information in 
source code is less likely now than in the past. Still, many people are not 
experienced Internet users and have not yet learned to keep this information out of 
the source code, so it is worth a look. Below is a very good example of how 
analyzing page source code helped one company track down the person responsible 
for a fabricated television interview that spread potentially libelous information about 
the company. The page source contained an email address that ultimately led to the 
person responsible for the false information. 

Daniel Janal, "How to Deal with Lies About Your Company (and You) on the 
Internet," Scambusters.org http://www.scambusters.org/Scambusters29.html 

Tip 21: Ask for Help 

One of the hardest questions to answer is, "how do you know when you aren't 
finding something because you're not searching correctly or because it's not there to 
find?" The best rule of thumb I can think of is to ask a more experienced Internet 
researcher for advice and assistance if you are hitting a brick wall. Experienced 
researchers generally have developed a pretty good sense of where to look for 
different kinds of information and, most importantly, the types of information you are 
not likely to find on the Internet. 



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Researching & Understanding the Internet 



A Plain English Guide to Internetworking 

The Internet, were it a person, would be something of a narcissist. It probably has 
more information about itself than any other single topic, which means the best place 
to research the Internet is the Internet. However, understanding how the Internet 
actually works can be frustrating and most books, websites, and other resources that 
purport to explain the inner working of the Internet exacerbate rather than enhance 
knowledge because they make assumptions about their readers that are often wildly 
inaccurate. 

There are generally two types of guides on how the Internet works: one is the 
technical guide for network engineers and system administrators; the other type is a 
users' guide, a how-to book for people who want to use the Internet but don't really 
need to know anything about what's under the hood. The first type of guide is fine if 
you are an engineer, but these manuals or websites are written by and for technical 
people, meaning you already have to know their jargon in order to understand what 
they are saying. The second type of guide merely avoids the problem all together by 
ignoring technical explanations. After all, you don't need to know how an internal 
combustion engine works to drive a car. 

I have attempted to create a little niche in between the extremes by offering a non- 
technical explanation of some of the basic concepts behind how the Internet gets 
traffic from one point to another and does it with remarkable speed, accuracy, and 
efficiency. For many of us who are not technically inclined, the answer has often 
seemed to be "magic happens here." But more and more often in our jobs we find 
we need to know a little bit about the mysterious inner workings of the Internet. I 
have no pretensions that this overview is complete. I knowingly gloss over some 
subtleties that I think are simply too arcane for a high-level look at Internetworking. 

The Internet 

The Internet isn't a single network; it is a network of networks. However, all these 
many networks are not directly connected to each other and, in fact, do not "talk" or 
exchange data directly with each other. Rather, the Internet employs an elaborate 
system of rules (known as protocols), numbering schemes (e.g., autonomous 
systems, IP addresses), hardware (e.g., routers and servers), and arrangements 
(e.g., peering agreements) to ensure that your request to view a website in Pakistan 
or send an email to Seoul is fulfilled almost in the blink of an eye. 



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Packets 

At the (almost) simplest level of the Internet are things called packets. For our 
purposes, a packet is the fundamental unit of data that is sent between an origin and 
a destination on the Internet. How does a packet get from Point A to Point B? First, it 
needs two addresses: one for its origin and one for its destination. The origin 
address is known as the source IP address and the end address is known as the 
destination IP address. 

IP Addresses 

Every device attached to the Internet must have an address. In IPv4, 143 these 
addresses are written as "dotted quads," i.e., four sets of numbers separated by 
periods, as in 204.1 80.95.2. 144 Today, IP addresses are much more likely to identify 
the public end point of a path than an individual computer. The last IP address you 
see is likely the point at which the packet enters a private network, and you can't 
normally see beyond that point. 

IP addresses are similar to telephone numbers or house addresses, but that analogy 
only goes so far because many IP addresses are temporary. Temporary IP 
addresses are called dynamic IP addresses; the IP address your cable or DSL 
provider assigns to you is probably dynamic. On the other hand, certain types of 
devices on the Internet are usually assigned permanent or static IP addresses. One 
of these types of devices is a router. 

This brings us back to our traveling packet. Once we know that the packet has its 
own address and a destination address, we then need to know how the packet gets 
from one place to another. It gets there because of something called a router. 

Routers 

A router is a device that forwards packets from one network to another. Routers 
used to be called gateways and you may still encounter that term. So, how does 
routing work? 

Routing 

Think of routing as the process in which your computer (host) tries to find a 
destination computer (host). Basically, your source IP address host with data to send 
asks your ISP's router two very important questions: 



143 IPv4 is Internet Protocol version 4, the current Internet Protocol or set of rules for exchanging data 
across the Internet. It is in the process of being replaced by IP version 6. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses 
(allowing 4.3 billion addresses); IPv6 uses 128 bits (allowing 3.4x1038 addresses). 

144 This type of IP address is an IPv4 address; the next generation Internet will use IPv6. 



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A) how do I get to my desired destination address? and 

B) would you please take me there? 

On the Internet, it is highly likely that there is more than one path from computer A to 
computer B. So the router has the job not only of knowing where to send the packet 
but deciding which path or route the packet should take. But how do all these routers 

on the Internet know which path to use to send packets so they get to their 
destinations? 

Routers use routing tables to determine where a packet is going and how to send it. 
The Internet in part consists of a huge grid of routers, each of which only knows a 
piece of the whole picture, not the entire Internet (it's too big for that!). 

Look at this image. You can see that in this simple example, Router A does not 
know Router B's connections. It literally cannot see Router B. The hub or switch at 
10.0.0.0 knows both Router A and Router B's destination paths and can, therefore, 
route packets from 20.0.0.0 to 40.0.0.0 and back. All Router A needs to know is to 
send those packets via its Port 1 to 10.0.0.0 and, from there, Router A has no more 
to do with the packets. The reverse is true of Router B. 145 

From Computer Desktop Encyclopedia 
© 1998 The Computer Language Co. Inc. 



Router A 
Routing Table 

To go to Route via 

network: port#: 

10.0.0.0 1 

20.0.0.0 2 

30.0.0.0 3 

40.0.0.0 1 



10.0.0.0 




^a 



d^ 3 



20.0.0.0 



30.0.0.0 



40.0.0.0 



145 "Router." Answers.com. Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Computer Language Company Inc., 
2005. <http://www.answers.com/topic/router> (14 November 2006). 



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There is a further layer to the addressing and routing of Internet traffic that we need 
to know about. As the Internet grew, it quickly became apparent that it would be 
impossible for every network to know every other networks' "gateways," as they 
used to be known. This works only a small scale, and the Internet is anything but 
small. Thus, the idea of autonomous systems was introduced, by which only those 
devices within a specific AS would know all of that AS's routes. 

Autonomous System 

An autonomous system (AS) is a network or group of IP networks run by a single 
entity using common routing policies or protocols. Another way of looking at an AS is 
to think of it as a lot of networks being handled on the Internet as one logical 
domain. There are two types of Autonomous System numbers: Public AS numbers 
and Private AS numbers. A public AS has a unique number (ASN) associated with it; 
this number is used in both the exchange of exterior routing information (between 
neighboring Autonomous Systems), and as an identifier of the AS itself. The 
introduction of autonomous systems also meant that AS's could run their own 
internal network any way they pleased, which made sysadmins happy. We are only 
interested in Public ASNs. 

In order to keep track of these new AS's, each AS was assigned an AS number (a 
16 bit integer) by I ANA, the Internet Authority for Assigned Names and Addresses. 
IANA assigns both IP addresses and ASNs to Regional Internet Registries (the three 
biggest are ARIN, APNIC, and RIPE), who then assign both types of numbers to 
customers. 146 

The rules for how traffic is handed off among and between AS's on the Internet are 
called protocols, and there are a number of them currently in use. The core external 
routing protocol for the Internet is the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), which we'll 
look at next. 

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 

BGP works by maintaining a table of IP networks or 'prefixes' that designate network 
accessibility between autonomous systems (AS). 

In this example, imagine Customer 1 in Baltimore wants to reach a website 
maintained by an ISP in Los Angeles, represented here by Customer 4 at Regional 
ISP (AS2). Customer 1's Regional ISP (AS1) routes the request through National 



146 Elquapo's Guide to Routing— Part 3, BPG, 20 August 2003, 
< http://www.kuro5hin.Org/storv/2003/8/19/18378/4228 > (14 November 2006). 



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ISP (AS3) in Chicago because there is no direct connection between Regional ISP 
(AS1) in Baltimore and Regional ISP (AS2) in Los Angeles and going through 
multiple third party networks would be both slow and costly. Does this look familiar? 
It is the same principle that was at work in the way routers handle IP addresses. 




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Think of the routing of Internet packets as analogous to airline travel. Imagine you 
need to fly from Dallas to Damascus, Syria. There is no direct flight, so you must first 
fly to Washington Dulles Airport, change planes and carriers, then fly to Nicosia, 
Cyprus. Once there, you must again change planes and carriers to get to 
Damascus. 

Internet traffic moves in much the same way. The airline is analogous to an 
Autonomous System. Each AS has a limited number of other AS's with which they 
exchange data, just as American Airlines does not have a direct connection with 
Syrian Airlines. Similarly, Dulles Airport is analogous to MAE-East, a major Internet 
Exchange Point along the East Coast of the US. 

Internet Exchange Points 

Internet Exchange Points are physical locations where different networks exchange 
traffic, much like large airport hubs such as Washington's Dulles or London's 



147 "Border Gateway Protocol," Cisco Documentation, Cisco.com, 
< http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito doc/bqp.htm > (14 November 2006). 



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Heathrow airports. Internet Exchanges (IX) are also known less frequently as 
Network Access Points or NAPs. 

The IX system is extremely important because it greatly facilitates the movement of 
Internet traffic both within a country and around the world. IXs permit traffic to be 
handed off directly between two different Autonomous Systems without incurring a 
cost instead of having to travel through third party networks, which is usually slower 
and more expensive. Over the past decade, there has been a marked increase in 
the number of IXs in the world. It used to be the case that in order for Internet traffic 
to travel within a country, it had to be routed to an Internet Exchange on another 
continent because there was no way for a network in one city to get its traffic directly 
to a network in another city in the same country, at least without paying a rather 
steep price to use a third party network. 

Internet Exchanges principally consist of a large number of switches, network 
devices that select a path for sending data to its next stop. In general, a switch is 
simpler than a router because it does not require as much information about the 
network and routing policies. 

Some IXs are relatively small while others, such as MAE-East and MAE-West in the 
US, may have many providers as members and many different locations. At the 
heart of this system, in which traffic is voluntarily handed off or exchanged among 
Autonomous Systems, is something called peering. 

P